The QUTB SHAHI DYNASTY (or GOLCONDA SULTANATE) was a territory in south India. It was an initially highly Persianate Muslim Turkmens dynasty established in the 16th century that eventually adopted the regional culture of the Deccan (Telugu culture, language and the newly developed Deccani idiom of Urdu). Its members were collectively called the QUTUB SHAHIS and were the ruling family of the kingdom of Golkonda , in and near the modern-day states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. The Golconda sultanate was constantly in conflict with the Adil Shahis and Nizam Shahis. In 1636, Shah Jahan forced the Qutb Shahis to recognize Mughal suzerainty, which lasted until 1687 when the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered the Golcondan sultanate.
* 1 History
Golkonda Painting - Finch, Poppies, Dragonfly, and Bee India
(Deccan, Golconda), 1650-1670 Opaque watercolor and gold on paper
Overall Tomb of
Sultan Muhammad Qutb Shah
The dynasty's founder,
Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk , migrated to Delhi
with his uncle, Allah-Quli, some of his relatives and friends in the
beginning of the 16th century. Later he migrated south, to the Deccan
and served the Bahmani sultan ,
Mohammad Shah . He conquered
Golconda, after the disintegration of the Bahmani Kingdom into the
Deccan sultanates . Soon after, he declared independence from
the Bahmani Sultanate, took the title _Qutub Shah_, and established
Qutb Shahi dynasty
Golconda, and with the construction of the Char Minar , later
The Qutub Shahi rulers were great builders, whose structures included the Char Minar , as well as patrons of learning . Quli Qutb Mulk's court became a haven for Persian culture and literature. Sultan Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah (1580–1612) wrote poems in Dakhini Urdu, Persian and Telugu and left a huge poetry collection. Subsequent poets and writers, however wrote in Urdu, while using vocabulary from Persian, Hindi and Telugu languages. By 1535, the Qutub Shahis were using Telugu for their revenue and judicial areas within the sultanate.
Initially, the Qutub Shahi rulers patronized Persianate culture , but eventually adopted the regional culture of the Deccan , symbolized by the Telugu language and the newly developed Deccani idiom of Urdu became prominent. Although Telugu was not their mother tongue, the Golconda rulers spoke and wrote Telugu, and patronized Telugu so exclusively they were termed the "_Telugu Sultans_". In 1543, fearing for his life, Prince Ibrahim Quli fled to the Vijayanagaran court, which lavishly patronized the Telugu language. Upon his enthronement as sultan in 1550, Ibrahim Quli was thoroughly acquainted with Telugu aesthetics.
The Qutb Shahi architecture was Indo-Persian, a culmination of Hindu, Moorish, Mughal and Persian architectural styles. Some examples of Golcondan Indo-Persian architecture are the Golconda Fort, tombs of the Qutb Shahis , Char Minar and the Char Kaman , Mecca Masjid and the Toli mosque .
Qutb Shahi dynasty
The eight sultans in the dynasty were:
Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk (1512–1543)
Jamsheed Quli Qutb Shah (1543–1550)
Subhan Quli Qutb Shah (1550)
* Ibrahim Quli Qutb Shah (1550–1580)
Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah (1580–1612)
Sultan Muhammad Qutb Shah
The tombs of the Qutb Shahi sultans lie about one kilometer north of Golkonda\'s outer wall. These structures are made of beautifully carved stonework, and surrounded by landscaped gardens. They are open to the public and receive many visitors.
* ^ Brian Spooner and William L. Hanaway, _Literacy in the
Persianate World: Writing and the Social Order_, (University of
Pennsylvania Press, 2012), 317.
* ^ Alam, Muzaffar (1998). "The pursuit of Persian: Language in
Mughal Politics". _Modern Asian Studies_. Cambridge University Press.
32 (2): 317–349. doi :10.1017/s0026749x98002947 . Ibrahim Qutb Shah
encouraged the growth of Telugu and his successor Muhammad Quli Qutb
Shah patronized and himself wrote poetry in Telugu and in Dakhni.
Abdullah Qutb Shah instituted a special office to prepare the royal
edicts in Telugu (dabiri-ye faramin-i Hindavi). While administrative
and revenue papers at local levels in the Qutb Shahi Sultanate were
prepared largely in Telugu, the royal edicts were often bilingual.'06
The last Qutb Shahi Sultan, Abul Hasan Tana Shah, sometimes issued his
orders only in Telugu, with a Persian summary given on the back of the
* ^ Christoph Marcinkowski, _Shi'ite Identities: Community and
For FURTHER READING:
Chopra, R. M., The Rise, Growth And Decline of Indo-Persian
Literature, 2012, Iran
* Jawed Vashisht, Ghizal-e Raana (A selection of Quli Qutab Shah's ghazals) * Jawed Vashisht, Roop Ras (Romantic poems of Quli Qutab Shah) * Jawed Vashisht, Mohammed Quli aur Nabi ka Sadka * Jawed Vashisht, Dakhni Darpan