Quranism (Arabic: القرآنية; al-Qur'āniyya) describes any
Islam that accepts the
Quran as revelation but rejects the
religious authority, and/or authenticity of, the
Quranists follow the
Quran alone; they believe that its message is
clear and complete, and that it can therefore be fully understood
without referencing the Hadith. They say that the
was forged, as it had been written 250+ years after
the death of the prophet Muhammad.
There are significant differences between Quranists in their
interpretation of Islam.
Quranism is similar to movements in other religions such as the
Karaite movement of
Judaism and the
Sola scriptura view of Protestant
Hadith rejection has also been associated with Muslim
5.1 Ahle Qur'an
5.3 Kala Kato
5.4 Qur'an Sunnat Society
5.5 Malaysian Quranic Society
7 Notable Quranists
8 See also
10 Further reading
Quranism are referred to as Quranists (Arabic:
قرآنيّون, Qur’āniyyūn), or people of the
أهل القرآن, ’Ahl al-Qur’ān). This should not be
confused with Ahle-e-Quran, which is an organisation formed by
Abdullah Chakralawi. Quranists may also refer to themselves simply as
Muslims, Submitters, or reformists.
The extent to which Quranists reject the authenticity of the Sunnah
varies, but the more established groups have thoroughly criticised
the authenticity of the hadith and refused it for many reasons, the
most prevalent being the Quranist say that hadith is not mentioned in
Quran as a source of
Islamic theology and practice, was not
recorded in written form until more than two centuries after the death
of Muhammed, and contain perceived internal errors and
Quranists believe, based on numerous historical accounts, that the
Quranist sentiment dates back to the time of Muhammad.:9 During the
Abassid Caliphate, the poet, theologian, and jurist, Ibrahim an-Nazzam
founded a madhhab called the Nazzamiyya that rejected the authority of
hadiths and relied on the
Quran alone. His famous student,
al-Jahiz, was also critical of those who followed hadith, referring to
his traditionalist opponents as al-nabita (the contemptible). A
contemporary of an-Nazzam, al-Shafi'i, tried to refute the arguments
of the Quranists and establish the authority of hadiths in his book
kitab jima'al-'ilm.:19 And
Ibn Qutaybah tried to refute an-Nazzam's
arguments against hadith in his book Ta'wil Mukhtalif al-Hadith.
In South Asia during the 19th century, the Ahle
Quran movement formed
partially in reaction to the Ahle
Hadith whom they considered to be
placing too much emphasis on hadith. Many Ahle
were formerly adherents of Ahle
Hadith but found themselves incapable
of accepting certain hadiths. In Egypt during the early 20th
century, the ideas of Quranists like
Muhammad Tawfiq Sidqi grew out of
Salafism i.e. a rejection of taqlid.
As many Quranists have a very individualistic interpretation of the
Qur'an, rejecting sectarianism and organised religion as a general
rule, it is difficult to gather an accurate estimate of the number of
Quranists in the world today by doing a study of the Quranist
organisations that exist. Another difficulty in determining their
prevalence is the possible fear of persecution due to being regarded
as apostates and therefore deserving of the death penalty.[citation
Ahle Qur'an is an organisation formed by Abdullah Chakralawi, who
Quran as "ahsan hadith", meaning most perfect hadith and
consequently claimed it does not need any addition. His movement
relies entirely on the chapters and verses of the Qur'an. Chakralawi's
position was that the Qur'an itself was the most perfect source of
tradition and could be exclusively followed. According to Chakralawi,
Muhammad could receive only one form of revelation (wahy), and that
was the Qur'an. He argues that the Qur'an was the only record of
divine wisdom, the only source of Muhammad's teachings, and that it
superseded the entire corpus of hadith, which came later.
Main article: United Submitters International
In the United States it was associated with Rashad Khalifa, founder of
the United Submitters International. The group popularized the phrase:
The Qur'an, the whole Qur'an, and nothing but the Qur'an. After
Khalifa declared himself the Messenger of the Covenant, he was
rejected by other Muslim scholars as an apostate of Islam. Later, he
was assassinated in 1990 by a terrorist group. Those interested in his
work believe that there is a mathematical structure in the Qur'an,
based on the number 19. A group of Submitters in Nigeria was
popularised by high court judge Isa Othman.
Main article: Kala Kato
Kala Kato ("A mere man said it") is a Quranistic movement in northern
Nigeria. One of the most well-known Quranist leaders in Nigeria is
an Islamic scholar Malam Isiyaka Salisu.
Qur'an Sunnat Society
The Qur'an Sunnat Society is a Quranist movement in India. The
movement was behind the first ever woman to lead a Friday congregation
prayer in the country of India. It also maintains an office and
headquarters within Kerala. There is a large community of
Quranists in Kerala.
Malaysian Quranic Society
The Malaysian Quranic Society was founded by Kassim Ahmad. The
movement holds several positions distinguishing it from more
mainstream and orthodox Muslims such as a condemnation of veneration
for the prophet
Muhammad and a rejection of the status of hair as
being part of the awrah; therefore exhibiting a relaxation on the
observance of the hijab.
In 2015, 27 Quranists were arrested in Sudan after reportedly making
their religious beliefs public. In 2011, 150 Sudanese people were
arrested for being Quranists.
Ahmed Subhy Mansour
Ahmed Subhy Mansour (born 1949), an Egyptian American Islamic
scholar. He founded a small group of Quranists, but was exiled
from Egypt and is now living in the United States as a political
Chekannur Maulavi (born 1936; disappeared 29 July 1993), a progressive
Islamic cleric who lived in Edappal in Malappuram district of Kerala,
India. He was noted for his controversial and unconventional
Islam based on
Quran alone. He disappeared on 29
July 1993 under mysterious circumstances and is now widely believed to
Edip Yüksel (born 1957), a Kurdish American philosopher, lawyer,
Quranist advocate, author of NINETEEN: God's Signature in Nature and
Scripture, Manifesto for Islamic Reform and a co-author of Quran: A
Reformist Translation. Currently[when?] teaches philosophy and logic
Pima Community College
Pima Community College and medical ethics and criminal law courses
at Brown Mackie College.
Rashad Khalifa (1935–1990), an Egyptian-American biochemist and
Islamic reformer. In his book Quran,
Islam and his English
translation of the Quran, Khalifa argued that the
Quran alone is the
sole source of Islamic belief and practice. He further declared that
Hadith and Sunna were 'Satanic inventions' under 'Satan's
schemes'. In the face of widespread anger and hostility by the
Muslim world, Khalifa was stabbed to death on 31 January 1990 by
Glen Cusford Francis, a member of the terrorist organization,
^ Ahmad, Aziz,
Islamic Modernism in India and Pakistan 1857-1964,
Oxford University Press, 1967, pp 14-15
^ Hanif, N. (1997).
Islam And Modernity. Sarup & Sons.
^ a b Yvonne Y. Haddad; Jane I. Smith (3 November 2014). The Oxford
Handbook of American Islam. Oxford University Press.
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Hadith/Sunnah Debate, 19.org, Accessed December 5, 2013
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Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on The
Authority Of Prophetic Traditions in Islam. Palgrave.
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Practical Comparative-Contrastive Analysis, Routledge, 2012, pp. 33-34
Muhammad Qasim Zaman,
Religion and Politics Under the Early
ʻAbbasids: The Emergence of the Proto-Sunni Elite, Brill, 1997, pg.
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Thought, Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 38-41
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Muhammad Nur Alkali; Abubakar Kawu Monguno; Ballama Shettima Mustafa
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^ Khan, Aftab Ahmad. "Islamic Culture and the Modern World-2." Defence
Journal 20.4 (2016): 49
^ "Not the right type of Islam: 27 Muslims are on trial in Sudan for
apostasy". 6 December 2015.
^ "The dilemma of freedom of religion in Sudan - Sudan Tribune: Plural
news and views on Sudan".
^ "About Us". Ahl-alquran.com. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
^ "Muslims' Unheralded Messenger; Antiterrorism Group Founder Hopes To
Rally a Crowd". Retrieved 6 February 2010.
^ Girja Kumar, The Book on Trial:
Fundamentalism and Censorship in
India, Har Anand Publications, 1997, pp. 34-35
^ Kenney, Jeffrey T.; Moosa, Ebrahim (2013).
Islam in the Modern
World. Routledge. p. 21.
^ "State of Arizona v. Francis, Glen Cusford :: The Investigative
Project on Terrorism". The Investigative Project on Terrorism.
Aisha Y. Musa,
Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on the Authority of
Prophetic Traditions in Islam, New York: Palgrave, 2008.
Ali Usman Qasmi, Questioning the Authority of the Past: The Ahl
al-Qur'an Movements in the Punjab, Oxford University Press, 2012.
Daniel Brown, Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought,
Cambridge University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-521-65394-0.
United Submitters International
Criticism of Hadith
Hadith of Umar's ban on hadith
Hadith: A Re-evaluation
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