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Qumran
Qumran
Caves are a series of caves, some natural, some artificial, found around the archaeological site of Qumran
Qumran
in the Judaean Desert of the West Bank. It is in a number of these caves that the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered. The caves are recognized in Israel
Israel
as a National Heritage Site.

Contents

1 History 2 Dead Sea Scrolls 3 Artificial caves 4 Archaeological exacavations 5 See also 6 References

6.1 Bibliography

7 External links

History The limestone cliffs above Qumran
Qumran
contain numerous caves that have been used over the millennia: the first traces of occupation are from the Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
period then onward to the Arab period.[1] The artificial caves relate to the period of the settlement at Qumran
Qumran
and were cut into the marl bluffs of the terrace on which Qumran
Qumran
sits. Dead Sea Scrolls

Scrolls in situ

In late 1946 or early 1947, a Bedouin boy of the Ta'amireh tribe, Muhammid Ahmed el-Hamed called edh-Dhib (the wolf), found a cave after searching for a lost animal. He stumbled onto the first cave containing scrolls from two thousand years ago. More Ta'amireh visited the cave and scrolls were taken back to their encampment. They were shown to Mar Samuel of the Monastery of Saint Mark in April 1947 and the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls
was made known.[2] The location of the cave was not revealed for another 18 months, but eventually a joint investigation of the cave site was led by Roland de Vaux and Gerald Lankester Harding.[3] The interest in the scrolls with the hope of money from their sale initiated a long area-wide search by the Ta'amireh to find more such scrolls, the first result of which was the discovery of four caves in Wadi Murabba'at
Wadi Murabba'at
about 15 kilometers south of Qumran
Qumran
in 1951.[4] In the Qumran
Qumran
area another cave was discovered, now referred to as Cave
Cave
2Q (1Q was the first scroll bearing cave), in February 1952. However, only a few fragments were found in the cave.[5] Fear of the destruction of archaeological evidence with the discovery of caves by the Bedouin led to a campaign by the French and American Schools to explore all other caves to find any remaining scrolls. Although 230 natural caves, crevices and other possible hiding places were examined in an 8 kilometer area along the cliffs near Qumran, only 40 contained any artifacts and one alone, 3Q, produced texts, the most unusual being the Copper Scroll.[6][7]

Qumran
Qumran
pottery

4Q was discovered in September 1952 by the Ta'amireh. De Vaux, on being offered a vast amount of fragments, contacted Harding who drove the Qumran
Qumran
site to find that the Bedouin had discovered caves very near the Qumran
Qumran
ruins. These were Caves 4Q, 5Q, and 6Q, the most important of which was 4Q which originally contained around three-quarters of all the scrolls found in the immediate Qumran area.[8] The first two of these caves had been cut into the marl terrace. The third was at the entrance to the Qumran
Qumran
Gorge just below the aqueduct.[9] In 1955 a survey of the terrace brought to light a staircase leading down to the remains of three more artificial caves, 7Q, 8Q and 9Q at the end of the Qumran
Qumran
esplanade,[10][11] all of which had collapsed and had been eroded, and a fourth cave, 10Q, on the outcrop which housed Caves 4Q & 5Q. The last cave containing scrolls to be found, once again by the Ta'amireh, was 11Q. Among its contents was the Temple Scroll, though it had been spirited away and its recovery was to prove long and complex.[citation needed] In February 2017, the discovery of cave 12Q was announced, the contents of which included storage jars and scroll fragments, but no scrolls themselves. Iron pickaxe heads from the 1950s were also found, which indicate looting had occurred. In addition, archaeologists discovered pottery, flint blades, arrowheads, and a carnelian seal that date to the Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
and Neolithic
Neolithic
periods.[12] Artificial caves

Caves 4Qa right & 10Q left of upper center, seen from Wadi Qumran to the south

In all there are ten marl cut caves in the near vicinity of Qumran: 4Qa, 4Qb, 5Q, 7Q, 8Q, 9Q, 10Q, an oval cave west of 5Q, and two caves to the north in a separate ravine.[13] Their location necessitates a direct connection with the Qumran
Qumran
settlement. The three caves at the end of the esplanade could only be accessed via the settlement. These caves are thought to have been cut for storage and habitation. Marl
Marl
is a soft stone and makes excavation relatively easy, but as seen with Caves 7Q - 9Q they haven't survived well. 4Q, which is now visible from the Qumran
Qumran
esplanade,[14] is actually two caves, one adjacent to the other. De Vaux referred to them as 4a and 4b. When the Ta'amireh removed all the fragments they could before Harding's arrival, there was no way to tell which scrolls belonged to which cave, so they were later all catalogued simply as from 4Q. In excavating the caves hundreds of fragments were still to be found in 4a while only two or three fragments in 4b. 4a was 8m long and 3.25 m wide with tapering walls reaching 3m in height.[15] Archaeological exacavations In 1984-1985 Joseph Patrich and Yigael Yadin
Yigael Yadin
carried out a systematic survey of over 57 caves north of Qumran
Qumran
and two to the south.[16] In 1985-1991 Patrich excavated five caves, including Caves 3Q and 11Q. One of Patrich's conclusions was that the caves "did not serve as habitations for the members of the Dead Sea Sect, but rather as stores and hiding places".[17] Patrich took a jack hammer into 3Q to break up and remove large fallen rocks in order to discover that under the rocks there were only a few Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
sherds, showing that the ceiling had collapsed before any Qumran
Qumran
era occupation could have happened. The cave was uninhabited and used only to store the scrolls left there.[18] In 1988 in the cave Patrich designated as Cave
Cave
13, just north of 3Q, a small juglet was found from the Herodian era, which was wrapped in palm fibres and contained a viscous liquid which Patrich presumed was aromatic balsam residue. In 1991 he discovered several jar stoppers and a complete jar along with date stones and dry dates suggesting occupation, but as the area in front of the cave showed no attempt to convert it into a terrace, he concluded that occupation was not of any length.[19] 11Q was examined and no traces of Qumran
Qumran
era occupation was found.[20] A cave Patrich called Cave
Cave
24, which lay between 11Q and 3Q, was large and habitable, but showed no sign of long-term habitation.[20] Cave FQ37 (named in the 1952 survey) located high up on the cliff face 2 kilometers south of Qumran
Qumran
was also an improbable site for permanent dwelling, due to its inaccessibility. In the winter of 1995–96, Magen Broshi and Hanan Eshel carried out further excavations in the caves north of Qumran. They reported other caves not examined by Patrich and believed that they served as dwellings for the inhabitants of Qumran
Qumran
along with other artificial caves that have long ago eroded away from the edge of the marl terrace.[21] Broshi and Eshel concentrated their interest in the area just north of Qumran, examining two caves they designated as C and F in a small ravine. The former had part of its ceiling caved in and was filled with silt from flash floods, but contained 280 potsherds. Cave
Cave
F had completely collapsed, but when excavated yielded 110 potsherds. They concluded that the area was residential.[22]

Isaiah scroll
Isaiah scroll
discovered at Qumran

See also

Shrine of the Book Rockefeller Museum Antiquities trade

References

^ de Vaux 1973, p.51. ^ Elledge, Casey Deryl (2005). The Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls. Society of Biblical Lit. p. 3. ISBN 9781589831834. Retrieved 13 February 2018.  ^ VanderKam 2002, p.12. ^ Allegro 1956, p.35. ^ VanderKam 2002, p.15. ^ Allegro 1956, p.36. ^ Patrich 1994, p.74. ^ Allegro 1956, p.37. ^ Humbert 2003, p.67. ^ VanderKam 2002, p.18. ^ Broshi 1999, p.333. ^ " Qumran
Qumran
Cave
Cave
12: New Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls
Cave
Cave
Discovered". Sci-News. February 9, 2017. Retrieved February 11, 2017.  ^ Broshi 1999, p.334. ^ Before the cave was found, there was nothing to indicate its presence except for a small hole in the vertical face of the wadi wall. Allegro 1956, p.37. ^ Humbert 2003, p.96. ^ Patrich 1994, p.75. ^ Patrich 1994, p93. ^ Patrich 1994, p.77. ^ Patrich 1994, p.91. ^ a b Patrich 1994, p.90. ^ Broshi 1999. ^ Broshi 1999, p.330.

Bibliography

Allegro, John M., The Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls
(Harmondsworth: Pelican, 1956). Broshi, Magen, and Eshel, Hanan, "Residential Caves at Qumran." Dead Sea Discoveries 6 (1999), 328-348. de Vaux, Roland, Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1973). English translation from the French. Stökl Ben Ezra, Daniel, "Old Caves and Young Caves: A Statistical Reevaluation of a Qumran
Qumran
Consensus" Dead Sea Discoveries 14,3 (2007), 313-333. Humbert, Jean-Baptiste & Chambon, Alain, The Excavations of Khirbet Qumran
Qumran
and Ain Feshkha, Vol. 1B. trans by Stephen J. Pfann, Editions Universitaires Fribourg Suisse (Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht Goettingen, 2003). Patrich, Joseph, "Khirbet Qumran
Qumran
in the Light of New Archaeological Explorations in the Qumran
Qumran
Caves", in Methods of Investigation of the Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls
and the Khirbet Qumran
Qumran
Site: Present Realities and Future Prospects (ed. Michael O. Wise, Norman Golb, John J. Collins, and Dennis G. Pardee; Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 722 (New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1994) 73-95. Patrich, Joseph, "Did Extra-Mural Dwelling Quarters Exist at Qumran?" in The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years After Their Discovery. Edited by Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov, James C. VanderKam, and Galen Marquis (Jerusalem: Israel
Israel
Exploration Society, 2000) 720-727. Trever, John C., The Untold Story of Qumran, (Westwood: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1965). VanderKam, James & Flint, Peter, The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls (HarperSanFrancisco, 2002) ISBN 0-06-068464-X

External links

The Orion Center's Cave
Cave
Tour.

v t e

Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls
topics

Texts

4Q106 4Q107 4Q108 4Q166 4Q175 4Q240 4Q246 4Q252 4Q400-407 Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice 4Q448 4Q510-511 Songs of the Sage 4Q521 4QMMT 4QInstruction 6Q6 7Q5 11Q13 Melchizedek The Book of Giants The Book of Mysteries (1Q27 and 4Q299-301) Community Rule (1QS) Copper Scroll
Copper Scroll
(3Q15) Damascus Document
Damascus Document
(CD) Genesis Apocryphon
Genesis Apocryphon
(1QapGen ar) Habakkuk Commentary
Habakkuk Commentary
(1QpHab) Isaiah scroll
Isaiah scroll
(1QIsaa) Nahum Commentary (4QpNah) The Rule of the Blessing
The Rule of the Blessing
(1QSb) The Rule of the Congregation (1QSa) The Secret of the Way Things Are Temple Scroll
Temple Scroll
(11Q19) Thanksgiving Hymns (1QH) War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness
War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness
(1QM)

Places

Qumran Qumran
Qumran
Caves Qumran
Qumran
cemetery Ein Feshkha Kohlit Secacah Wadi Murabba'at

Issues

Essenes Sadducees Carbon dating Yahad Ostracon Pesher Dual messiahs Teacher of Righteousness Wicked Priest Calendrical texts

Scholars

Martin G. Abegg John Marco Allegro Joseph M. Baumgarten Pierre Benoit John J. Collins Edward M. Cook Frank Moore Cross Philip R. Davies André Dupont-Sommer Robert Eisenman Hanan Eshel Craig A. Evans Joseph Fitzmyer Peter W. Flint Katharina Galor Jamal-Dominique Hopkins Jean-Baptiste Humbert Florentino García Martínez Norman Golb Jonas C. Greenfield Gerald Lankester Harding Yizhar Hirschfeld Ernest-Marie Laperrousaz Jodi Magness Józef Milik Bargil Pixner Elisha Qimron Lawrence Schiffman Michael Segal Hershel Shanks Solomon H. Steckoll Hartmut Stegemann John Strugnell Eleazar Sukenik Carsten Peter Thiede Emanuel Tov John C. Trever Eugene Ulrich Roland de Vaux Géza Vermes Michael O. Wise Yigael Yadin José O'Callaghan Martínez

Other

Shrine of the Book The Orion Center École Biblique Discoveries in the Judaean Desert Mar Samuel Muhammed edh-Dhib Najib Albina

v t e

Caves in Israel

Israel

Tabun Cave Manot Cave Es Skhul HaYonim Cave Kebara Cave Avshalom Cave Ayalon Cave Cave
Cave
of Elijah Pa'ar Cave Rosh HaNikra Qesem Cave Mugharet el-Zuttiyeh

Judea and Samaria Area

Cave
Cave
of Letters Qumran
Qumran
Caves

Caves of Israel Caves by country

v t e

Caves in Palestine

Palestine

Patriarchs cave Shuqba cave

Judea and Samaria

Cave
Cave
of Letters Qumran
Qumran
caves

Note: Judea and Samaria area
Judea and Samaria area
is jurisdicted by Israel, but is claimed by Palestine

Caves of Palestine

.