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Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
(Spanish pronunciation: [kinˈtana ˈro]), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
(Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Quintana Roo), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is divided into 11 municipalities and its capital city is Chetumal. Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
is located on the eastern part of the Yucatán
Yucatán
Peninsula and is bordered by the states of Campeche
Campeche
to the west and Yucatán
Yucatán
to the northwest, and by the Orange Walk and Corozal districts of Belize, along with an offshore borderline with Belize
Belize
District to the south. As Mexico's easternmost state, Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
has a coastline to the east with the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
and to the north with the Gulf of Mexico. The state previously covered 44,705 square kilometers (17,261 sq mi) and shared a small border with Guatemala
Guatemala
in the southwest of the state[8][9]. However in 2013, Mexico's Supreme Justice Court of the Nation resolved the boundary dispute between Quintana Roo, Campeche, and Yucatán
Yucatán
stemming from the creation of the Calakmul municipality by Campeche
Campeche
in 1997, siding with Campeche
Campeche
and thereby benefiting Yucatán.[10] Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
is the home of the city of Cancún, the islands of Cozumel
Cozumel
and Isla Mujeres, and the towns of Bacalar, Playa del Carmen and Akumal, as well as the ancient Maya ruins of Chacchoben, Cobá, Kohunlich, Muyil, Tulum, Xel-Há, and Xcaret. The Sian Ka'an
Sian Ka'an
biosphere reserve is also located in the state. The statewide population is expanding at a rapid rate due to the construction of hotels and the demand for workers. Many immigrants come from Yucatán, Campeche, Tabasco, and Veracruz. The state is frequently hit by severe hurricanes due to its exposed location, the most recent and severe being Hurricane Dean
Hurricane Dean
in 2007, which made landfall with sustained winds of 280 km/h (175 mph), with gusts up to 320 km/h (200 mph). On February 1, 2015, Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
officially adopted a new time zone, Southeastern, which is five hours behind Coordinated Universal Time (UTC−05:00), and corresponds to Eastern Standard Time (EST).[11] Reasons cited for the change include coordination of air travel, banking operations, and more daylight hours, the last of which will result in less energy usage.[11]

Contents

1 History 2 Climate 3 Demographics 4 Municipalities 5 Tourism, ecotourism, and globalization

5.1 Tourism 5.2 Biotic situation of the Yucatán
Yucatán
Peninsula 5.3 Ecosystems and animals 5.4 Avifauna 5.5 Impact

6 Education

6.1 Universities

7 Sports 8 Flora and fauna 9 Time zone 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

History[edit]

Tulum
Tulum
- Temple of the Wind God

The area that makes up modern Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
was long part of Yucatán, sharing its history. With the Caste War of Yucatán, which started in the 1840s, all non-natives were driven from the region. The independent Maya nation of Chan Santa Cruz
Chan Santa Cruz
was based on what is now the town of Felipe Carrillo Puerto. For decades it maintained considerable independence, having separate trade and treaty relationships with British Honduras, now Belize. Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
was made a territory of Mexico
Mexico
by decree of President Porfirio Díaz
Porfirio Díaz
on November 24, 1902. It was named after an early patriot of the Mexican Republic, Andrés Quintana Roo. The Mexican army succeeded in defeating most of the Maya population of the region during the 1910s. In 1915 the area was again declared to be legally part of the state of Yucatán. Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
was granted statehood within the United Mexican States on October 8, 1974.[1] It is the Mexican Republic's youngest state.

The city of Cancún
Cancún
is a major tourist resort in Quintana Roo

Climate[edit] According to the Köppen climate classification, much of the state has a tropical wet and dry climate (Aw) while the island of Cozumel
Cozumel
has a tropical monsoon climate (Am).[12] The mean annual temperature is 26 °C (78.8 °F).[13] The hottest months are April and August where the average high is 33 °C (91.4 °F) while January is coldest month with an average low of 17 °C (62.6 °F).[13] Extreme temperatures can range from low of 10 °C (50.0 °F) in the coldest months to 36 °C (96.8 °F) in the hottest months.[12] Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
averages 1,300 mm (51 in) of precipitation per year, which falls throughout the year, though June to October are the wetter months.[13] Hurricanes
Hurricanes
can occasionally hit the coastal areas during the hurricane season, particularly from September to November.[12] Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1895[14]

—    

1900

—    

1910 9,109 —    

1921 10,966 +20.4%

1930 10,620 −3.2%

1940 18,752 +76.6%

1950 26,967 +43.8%

1960 50,169 +86.0%

1970 88,150 +75.7%

1980 225,985 +156.4%

1990 493,277 +118.3%

1995 703,536 +42.6%

2000 874,963 +24.4%

2005 1,135,309 +29.8%

2010 1,325,578 +16.8%

2015[15] 1,501,562 +13.3%

Municipalities[edit] Main article: Municipalities of Quintana Roo The State of Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
is divided into 11 municipalities (Spanish: municipios), each headed by a municipal president:[16]

Bacalar Benito Juarez Othón P. Blanco Puerto Morelos Cozumel Felipe Carrillo Puerto Isla Mujeres Solidaridad Tulum José María Morelos Lázaro Cárdenas

Tourism, ecotourism, and globalization[edit] Tourism[edit]

Aerial view of Cancún

Beach of Contoy Island

Beach of Punta Sur
Punta Sur
at south at the Cozumel
Cozumel
Island

Quintana Roo's tourist boom began in the 1970s.[17] Tourism
Tourism
resulted in the development of coastal hotels and resorts, in addition to ecotourism inland and in coastal regions, which have increased the development of the region as well as the gross domestic product.[18] Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
ranks sixth among Mexican states according to the United Nations Human Development index (HDI).[19] The Riviera Maya
Riviera Maya
is located along the Caribbean
Caribbean
coastline, including Cancún, Playa del Carmen, Puerto Morelos, Akumal
Akumal
and Cozumel. Biotic situation of the Yucatán
Yucatán
Peninsula[edit] The Yucatán Peninsula
Yucatán Peninsula
is one of the most forested areas of the world in terms of biotic mass per hectare.[17] However, anthropological, biological and governmental experts have determined that Quintana Roo is 'facing a faunal crisis'.[17] Many medium to large game animals are disappearing due to hunting and habitat loss. While its population is relatively small, Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
is experiencing both a population influx and an increase in tourism.[17][19] This only increases the pressure on the plants and animals native to the area. Ecosystems and animals[edit] There are four generalized ecosystems in Quintana Roo—tropical forests, or jungle; savanna, mangrove forests, and coral reefs. One of the byproducts of traditional and large-scale agriculture is the creation of additional habitats, such as second growth forests and fields/pastures.[20] Tourism
Tourism
has caused Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
to become famous around the world in the last thirty or so years for its beaches, coastline and cenote sinkholes.[21][22] Biological experts consider the coastline of Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
one of the best manatee habitats worldwide.[23] Queen conchs are also noted for their inhabitation of coastal territory.[23] The wide variety of biotic organisms such as these has decreased drastically in the last fifteen years.[18][24] Avifauna[edit] Also affected by the loss of habitat due to both agriculture and development, birds are one of the region's most varied animal assets.[17] Hundreds of species reside in Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
permanently, with hundreds of others either wintering there or using it as a stopover on the long journey into South America.[23] As a result, many birders come to the area annually in search of the rare and unexpected.[17] Impact[edit]

Maya ruins at Tulum

Many blame the environmental damage in Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
on either the regional government or outside investors.[18] However, resorts and hotels in Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
have created jobs and increased economic activity, which in turn has resulted in growth.[18][24] Projections for the tourism economy of Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
were exceedingly optimistic. It houses multiple tourist attractions from the Maya ruins to the lush forests and beautiful beaches. However, the long-term effects were not foreseen. The effect on the local environment was not properly considered. Economic
Economic
stresses of development and population were virtually ignored.[24] The effect on the native population was not properly considered. The 'economic marginalization' of the Maya has had drastic effects on their sense of place and identity.[18] Education[edit] Universities[edit]

Instituto Tecnológico de Cancún, Cancún Instituto Tecnológico de Chetumal, Chetumal University of Quintana Roo, Chetumal Intercultural Maya University of Quintana Roo, José María Morelos Universidad Anáhuac Cancún, Cancún Universidad del Caribe, Cancún Universidad Tecnológica de la Riviera Maya, Playa del Carmen Universidad La Salle Cancún, Cancún Universidad TecMilenio, Cancún

Sports[edit] The Atlante F.C.
Atlante F.C.
was founded in 1916 in Mexico
Mexico
City and they now play football in the Liga MX. Their home ground (since 2007) is the Estadio Andrés Quintana Roo
Andrés Quintana Roo
in Cancún.[25] After playing the 1955–2001 seasons in Mexico
Mexico
City and the 2002–2005 seasons in Puebla the Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
Tigers have been playing baseball with a home field at the Estadio de Béisbol Beto Ávila in Cancún
Cancún
since the 2006 season.[26] The Tigers made it to the Mexican League series in 2009, but lost to the Saraperos de Saltillo
Saraperos de Saltillo
4 games to 2.[27] Flora and fauna[edit]

Flora and fauna of Quintana Roo

Trichechus Mazama Pandora Eretmochelys imbricata Crax rubra Crocodylus acutus

Ateles geoffroyi Sarcoramphus papa Tamandua mexicana Nasua Boa constrictor

Ceiba pentandra Enterolobium cyclocarpum Mangrove Haematoxylum campechianum Bixa orellana

Time zone[edit] On February 1, 2015, Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
officially adopted a new time zone, Southeastern, which is five hours behind Coordinated Universal Time (UTC−05:00). Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
does not observe daylight saving time, so Southeastern Time is constant throughout the year (that is, it does not shift forward in the spring and back in the fall). Southeastern Time (ST) is the same as Eastern Standard Time (EST) and Central Daylight Time (CDT). This means that in the winter, Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
has the same time as regions observing EST, such as the eastern U.S., eastern Canada, Cuba, and Jamaica; and in the summer, Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
has the same time as regions observing CDT, such as central Mexico.[11][28][29][30][31][32] Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
changed to Southeastern Time for economic reasons, including:

Allowing tourists in areas such as Cancun, Cozumel, and Playa del Carmen to spend more time and money at beaches, restaurants, historic sites, and other venues. Reducing electricity usage by hotels, restaurants, and other facilities.

Before Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
adopted the Southeastern time zone (officially referred to as zona sureste in Mexico), it had been part of the Central time zone (zona centro). See also[edit]

Geography portal North America portal Latin America portal Mexico
Mexico
portal

Notes[edit]

^ a b "Poder Legislativo del Estado de Quintana Roo" (PDF) (in Spanish). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-12.  ^ "Senadores por Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
LXI Legislatura". Senado de la Republica. Retrieved April 5, 2011.  ^ "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Estado de Quintana Roo". Camara de Diputados. Retrieved April 6, 2011.  ^ "Resumen". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved February 12, 2013.  ^ a b "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved April 6, 2011.  ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). Retrieved December 8, 2015.  ^ "Reporte: Jueves 3 de Junio del 2010. Cierre del peso mexicano". www.pesomexicano.com.mx. Retrieved August 10, 2010.  ^ "Controversia Constitucional: Estado de Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
Vs. Estado de Yucatán
Yucatán
(3 de Mayo de 1997)". Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nacion. Archived from the original on November 24, 2011. Retrieved April 6, 2011.  ^ " Campeche
Campeche
insiste en que Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
le invadió terreno". Notisureste. Retrieved April 6, 2011.  ^ "Renuncia Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
a conflicto limítrofe con Campeche". El Economista. Retrieved December 7, 2017.  ^ a b c " Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
estrena horario mañana (Spanish)" (in Spanish). Retrieved February 1, 2015.  ^ a b c "MEDIO FÍSICO". Enciclopedia de Los Municipios y Delegaciones de México (in Spanish). Instituto para el Federalismo y el Desarrollo Municipal. Retrieved February 1, 2016.  ^ a b c "Clima". Información por entidad (in Spanish). Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía. Retrieved February 1, 2016.  ^ "Mexico: extended population list". GeoHive. Archived from the original on March 11, 2012. Retrieved 2011-07-29.  ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). INEGI. Retrieved 2015-12-08.  ^ Hernández, Silvia (2 February 2011). "Bacalar, el décimo municipio de Q. Roo". El Universal. Retrieved 12 April 2011.  ^ a b c d e f Anderson, E. N. and Felix Medina Tzuc. 2005. Animals and the Maya in Southeast Mexico. University of Arizona Press. Tucson, Arizona. ^ a b c d e Daltabuit, Magali and Oriol Pi-Sunyer. 1990. Tourism Development in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Cultural Survival Quarterly 14.2, 9-13. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica 2008. "Quintana Roo". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9062295. Retrieved February 21, 2008. ^ Villa Rojas, Alfonso. 1945. The Maya of East Central Quintana Roo. Carnegie Institute of Washington Publication 559. Washington D.C. ^ Chandler, Gary. " Tulum
Tulum
Beaches
Beaches
and Cenotes". Moon Guides. Retrieved 24 December 2017.  ^ "Cenotes". Afar. Retrieved 24 December 2017.  ^ a b c Schlesinger, Victoria. 2001. Animals and Plants of the Ancient Maya: A Guide. University of Texas Press. Austin, Texas. ^ a b c Juarez, Ana M. 2002. "Ecological Degradation, Global Tourism, and Inequality: Maya Interpretations of the Changing Environment in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Human Organization 61.2, 113-124. ^ ":: Atlante Futbol Club ::". Retrieved 15 April 2011.  ^ ":.TIGRES DE QUINTANAROO". Retrieved 15 April 2011.  ^ "2009 Playoffs - MiLB.com Events - The Official Site of Minor League Baseball". Retrieved 15 April 2011.  ^ "Mexico's Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
Gears Up for Feb. 1 Time Change". TravelPulse. Retrieved 10 February 2015.  ^ Haynes, Danielle (29 January 2015). "Cancun switches to Eastern time zone". UPI. Retrieved 10 February 2015.  ^ "Cancun Region Gets Longer Evenings". Time and Date. 14 January 2015. Retrieved 10 February 2015.  ^ "Boletín 266 .- Celebra SECTUR reforma a ley del sistema de horario en los Estados Unidos Mexicanos". Mexican Ministry of Tourism
Tourism
(in Spanish). Retrieved 8 March 2015.  ^ "DECRETO por el que se reforman los artículos 2 y 3 de la Ley del Sistema de Horario en los Estados Unidos Mexicanos". Official Journal of the Federation (in Spanish). Mexican Interior Ministry. Retrieved 8 March 2015. 

References[edit]

Dumond, Don E.1985 The Talking Crosses of Yucatán: A New Look at their History. Ethnohistory 32(4):291–308. Freidel, David., Schele, Linda., et al. 1993 Maya Cosmos: Three thousand years on the Shaman's Path. New York: W. Morrow Harrison, Peter D. 1985 Some Aspects of Preconquest Settlement in Southern Quintana Roo, Mexico. Lowland Maya Settlement Patterns edited by Wendy Ashmore Albuquerque: University of New Mexico
Mexico
Press, A School of American Research Book. Villa Rojas, Alfonso. 1945 The Maya of East Central Quintana Roo: The Pagan-Christian Religious Complex. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution.

Further reading[edit]

Anderson, E. N. and Felix Medina Tzuc. Animals and the Maya in Southeast Mexico. University of Arizona Press. Tucson, Arizona. 2005. Brannon, Jeffery T. and Gilbert M. Joseph. Eds. 1991 Land, labor & capital in modern Yucatán: essays in regional history and political economy. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. Barton Bray, David, Marcelo Carreon, Leticia Merino, and Victoria Santos. "On the Road to Sustainable Forestry: The Maya of Quintana Roo are Striving to Combine Economic
Economic
Efficiency, Ecological Sustainability, and a Democratic Society." Cultural Survival Quarterly 17.1, 38-41. 1993. Daltabuit, Magali and Oriol Pi-Sunyer. 1990. Tourism
Tourism
Development in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Cultural Survival Quarterly 14.2, 9-13. https://web.archive.org/web/20051219230755/http://209.200.101.189/publications/csq/csq-article.cfm?id=837 Dumond, Don E. 1997 The Machete and the Cross. Campesino Rebellion in Yucatán. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press. Encyclopædia Britannica 2008. Quintana Roo. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Accessed 2008-02-21. Forero, Oscar A. and Michael R. Redclift. "The Role of the Mexican State in the Development of Chicle Extraction in Yucatán, and the Continuing Importance of Coyotaje." Journal of Latin American Studies 38.1, 65-93. 2006. Gabbert, Wolfgang. Becoming Maya—Ethnicity and Social Inequality in Yucatán
Yucatán
Since 1500. University of Arizona Press. Tucson, Arizona. 2004. Hervik, Peter. Mayan People Within and Beyond Boundaries—Social Categories and Lived Identity in Yucatán. Harwood Academic Publishers. Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 1999. Jones, Grant D. Maya Resistance to Spanish Rule—Time and History on a Colonial Frontier. University of New Mexico
Mexico
Press. Albuquerque, New Mexico. 1989. Juarez, Ana M. 2002. "Ecological Degradation, Global Tourism, and Inequality: Maya Interpretations of the Changing Environment in Quintana Roo, Mexico". Human Organization 61.2, 113-124. Morely, Sylvanus Griswold. The Ancient Maya. Stanford University Press. Stanford, California. 1947. Morely, Sylvanus Griswold and George W. Brainerd. The Ancient Maya, 3rd ed. Stanford University Press. Stanford, California. 1956. Pi-Sunyer, Oriol and R. Brooke Thomas. 1997. Tourism, Environmentalism, and Cultural Survival in Quintana Roo. "In" Life and Death Matters: Human Rights at the End of the Millennium. Barbara R. Johnston, ed. p. 187-212. Walnut Creek, California. Altamira Press. Roys, Ralph L. The Political Geography of the Yucatán
Yucatán
Maya. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 613. Washington, D. C. 1957. Rugeley, Terry. 2004 "Yaxcabá and the caste war of Yucatán: An Archaeological Perspective" In Alexander, Rani T. ed. Yaxcabá and the caste war of Yucatán
Yucatán
Albuquerque: University of New Mexico
Mexico
Press Schlesinger, Victoria. Animals and Plants of the Ancient Maya: A Guide. University of Texas Press. Austin, Texas. 2001. Sharer, Robert J. The Ancient Maya, 4th ed. Stanford University Press. Stanford, California. 1983. Villa Rojas, Alfonso. The Maya of East Central Quintana Roo. Carnegie Institute of Washington Publication 559. Washington, D. C. 1945. Young, Peter A, ed. Secrets of the Maya. Hatherleigh Press. Long Island City, New York. 2003 Link to tables of population data from Census of 2005 INEGI: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Quintana Roo.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Quintana Roo.

Geographic data related to Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
at OpenStreetMap Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
State Government (in Spanish)

v t e

State of Quintana Roo

Chetumal
Chetumal
(capital)

Municipalities (seats)

Bacalar
Bacalar
(Bacalar) Benito Juárez (Cancún) Cozumel
Cozumel
(San Miguel de Cozumel) Felipe Carrillo Puerto (Felipe Carrillo Puerto) Isla Mujeres
Isla Mujeres
(Isla Mujeres) José María Morelos
Morelos
(José María Morelos) Lázaro Cárdenas (Kantunilkín) Othón P. Blanco (Chetumal) Puerto Morelos
Puerto Morelos
(Puerto Morelos) Solidaridad (Playa del Carmen) Tulum
Tulum
(Tulum)

Places of interest

Akumal Arrecifes de Cozumel
Cozumel
National Park Banco Chinchorro Chacchoben Coba Isla Contoy Isla Holbox Kohunlich Mahahual Muyil Punta Allen Punta Sur Riviera Maya San Gervasio Sian Ka'an Tulum Xcalak Xcaret Xelha Yo'okop

v t e

States of Mexico

Aguascalientes Baja California Baja California
Baja California
Sur Campeche Chiapas Chihuahua Coahuila Colima Durango Guanajuato Guerrero Hidalgo Jalisco México Mexico
Mexico
City Michoacán Morelos Nayarit Nuevo León Oaxaca Puebla Querétaro San Luis Potosí Sinaloa Sonora Tamaulipas Tlaxcala Veracruz Zacatecas Quintana Ro

.