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QUINTANA ROO (Spanish pronunciation: ), officially the FREE AND SOVEREIGN STATE OF QUINTANA ROO (Spanish : Estado Libre y Soberano de Quintana Roo), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District , make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico
Mexico
. It is divided into ten municipalities and its capital city is Chetumal .

Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
is located on the eastern part of the Yucatán Peninsula and is bordered by the states of Campeche
Campeche
to the west and Yucatán to the northwest, and by the Orange Walk and Corozal districts of Belize , along with an offshore borderline with Belize
Belize
District to the south. Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
has a coastline to the east with the Caribbean Sea and to the north with the Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
. It also claims territory which gives it a small border with Guatemala
Guatemala
in the southwest of the state, although this disputed area is also claimed by Campeche.

Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
is the home of the city of Cancún , the islands of Cozumel and Isla Mujeres , and the towns of Bacalar , Playa del Carmen and Akumal , as well as the ancient Maya ruins of Chacchoben , Cobá , Kohunlich , Muyil , Tulum
Tulum
, Xel-Há , and Xcaret . The Sian Ka\'an biosphere reserve is also located in the state.

The state officially covers an area of 44,705 square kilometers (17,261 sq mi), but since 1997 there is a boundary dispute with the states of Yucatán and Campeche
Campeche
over an area of approximately 10,200 square kilometers (3,900 sq mi).

The statewide population is expanding at a rapid rate due to the construction of hotels and the demand for workers. Many immigrants come from Yucatán , Campeche
Campeche
, Tabasco
Tabasco
, and Veracruz
Veracruz
. The state is frequently hit by severe hurricanes due to its exposed location, the most recent and severe being Hurricane Dean in 2007, which made landfall with sustained winds of 280 km/h (175 mph), with gusts up to 320 km/h (200 mph).

On February 1, 2015, Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
officially adopted a new time zone , Southeastern, which is five hours behind Coordinated Universal Time (UTC−05:00 ), and corresponds to Eastern Standard Time (EST). Reasons cited for the change include coordination of air travel, banking operations, and more daylight hours, the latter of which will result in less energy usage.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Climate * 3 Demographics * 4 Municipalities

* 5 Tourism, ecotourism, and globalization

* 5.1 Tourism
Tourism
* 5.2 Biotic situation of the Yucatán Peninsula
Yucatán Peninsula
* 5.3 Ecosystems and animals * 5.4 Avifauna * 5.5 Impact

* 6 Education

* 6.1 Universities

* 7 Sports * 8 Flora and fauna * 9 Time zone
Time zone
* 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links

HISTORY

Tulum
Tulum
- Temple of the Wind God

The area that makes up modern Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
was long part of Yucatán, sharing its history. With the Caste War of Yucatán , which started in the 1840s, all non-natives were driven from the region. The independent Maya nation of Chan Santa Cruz was based on what is now the town of Felipe Carrillo Puerto . For decades it maintained considerable independence, having separate trade and treaty relationships with British Honduras, now Belize
Belize
.

Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
was made a territory of Mexico
Mexico
by decree of President Porfirio Díaz
Porfirio Díaz
on November 24, 1902. It was named after an early patriot of the Mexican Republic, Andrés Quintana Roo . The Mexican army succeeded in defeating most of the Maya population of the region during the 1910s. In 1915 the area was again declared to be legally part of the state of Yucatán.

Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
was granted statehood within the United Mexican States on October 8, 1974. It is the Mexican Republic's youngest state.

CLIMATE

According to the Köppen climate classification , much of the state has a tropical wet and dry climate (Aw) while the island of Cozumel has a tropical monsoon climate (Am). The mean annual temperature is 26 °C (78.8 °F). The hottest months are April and August where the average high is 33 °C (91.4 °F) while January is coldest month with an average low of 17 °C (62.6 °F). Extreme temperatures can range from low of 10 °C (50.0 °F) in the coldest months to 36 °C (96.8 °F) in the hottest months. Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
averages 1,300 mm (51 in) of precipitation per year, which falls throughout the year, though June to October are the wetter months. Hurricanes
Hurricanes
can occasionally hit the coastal areas during the hurricane season , particularly from September to November.

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1895

1900

1910 9,109 —

1921 10,966 +20.4%

1930 10,620 −3.2%

1940 18,752 +76.6%

1950 26,967 +43.8%

1960 50,169 +86.0%

1970 88,150 +75.7%

1980 225,985 +156.4%

1990 493,277 +118.3%

1995 703,536 +42.6%

2000 874,963 +24.4%

2005 1,135,309 +29.8%

2010 1,325,578 +16.8%

2015 1,501,562 +13.3%

MUNICIPALITIES

Main article: Municipalities of Quintana Roo

The State of Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
is divided into 11 municipalities (Spanish : municipios ), each headed by a municipal president :

* Bacalar * Benito Juarez * Othón P. Blanco * Puerto Morelos * Cozumel * Felipe Carrillo Puerto * Isla Mujeres * Solidaridad * Tulum
Tulum
* José María Morelos * Lázaro Cárdenas

TOURISM, ECOTOURISM, AND GLOBALIZATION

TOURISM

Aerial view of Cancún Beach of Contoy Island Beach of Punta Sur
Punta Sur
at south at the Cozumel Island

Quintana Roo's tourist boom began in the 1970s. Tourism
Tourism
resulted in the development of coastal hotels and resorts, in addition to ecotourism inland and in coastal regions, which have increased the development of the region as well as the gross domestic product . Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
ranks sixth among Mexican states according to the United Nations Human Development index (HDI).

BIOTIC SITUATION OF THE YUCATáN PENINSULA

The Yucatán Peninsula
Yucatán Peninsula
is one of the most forested areas of the world in terms of biotic mass per hectare. However, anthropological, biological and governmental experts have determined that Quintana Roo is 'facing a faunal crisis'. Many medium to large game animals are disappearing due to hunting and habitat loss . While its population is relatively small, Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
is experiencing both a population influx and an increase in tourism. This only increases the pressure on the plants and animals native to the area.

ECOSYSTEMS AND ANIMALS

There are four generalized ecosystems in Quintana Roo—tropical forests , or jungle ; savanna , mangrove forests, and coral reefs . One of the byproducts of traditional and large-scale agriculture is the creation of additional habitats, such as second growth forests and fields/pastures . Tourism
Tourism
has caused Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
to become famous around the world in the last thirty or so years for its beaches , coastline and cenote sinkholes. Biological experts consider the coastline of Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
one of the best manatee habitats worldwide. Queen conchs are also noted for their inhabitation of coastal territory. The wide variety of biotic organisms such as these has decreased drastically in the last fifteen years.

AVIFAUNA

Also affected by the loss of habitat due to both agriculture and development, birds are one of the region's most varied animal assets. Hundreds of species reside in Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
permanently, with hundreds of others either wintering there or using it as a stopover on the long journey into South America
South America
. As a result, many birders come to the area annually in search of the rare and unexpected.

IMPACT

Maya ruins at Tulum
Tulum

Many blame the environmental damage in Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
on either the regional government or outside investors. However, resorts and hotels in Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
have created jobs and increased economic activity , which in turn has resulted in growth.

Projections for the tourism economy of Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
were exceedingly optimistic. It houses multiple tourist attractions from the Maya ruins to the lush forests and beautiful beaches. However, the long-term effects were not foreseen. The effect on the local environment was not properly considered. Economic
Economic
stresses of development and population were virtually ignored. The effect on the native population was not properly considered. The 'economic marginalization ' of the Maya has had drastic effects on their sense of place and identity .

EDUCATION

UNIVERSITIES

* Instituto Tecnológico de Cancún, Cancún * Instituto Tecnológico de Chetumal, Chetumal * University of Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
, Chetumal * Intercultural Maya University of Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
, José María Morelos * Universidad Anáhuac Cancún , Cancún * Universidad del Caribe , Cancún * Universidad Tecnológica de la Riviera Maya , Playa del Carmen * Universidad La Salle Cancún, Cancún

SPORTS

The Atlante F.C. was founded in 1916 in Mexico
Mexico
City and they now play football in the Liga MX . Their home ground (since 2007) is the Estadio Andrés Quintana Roo in Cancún.

After playing the 1955–2001 seasons in Mexico
Mexico
City and the 2002–2005 seasons in Puebla the Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
Tigers have been playing baseball with a home field at the Estadio de Béisbol Beto Ávila in Cancún since the 2006 season. The Tigers made it to the Mexican League series in 2009, but lost to the Saraperos de Saltillo 4 games to 2.

FLORA AND FAUNA

FLORA AND FAUNA OF QUINTANA ROO

Trichechus Mazama Pandora Eretmochelys imbricata Crax rubra Crocodylus acutus

Ateles geoffroyi Sarcoramphus papa Tamandua mexicana
Tamandua mexicana
Nasua Boa constrictor

Ceiba pentandra
Ceiba pentandra
Enterolobium cyclocarpum Mangrove
Mangrove
Haematoxylum campechianum Bixa orellana

TIME ZONE

On February 1, 2015, Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
officially adopted a new time zone, Southeastern, which is five hours behind Coordinated Universal Time (UTC−05:00 ). Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
does not observe daylight saving time, so Southeastern Time is constant throughout the year (that is, it does not shift forward in the spring and back in the fall). Southeastern Time (ST) is the same as Eastern Standard Time (EST) and Central Daylight Time (CDT). This means that in the winter, Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
has the same time as regions observing EST, such as the eastern U.S., eastern Canada, Cuba, and Jamaica; and in the summer, Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
has the same time as regions observing CDT, such as central Mexico.

Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
changed to Southeastern Time for economic reasons, including:

* Allowing tourists in areas such as Cancun, Cozumel, and Playa del Carmen to spend more time and money at beaches, restaurants, historic sites, and other venues. * Reducing electricity usage by hotels, restaurants, and other facilities.

Before Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
adopted the Southeastern time zone (officially referred to as zona sureste in Mexico), it had been part of the Central time zone (zona centro).

SEE ALSO

* Geography portal * North America portal * Latin America portal * Mexico
Mexico
portal

NOTES

* ^ A B "Poder Legislativo del Estado de Quintana Roo" (PDF) (in Spanish). * ^ "Senadores por Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
LXI Legislatura". Senado de la Republica. Retrieved April 5, 2011. * ^ "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Estado de Quintana Roo". Camara de Diputados. Retrieved April 6, 2011. * ^ "Resumen". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved February 12, 2013. * ^ A B "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved April 6, 2011. * ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). Retrieved December 8, 2015. * ^ "Reporte: Jueves 3 de Junio del 2010. Cierre del peso mexicano.". www.pesomexicano.com.mx. Retrieved August 10, 2010. * ^ "Controversia Constitucional: Estado de Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
Vs. Estado de Yucatán (3 de Mayo de 1997)". Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nacion. Retrieved April 6, 2011. * ^ " Campeche
Campeche
insiste en que Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
le invadió terreno". Notisureste. Retrieved April 6, 2011. * ^ A B C " Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
estrena horario mañana (Spanish)" (in Spanish). Retrieved February 1, 2015. * ^ A B C "MEDIO FÍSICO". Enciclopedia de Los Municipios y Delegaciones de México (in Spanish). Instituto para el Federalismo y el Desarrollo Municipal. Retrieved February 1, 2016. * ^ A B C "Clima". Información por entidad (in Spanish). Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía. Retrieved February 1, 2016. * ^ "Mexico: extended population list". GeoHive. Archived from the original on March 11, 2012. Retrieved 2011-07-29. * ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). INEGI. Retrieved 2015-12-08.

* ^ Hernández, Silvia (2 February 2011). "Bacalar, el décimo municipio de Q. Roo". El Universal . Retrieved 12 April 2011. * ^ A B C D E F Anderson, E. N. and Felix Medina Tzuc. 2005. Animals and the Maya in Southeast Mexico. University of Arizona Press. Tucson, Arizona. * ^ A B C D E Daltabuit, Magali and Oriol Pi-Sunyer. 1990. Tourism Development in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Cultural Survival Quarterly 14.2, 9-13. * ^ A B Encyclopædia Britannica 2008. "Quintana Roo". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9062295. Retrieved February 21, 2008. * ^ Villa Rojas, Alfonso. 1945. The Maya of East Central Quintana Roo. Carnegie Institute of Washington Publication 559. Washington D.C. * ^ "Adventure on the Ruta de los Cenotes". Travel Addicts. Retrieved 6 November 2016. * ^ A B C Schlesinger, Victoria. 2001. Animals and Plants of the Ancient Maya: A Guide. University of Texas Press. Austin, Texas. * ^ A B C Juarez, Ana M. 2002. "Ecological Degradation, Global Tourism, and Inequality: Maya Interpretations of the Changing Environment in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Human Organization 61.2, 113-124. * ^ ":: Atlante Futbol Club ::". Retrieved 15 April 2011. * ^ ":.TIGRES DE QUINTANAROO.". Retrieved 15 April 2011. * ^ "2009 Playoffs - MiLB.com Events - The Official Site of Minor League Baseball". Retrieved 15 April 2011. * ^ "Mexico’s Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
Gears Up for Feb. 1 Time Change". TravelPulse. Retrieved 10 February 2015. * ^ Haynes, Danielle (29 January 2015). "Cancun switches to Eastern time zone". UPI. Retrieved 10 February 2015. * ^ "Cancun Region Gets Longer Evenings". Time and Date. 14 January 2015. Retrieved 10 February 2015. * ^ "Boletín 266 .- Celebra SECTUR reforma a ley del sistema de horario en los Estados Unidos Mexicanos". Mexican Ministry of Tourism (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 March 2015. * ^ "DECRETO por el que se reforman los artículos 2 y 3 de la Ley del Sistema de Horario en los Estados Unidos Mexicanos". Official Journal of the Federation (in Spanish). Mexican Interior Ministry. Retrieved 8 March 2015.

REFERENCES

* Dumond, Don E.1985 The Talking Crosses of Yucatán: A New Look at their History. Ethnohistory 32(4):291–308. * Freidel, David., Schele, Linda., et al. 1993 Maya Cosmos: Three thousand years on the Shaman's Path. New York: W. Morrow * Harrison, Peter D. 1985 Some Aspects of Preconquest Settlement in Southern Quintana Roo, Mexico. Lowland Maya Settlement Patterns edited by Wendy Ashmore Albuquerque: University of New Mexico
Mexico
Press, A School of American Research Book. * Villa Rojas, Alfonso. 1945 The Maya of East Central Quintana Roo: The Pagan-Christian Religious Complex. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution.

FURTHER READING

* Anderson, E. N. and Felix Medina Tzuc. Animals and the Maya in Southeast Mexico. University of Arizona Press. Tucson, Arizona. 2005. * Brannon, Jeffery T. and Gilbert M. Joseph. Eds. 1991 Land, labor ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

State of Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo

Chetumal (capital)

MUNICIPALITIES (SEATS)

* Bacalar ( Bacalar ) * Benito Juárez ( Cancún ) * Cozumel (San Miguel de Cozumel ) * Felipe Carrillo Puerto (Felipe Carrillo Puerto ) * Isla Mujeres ( Isla Mujeres ) * José María Morelos (José María Morelos ) * Lázaro Cárdenas ( Kantunilkín ) * Othón P. Blanco ( Chetumal ) * Puerto Morelos ( Puerto Morelos ) * Solidaridad ( Playa del Carmen ) * Tulum
Tulum
( Tulum
Tulum
)

PLACES OF INTEREST

* Akumal * Arrecifes de Cozumel National Park * Banco Chinchorro * Chacchoben * Coba * Isla Contoy * Isla Holbox * Kohunlich * Mahahual * Muyil * Punta Allen * Punta Sur
Punta Sur
* Riviera Maya * San Gervasio * Sian Ka\'an * Tulum
Tulum
* Xcalak * Xcaret * Xelha * Yo\'okop

* v * t * e

States of Mexico

* Aguascalientes
Aguascalientes
* Baja California
Baja California
* Baja California
Baja California
Sur * Campeche
Campeche
* Chiapas
Chiapas
* Chihuahua * Coahuila
Coahuila
* Colima
Colima
*