Quintana Roo (Spanish pronunciation: [kinˈtana ˈro]),
officially the Free and Sovereign State of
Quintana Roo (Spanish:
Estado Libre y Soberano de Quintana Roo), is one of the 31 states
which, with the Federal District, make up the 32 federal entities of
Mexico. It is divided into 11 municipalities and its capital city is
Quintana Roo is located on the eastern part of the
and is bordered by the states of
Campeche to the west and
the northwest, and by the Orange Walk and Corozal districts of Belize,
along with an offshore borderline with
Belize District to the south.
As Mexico's easternmost state,
Quintana Roo has a coastline to the
east with the
Caribbean Sea and to the north with the Gulf of Mexico.
The state previously covered 44,705 square kilometers
(17,261 sq mi) and shared a small border with
the southwest of the state. However in 2013, Mexico's Supreme
Justice Court of the Nation resolved the boundary dispute between
Quintana Roo, Campeche, and
Yucatán stemming from the creation of the
Calakmul municipality by
Campeche in 1997, siding with
thereby benefiting Yucatán.
Quintana Roo is the home of the city of Cancún, the islands of
Cozumel and Isla Mujeres, and the towns of Bacalar, Playa del Carmen
and Akumal, as well as the ancient Maya ruins of Chacchoben, Cobá,
Kohunlich, Muyil, Tulum, Xel-Há, and Xcaret. The
Sian Ka'an biosphere
reserve is also located in the state.
The statewide population is expanding at a rapid rate due to the
construction of hotels and the demand for workers. Many immigrants
come from Yucatán, Campeche, Tabasco, and Veracruz. The state is
frequently hit by severe hurricanes due to its exposed location, the
most recent and severe being
Hurricane Dean in 2007, which made
landfall with sustained winds of 280 km/h (175 mph), with
gusts up to 320 km/h (200 mph).
On February 1, 2015,
Quintana Roo officially adopted a new time zone,
Southeastern, which is five hours behind Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC−05:00), and corresponds to Eastern Standard Time (EST).
Reasons cited for the change include coordination of air travel,
banking operations, and more daylight hours, the last of which will
result in less energy usage.
5 Tourism, ecotourism, and globalization
5.2 Biotic situation of the
5.3 Ecosystems and animals
8 Flora and fauna
9 Time zone
10 See also
13 Further reading
14 External links
Tulum - Temple of the Wind God
The area that makes up modern
Quintana Roo was long part of Yucatán,
sharing its history. With the Caste War of Yucatán, which started in
the 1840s, all non-natives were driven from the region. The
independent Maya nation of
Chan Santa Cruz
Chan Santa Cruz was based on what is now
the town of Felipe Carrillo Puerto. For decades it maintained
considerable independence, having separate trade and treaty
relationships with British Honduras, now Belize.
Quintana Roo was made a territory of
Mexico by decree of President
Porfirio Díaz on November 24, 1902. It was named after an early
patriot of the Mexican Republic, Andrés Quintana Roo. The Mexican
army succeeded in defeating most of the Maya population of the region
during the 1910s. In 1915 the area was again declared to be legally
part of the state of Yucatán.
Quintana Roo was granted statehood within the United Mexican States on
October 8, 1974. It is the Mexican Republic's youngest state.
The city of
Cancún is a major tourist resort in Quintana Roo
According to the Köppen climate classification, much of the state has
a tropical wet and dry climate (Aw) while the island of
Cozumel has a
tropical monsoon climate (Am). The mean annual temperature is
26 °C (78.8 °F). The hottest months are April and
August where the average high is 33 °C (91.4 °F) while
January is coldest month with an average low of 17 °C
(62.6 °F). Extreme temperatures can range from low of
10 °C (50.0 °F) in the coldest months to 36 °C
(96.8 °F) in the hottest months.
Quintana Roo averages
1,300 mm (51 in) of precipitation per year, which falls
throughout the year, though June to October are the wetter months.
Hurricanes can occasionally hit the coastal areas during the hurricane
season, particularly from September to November.
Main article: Municipalities of Quintana Roo
The State of
Quintana Roo is divided into 11 municipalities (Spanish:
municipios), each headed by a municipal president:
Othón P. Blanco
Felipe Carrillo Puerto
José María Morelos
Tourism, ecotourism, and globalization
Aerial view of Cancún
Beach of Contoy Island
Punta Sur at south at the
Quintana Roo's tourist boom began in the 1970s.
in the development of coastal hotels and resorts, in addition to
ecotourism inland and in coastal regions, which have increased the
development of the region as well as the gross domestic product.
Quintana Roo ranks sixth among Mexican states according to the United
Nations Human Development index (HDI).
Riviera Maya is located along the
Caribbean coastline, including
Cancún, Playa del Carmen, Puerto Morelos,
Akumal and Cozumel.
Biotic situation of the
Yucatán Peninsula is one of the most forested areas of the world
in terms of biotic mass per hectare. However, anthropological,
biological and governmental experts have determined that Quintana Roo
is 'facing a faunal crisis'. Many medium to large game animals are
disappearing due to hunting and habitat loss. While its population is
Quintana Roo is experiencing both a population
influx and an increase in tourism. This only increases the
pressure on the plants and animals native to the area.
Ecosystems and animals
There are four generalized ecosystems in Quintana Roo—tropical
forests, or jungle; savanna, mangrove forests, and coral reefs. One of
the byproducts of traditional and large-scale agriculture is the
creation of additional habitats, such as second growth forests and
Tourism has caused
Quintana Roo to become famous
around the world in the last thirty or so years for its beaches,
coastline and cenote sinkholes. Biological experts consider
the coastline of
Quintana Roo one of the best manatee habitats
worldwide. Queen conchs are also noted for their inhabitation of
coastal territory. The wide variety of biotic organisms such as
these has decreased drastically in the last fifteen years.
Also affected by the loss of habitat due to both agriculture and
development, birds are one of the region's most varied animal
assets. Hundreds of species reside in
Quintana Roo permanently,
with hundreds of others either wintering there or using it as a
stopover on the long journey into South America. As a result, many
birders come to the area annually in search of the rare and
Maya ruins at Tulum
Many blame the environmental damage in
Quintana Roo on either the
regional government or outside investors. However, resorts and
Quintana Roo have created jobs and increased economic
activity, which in turn has resulted in growth.
Projections for the tourism economy of
Quintana Roo were exceedingly
optimistic. It houses multiple tourist attractions from the Maya ruins
to the lush forests and beautiful beaches. However, the long-term
effects were not foreseen. The effect on the local environment was not
Economic stresses of development and population
were virtually ignored. The effect on the native population was
not properly considered. The 'economic marginalization' of the Maya
has had drastic effects on their sense of place and identity.
Instituto Tecnológico de Cancún, Cancún
Instituto Tecnológico de Chetumal, Chetumal
University of Quintana Roo, Chetumal
Intercultural Maya University of Quintana Roo, José María Morelos
Universidad Anáhuac Cancún, Cancún
Universidad del Caribe, Cancún
Universidad Tecnológica de la Riviera Maya, Playa del Carmen
Universidad La Salle Cancún, Cancún
Universidad TecMilenio, Cancún
Atlante F.C. was founded in 1916 in
Mexico City and they now play
football in the Liga MX. Their home ground (since 2007) is the Estadio
Andrés Quintana Roo
Andrés Quintana Roo in Cancún.
After playing the 1955–2001 seasons in
Mexico City and the
2002–2005 seasons in Puebla the
Quintana Roo Tigers have been
playing baseball with a home field at the Estadio de Béisbol Beto
Cancún since the 2006 season. The Tigers made it to the
Mexican League series in 2009, but lost to the
Saraperos de Saltillo
Saraperos de Saltillo 4
games to 2.
Flora and fauna
Flora and fauna of Quintana Roo
On February 1, 2015,
Quintana Roo officially adopted a new time zone,
Southeastern, which is five hours behind Coordinated Universal Time
Quintana Roo does not observe daylight saving time, so
Southeastern Time is constant throughout the year (that is, it does
not shift forward in the spring and back in the fall). Southeastern
Time (ST) is the same as Eastern Standard Time (EST) and Central
Daylight Time (CDT). This means that in the winter,
Quintana Roo has
the same time as regions observing EST, such as the eastern U.S.,
eastern Canada, Cuba, and Jamaica; and in the summer,
Quintana Roo has
the same time as regions observing CDT, such as central
Quintana Roo changed to Southeastern Time for economic reasons,
Allowing tourists in areas such as Cancun, Cozumel, and Playa del
Carmen to spend more time and money at beaches, restaurants, historic
sites, and other venues.
Reducing electricity usage by hotels, restaurants, and other
Quintana Roo adopted the Southeastern time zone (officially
referred to as zona sureste in Mexico), it had been part of the
Central time zone (zona centro).
North America portal
Latin America portal
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Link to tables of population data from Census of 2005 INEGI: Instituto
Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Quintana Roo.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Quintana Roo.
Geographic data related to
Quintana Roo at OpenStreetMap
Quintana Roo State Government (in Spanish)
State of Quintana Roo
Benito Juárez (Cancún)
Cozumel (San Miguel de Cozumel)
Felipe Carrillo Puerto (Felipe Carrillo Puerto)
Isla Mujeres (Isla Mujeres)
Morelos (José María Morelos)
Lázaro Cárdenas (Kantunilkín)
Othón P. Blanco (Chetumal)
Puerto Morelos (Puerto Morelos)
Solidaridad (Playa del Carmen)
Places of interest
Cozumel National Park
States of Mexico
Baja California Sur
San Luis Potosí