QUINTANA ROO (Spanish pronunciation: ), officially the FREE AND
SOVEREIGN STATE OF QUINTANA ROO (Spanish : Estado Libre y Soberano de
Quintana Roo), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal
District , make up the 32 federal entities of
Mexico . It is divided
into ten municipalities and its capital city is
Quintana Roo is located on the eastern part of the
and is bordered by the states of
Campeche to the west and
the northwest, and by the Orange Walk and Corozal districts of Belize
, along with an offshore borderline with
Belize District to the south.
Quintana Roo has a coastline to the east with the
Caribbean Sea and to
the north with the Gulf of
Mexico . It also claims territory which
gives it a small border with
Guatemala in the southwest of the state,
although this disputed area is also claimed by Campeche.
Quintana Roo is the home of the city of
Cancún , the islands of
Isla Mujeres , and the towns of
Bacalar , Playa del Carmen
Akumal , as well as the ancient Maya ruins of
Xel-Há , and
Xcaret . The Sian Ka\'an
biosphere reserve is also located in the state.
The state officially covers an area of 44,705 square kilometers
(17,261 sq mi), but since 1997 there is a boundary dispute with the
Campeche over an area of approximately 10,200
square kilometers (3,900 sq mi).
The statewide population is expanding at a rapid rate due to the
construction of hotels and the demand for workers. Many immigrants
Tabasco , and
Veracruz . The state is
frequently hit by severe hurricanes due to its exposed location, the
most recent and severe being
Hurricane Dean in 2007, which made
landfall with sustained winds of 280 km/h (175 mph), with gusts up to
320 km/h (200 mph).
On February 1, 2015,
Quintana Roo officially adopted a new time zone
, Southeastern, which is five hours behind Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC−05:00 ), and corresponds to Eastern Standard Time (EST).
Reasons cited for the change include coordination of air travel,
banking operations, and more daylight hours, the latter of which will
result in less energy usage.
* 1 History
* 2 Climate
* 3 Demographics
* 4 Municipalities
* 5 Tourism, ecotourism, and globalization
* 5.2 Biotic situation of the
* 5.3 Ecosystems and animals
* 5.4 Avifauna
* 5.5 Impact
* 6 Education
* 6.1 Universities
* 7 Sports
* 8 Flora and fauna
* 10 See also
* 11 Notes
* 12 References
* 13 Further reading
* 14 External links
Tulum - Temple of the Wind God
The area that makes up modern
Quintana Roo was long part of Yucatán,
sharing its history. With the
Caste War of Yucatán , which started in
the 1840s, all non-natives were driven from the region. The
independent Maya nation of
Chan Santa Cruz was based on what is now
the town of Felipe Carrillo Puerto . For decades it maintained
considerable independence, having separate trade and treaty
relationships with British Honduras, now
Quintana Roo was made a territory of
Mexico by decree of President
Porfirio Díaz on November 24, 1902. It was named after an early
patriot of the Mexican Republic,
Andrés Quintana Roo . The Mexican
army succeeded in defeating most of the Maya population of the region
during the 1910s. In 1915 the area was again declared to be legally
part of the state of Yucatán.
Quintana Roo was granted statehood within the United Mexican States
on October 8, 1974. It is the Mexican Republic's youngest state.
According to the
Köppen climate classification , much of the state
has a tropical wet and dry climate (Aw) while the island of Cozumel
has a tropical monsoon climate (Am). The mean annual temperature is
26 °C (78.8 °F). The hottest months are April and August where the
average high is 33 °C (91.4 °F) while January is coldest month with
an average low of 17 °C (62.6 °F). Extreme temperatures can range
from low of 10 °C (50.0 °F) in the coldest months to 36 °C (96.8
°F) in the hottest months.
Quintana Roo averages 1,300 mm (51 in) of
precipitation per year, which falls throughout the year, though June
to October are the wetter months.
Hurricanes can occasionally hit the
coastal areas during the hurricane season , particularly from
September to November.
Municipalities of Quintana Roo
The State of
Quintana Roo is divided into 11 municipalities (Spanish
: municipios ), each headed by a municipal president :
* Benito Juarez
* Othón P. Blanco
* Felipe Carrillo Puerto
* José María
* Lázaro Cárdenas
TOURISM, ECOTOURISM, AND GLOBALIZATION
Aerial view of
Cancún Beach of Contoy Island
Punta Sur at south at the
Quintana Roo's tourist boom began in the 1970s.
Tourism resulted in
the development of coastal hotels and resorts, in addition to
ecotourism inland and in coastal regions, which have increased the
development of the region as well as the gross domestic product .
Quintana Roo ranks sixth among Mexican states according to the United
Nations Human Development index (HDI).
BIOTIC SITUATION OF THE YUCATáN PENINSULA
Yucatán Peninsula is one of the most forested areas of the world
in terms of biotic mass per hectare. However, anthropological,
biological and governmental experts have determined that Quintana Roo
is 'facing a faunal crisis'. Many medium to large game animals are
disappearing due to hunting and habitat loss . While its population is
Quintana Roo is experiencing both a population
influx and an increase in tourism. This only increases the pressure
on the plants and animals native to the area.
ECOSYSTEMS AND ANIMALS
There are four generalized ecosystems in Quintana Roo—tropical
forests , or jungle ; savanna , mangrove forests, and coral reefs .
One of the byproducts of traditional and large-scale agriculture is
the creation of additional habitats, such as second growth forests and
Tourism has caused
Quintana Roo to become famous
around the world in the last thirty or so years for its beaches ,
coastline and cenote sinkholes. Biological experts consider the
Quintana Roo one of the best manatee habitats worldwide.
Queen conchs are also noted for their inhabitation of coastal
territory. The wide variety of biotic organisms such as these has
decreased drastically in the last fifteen years.
Also affected by the loss of habitat due to both agriculture and
development, birds are one of the region's most varied animal assets.
Hundreds of species reside in
Quintana Roo permanently, with hundreds
of others either wintering there or using it as a stopover on the long
South America . As a result, many birders come to the
area annually in search of the rare and unexpected.
Maya ruins at
Many blame the environmental damage in
Quintana Roo on either the
regional government or outside investors. However, resorts and hotels
Quintana Roo have created jobs and increased economic activity ,
which in turn has resulted in growth.
Projections for the tourism economy of
Quintana Roo were exceedingly
optimistic. It houses multiple tourist attractions from the Maya ruins
to the lush forests and beautiful beaches. However, the long-term
effects were not foreseen. The effect on the local environment was not
Economic stresses of development and population
were virtually ignored. The effect on the native population was not
properly considered. The 'economic marginalization ' of the Maya has
had drastic effects on their sense of place and identity .
* Instituto Tecnológico de Cancún, Cancún
* Instituto Tecnológico de Chetumal, Chetumal
* University of
Quintana Roo , Chetumal
* Intercultural Maya University of
Quintana Roo , José María
* Universidad Anáhuac
* Universidad del Caribe , Cancún
* Universidad Tecnológica de la
Riviera Maya , Playa del Carmen
* Universidad La Salle Cancún, Cancún
Atlante F.C. was founded in 1916 in
Mexico City and they now play
football in the
Liga MX . Their home ground (since 2007) is the
Andrés Quintana Roo in Cancún.
After playing the 1955–2001 seasons in
Mexico City and the
2002–2005 seasons in Puebla the
Quintana Roo Tigers have been
playing baseball with a home field at the Estadio de Béisbol Beto
Cancún since the 2006 season. The Tigers made it to the
Mexican League series in 2009, but lost to the
Saraperos de Saltillo 4
games to 2.
FLORA AND FAUNA
FLORA AND FAUNA OF QUINTANA ROO
On February 1, 2015,
Quintana Roo officially adopted a new time zone,
Southeastern, which is five hours behind Coordinated Universal Time
Quintana Roo does not observe daylight saving time, so
Southeastern Time is constant throughout the year (that is, it does
not shift forward in the spring and back in the fall). Southeastern
Time (ST) is the same as Eastern Standard Time (EST) and Central
Daylight Time (CDT). This means that in the winter,
Quintana Roo has
the same time as regions observing EST, such as the eastern U.S.,
eastern Canada, Cuba, and Jamaica; and in the summer,
Quintana Roo has
the same time as regions observing CDT, such as central Mexico.
Quintana Roo changed to Southeastern Time for economic reasons,
* Allowing tourists in areas such as Cancun, Cozumel, and Playa del
Carmen to spend more time and money at beaches, restaurants, historic
sites, and other venues.
* Reducing electricity usage by hotels, restaurants, and other
Quintana Roo adopted the Southeastern time zone (officially
referred to as zona sureste in Mexico), it had been part of the
Central time zone (zona centro).
* Geography portal
* North America portal
* Latin America portal
* ^ A B "Poder Legislativo del Estado de Quintana Roo" (PDF) (in
* ^ "Senadores por
Quintana Roo LXI Legislatura". Senado de la
Republica. Retrieved April 5, 2011.
* ^ "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Estado de
Quintana Roo". Camara de Diputados. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
* ^ "Resumen". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
* ^ A B "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
* ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). Retrieved December 8, 2015.
* ^ "Reporte: Jueves 3 de Junio del 2010. Cierre del peso
mexicano.". www.pesomexicano.com.mx. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
* ^ "Controversia Constitucional: Estado de
Quintana Roo Vs. Estado
Yucatán (3 de Mayo de 1997)". Suprema Corte de Justicia de la
Nacion. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
* ^ "
Campeche insiste en que
Quintana Roo le invadió terreno".
Notisureste. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
* ^ A B C "
Quintana Roo estrena horario mañana (Spanish)" (in
Spanish). Retrieved February 1, 2015.
* ^ A B C "MEDIO FÍSICO". Enciclopedia de Los Municipios y
Delegaciones de México (in Spanish). Instituto para el Federalismo y
el Desarrollo Municipal. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
* ^ A B C "Clima". Información por entidad (in Spanish). Instituto
Nacional de Estadística y Geografía. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
* ^ "Mexico: extended population list". GeoHive. Archived from the
original on March 11, 2012. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
* ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). INEGI. Retrieved 2015-12-08.
* ^ Hernández, Silvia (2 February 2011). "Bacalar, el décimo
municipio de Q. Roo". El Universal . Retrieved 12 April 2011.
* ^ A B C D E F Anderson, E. N. and Felix Medina Tzuc. 2005.
Animals and the Maya in Southeast Mexico. University of Arizona Press.
* ^ A B C D E Daltabuit, Magali and Oriol Pi-Sunyer. 1990. Tourism
Development in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Cultural Survival Quarterly 14.2,
* ^ A B Encyclopædia Britannica 2008. "Quintana Roo".
Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9062295. Retrieved February 21,
* ^ Villa Rojas, Alfonso. 1945. The Maya of East Central Quintana
Roo. Carnegie Institute of Washington Publication 559. Washington D.C.
* ^ "Adventure on the Ruta de los Cenotes". Travel Addicts.
Retrieved 6 November 2016.
* ^ A B C Schlesinger, Victoria. 2001. Animals and Plants of the
Ancient Maya: A Guide. University of Texas Press. Austin, Texas.
* ^ A B C Juarez, Ana M. 2002. "Ecological Degradation, Global
Tourism, and Inequality: Maya Interpretations of the Changing
Environment in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Human Organization 61.2, 113-124.
* ^ ":: Atlante Futbol Club ::". Retrieved 15 April 2011.
* ^ ":.TIGRES DE QUINTANAROO.". Retrieved 15 April 2011.
* ^ "2009 Playoffs - MiLB.com Events - The Official Site of Minor
League Baseball". Retrieved 15 April 2011.
* ^ "Mexico’s
Quintana Roo Gears Up for Feb. 1 Time Change".
TravelPulse. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
* ^ Haynes, Danielle (29 January 2015). "Cancun switches to Eastern
time zone". UPI. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
* ^ "Cancun Region Gets Longer Evenings". Time and Date. 14 January
2015. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
* ^ "Boletín 266 .- Celebra SECTUR reforma a ley del sistema de
horario en los Estados Unidos Mexicanos". Mexican Ministry of Tourism
(in Spanish). Retrieved 8 March 2015.
* ^ "DECRETO por el que se reforman los artículos 2 y 3 de la Ley
del Sistema de Horario en los Estados Unidos Mexicanos". Official
Journal of the Federation (in Spanish). Mexican Interior Ministry.
Retrieved 8 March 2015.
* Dumond, Don E.1985 The Talking Crosses of Yucatán: A New Look at
their History. Ethnohistory 32(4):291–308.
* Freidel, David., Schele, Linda., et al. 1993 Maya Cosmos: Three
thousand years on the Shaman's Path. New York: W. Morrow
* Harrison, Peter D. 1985 Some Aspects of Preconquest Settlement in
Southern Quintana Roo, Mexico. Lowland Maya Settlement Patterns edited
by Wendy Ashmore Albuquerque: University of New
Mexico Press, A School
of American Research Book.
* Villa Rojas, Alfonso. 1945 The Maya of East Central Quintana Roo:
The Pagan-Christian Religious Complex. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie
* Anderson, E. N. and Felix Medina Tzuc. Animals and the Maya in
Southeast Mexico. University of Arizona Press. Tucson, Arizona. 2005.
* Brannon, Jeffery T. and Gilbert M. Joseph. Eds. 1991 Land, labor
* Benito Juárez (
Cozumel (San Miguel de
* Felipe Carrillo Puerto (Felipe Carrillo Puerto )
Isla Mujeres (
Isla Mujeres )
* José María
Morelos (José María
* Lázaro Cárdenas (
* Othón P. Blanco (
Puerto Morelos (
Puerto Morelos )
* Solidaridad (
Playa del Carmen )
PLACES OF INTEREST
* Arrecifes de
Cozumel National Park
* San Gervasio
* Sian Ka\'an
States of Mexico
Baja California Sur