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Quercus robur, commonly known as common oak, pedunculate oak, European oak or English oak, is a species of flowering plant in the beech and oak family Fagaceae. It is native to most of Europe
Europe
west of the Caucasus. The tree is widely cultivated in temperate regions and has escaped into the wild in scattered parts of China and North America.[2][3]

Contents

1 Taxonomy 2 Description 3 Ecological importance 4 Commercial forestry 5 Cultivation

5.1 Cultivars 5.2 Hybrids 5.3 Diseases

6 Symbolism

6.1 Basque Country 6.2 Bulgaria 6.3 Croatia 6.4 England 6.5 Germany 6.6 Ireland 6.7 Romania

7 Chemistry 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Taxonomy[edit]

Ancient pedunculate oaks at Wistman's Wood
Wistman's Wood
in Devon, England

Quercus robur
Quercus robur
( Latin
Latin
quercus, "oak" + robur "strength, hard timber") is the type species of the genus (the species by which the oak genus Quercus is defined), and a member of the white oak section Quercus section Quercus. The populations in Italy, southeast Europe, and Asia Minor and the Caucasus
Caucasus
are sometimes treated as separate species, Q. brutia Tenore, Q. pedunculiflora K. Koch and Q. haas Kotschy respectively. A close relative is the sessile oak (Q. petraea), which shares much of its range. Q. robur
Q. robur
is distinguished from this species by its leaves having only a very short stalk (petiole) 3–8 mm (0.12–0.31 in) long, and by its pedunculate (stalked) acorns. The two often hybridise in the wild, the hybrid being known as Quercus × rosacea. Q. robur
Q. robur
should not be confused with Q. rubra, the red oak, which is a native of North America and only distantly related. Description[edit]

An old English oak in Baginton, England

Seedling sprouting from its acorn

An oak sprout in a glass container

Quercus robur
Quercus robur
is a large deciduous tree, with circumference of grand oaks from 4 m (13 ft) to exceptional 12 m (39 ft).[citation needed] The Majesty Oak
Oak
with a circumference of 12.2 m (40 ft) is the thickest tree in Great Britain,[citation needed] and the Kaive Oak
Oak
in Latvia
Latvia
with a circumference of 10.2 m (33 ft) is the thickest tree in Northern Europe.[citation needed] Quercus robur
Quercus robur
has lobed and nearly sessile (very short-stalked) leaves 7–14 cm (2.8–5.5 in) long. Flowering takes place in mid spring, and their fruit, called acorns, ripen by the following autumn. The acorns are 2–2.5 cm (0.79–0.98 in) long, pedunculate (having a peduncle or acorn-stalk, 3–7 cm (1.2–2.8 in) long) with one to four acorns on each peduncle. Q. robur
Q. robur
is very tolerant to soil conditions and the continental climate but it prefers fertile and well-watered soils. Mature trees tolerate flooding.[4] It is a long-lived tree, with a large wide spreading crown of rugged branches. While it may naturally live to an age of a few centuries, many of the oldest trees are pollarded or coppiced, both pruning techniques that extend the tree's potential lifespan, if not its health. Two individuals of notable longevity are the Stelmužė Oak
Oak
in Lithuania
Lithuania
and the Granit Oak
Oak
in Bulgaria, which are believed to be more than 1,500 years old, possibly making them the oldest oaks in Europe; another specimen, called the 'Kongeegen' ('Kings Oak'), estimated to be about 1,200 years old, grows in Jaegerspris, Denmark.[5] Yet another can be found in Kvilleken, Sweden, that is over 1,000 years old and 14 metres (46 ft) around.[6] Of maiden (not pollarded) specimens, one of the oldest is the great oak of Ivenack, Germany. Tree-ring research of this tree and other oaks nearby gives an estimated age of 700 to 800 years. Also the Bowthorpe Oak
Oak
in Lincolnshire, England
England
is estimated to be 1,000 years old, making it the oldest in the UK, although there is Knightwood Oak
Oak
in the New Forest
New Forest
which is also said to be as old. Highest density of the grand oak trees Q. robur
Q. robur
with a circumference 4 metres (13 ft) and more is in Latvia.[7] Ecological importance[edit]

bark and wood

Quercus robur
Quercus robur
- MHNT

The Gyula Juhász memorial tree in Makó

Q. robur
Q. robur
'Concordia'

Within its native range Q. robur
Q. robur
is valued for its importance to insects and other wildlife. Numerous insects live on the leaves, buds, and in the acorns. Q. robur
Q. robur
supports the highest biodiversity of insect herbivores of any British plant (>400 spp). The acorns form a valuable food resource for several small mammals and some birds, notably Eurasian jays Garrulus glandarius. Jays were overwhelmingly the primary propagators[8] of oaks before humans began planting them commercially, because of their habit of taking acorns from the umbra of its parent tree and burying them undamaged elsewhere. Mammals, notably squirrels who tend to hoard acorns and other nuts usually leave them too abused to grow in the action of moving or storing them. Commercial forestry[edit] Quercus robur
Quercus robur
is planted for forestry, and produces a long-lasting and durable heartwood, much in demand for interior and furniture work. The wood of Q. robur
Q. robur
is identified by a close examination of a cross-section perpendicular to fibres. The wood is characterised by its distinct (often wide) dark and light brown growth rings. The earlywood displays a vast number of large vessels (~0.5 mm (0.020 in) diameter). There are rays of thin (~0.1 mm (0.0039 in)) yellow or light brown lines running across the growth rings. The timber is around 720 kg (1,590 lb) per cubic meter in density.[9] Cultivation[edit] A number of cultivars are grown in gardens and parks and in arboreta and botanical gardens. The most common cultivar is Quercus robur 'Fastigiata', and is the exception among Q. robur
Q. robur
cultivars which are generally smaller than the standard tree, growing to between 10–15 m and exhibit unusual leaf or crown shape characteristics.

In Australia

English oak is one of the most common park trees in south-eastern Australia, noted for its vigorous, luxuriant growth. In Australia, it grows very quickly[citation needed] to a tree of 20 m (66 ft) tall by up to 20 m (66 ft) broad, with a low-branching canopy. Its trunk and secondary branches are very thick and solid and covered with deep-fissured blackish-grey bark.[10] The largest example in Australia
Australia
is in Donnybrook, Western Australia.[11] Cultivars[edit]

Quercus robur
Quercus robur
'Fastigiata' ("cypress oak"), probably the most common cultivated form, it grows to a large imposing tree with a narrow columnar habit. The fastigiate oak was originally propagated from an upright tree that was found in central Europe. Quercus robur
Quercus robur
'Concordia' ("golden oak"), a small very slow-growing tree, eventually reaching 10 m (33 ft), with bright golden-yellow leaves throughout spring and summer. It was originally raised in Van Geert's nursery at Ghent
Ghent
in 1843. Quercus robur
Quercus robur
'Pendula' ("weeping oak"), a small to medium-sized tree with pendulous branches, reaching up to 15 m. Quercus robur
Quercus robur
'Purpurea' is another cultivar growing to 10 m (33 ft), but with purple coloured leaves. Quercus robur
Quercus robur
'Filicifolia' ("cut-leaved oak") is a cultivar where the leaf is pinnately divided into fine forward pointing segments.

Hybrids[edit] Along with the naturally occurring Q. × rosacea, several hybrids with other white oak species have also been produced in cultivation, including Turner's Oak
Oak
Q. × turnerii, Heritage Oak
Oak
Q. × macdanielli, and Two Worlds Oak
Oak
Q. × bimundorum, the latter two developed by nurseries in the United States.

Q. × bimundorum (Q. alba × Q. robur) (two worlds oak) Q. × macdanielli (Q. macrocarpa × Q. robur) (heritage oak) Q. × rosacea Bechst. (Q. petraea x Q. robur), a hybrid of the sessile oak and English oak. It is usually of intermediate character between its parents, however it does occasionally exhibit more pronounced characteristics of one or the other parent. Q. × turnerii Willd. (Q. ilex × Q. robur) (Turner's oak), a semi-evergreen tree of small to medium size with a rounded crown; it was originally raised at Mr. Turner's nursery, Essex, UK, in 1783. An early specimen is at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.[12] Q. × warei ( Q. robur
Q. robur
fastigiata x Q. bicolor), a hybrid between upright English oak and the swamp white oak. The selections within this hybrid include 'Long' (Regal Prince)[13] and 'Nadler' (Kindred Spirit).[14]

Diseases[edit]

Acute oak decline Powdery mildew
Powdery mildew
caused by Erysiphe alphitoides[15] Sudden oak death

Symbolism[edit] Basque Country[edit] In the Basque Country (Spain and France) the oak symbolises the traditional basque liberties. This is based on the 'tree of Gernika', an ancient oak tree located in Gernika, below which since at least the 13th century the Lords of Biscay
Lords of Biscay
first, and afterwards their successors the Kings of Castile
Kings of Castile
and the Kings of Spain
Kings of Spain
solemnly swore to uphold the charter of Biscay, which secured widespread rights to the inhabitants of Biscay. Since the 14th century, the Juntas Generales (the parliament of Biscay) gathers in a building next to the oak tree, and symbolically passes its laws under the tree as well. Nowadays, the Lehendakari
Lehendakari
(Basque prime minister) swears his oath of office under the tree. Bulgaria[edit] The national coat of arms of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
includes two crossed oak branches with fruits - as shield (escutcheon) compartment. Croatia[edit] Oak
Oak
leaves with acorns are depicted on the reverse of the Croatian 5 lipa coin, minted since 1993.[16] The pedunculate oak of the Croatian region of Slavonia
Slavonia
(considered a separate subspecies - Slavonian oak) is a regional symbol of Slavonia
Slavonia
and a national symbol of Croatia.[17] England[edit] In England, the English oak has assumed the status of a national emblem. This has its origins in the oak tree at Boscobel House, where the future King Charles II hid from his Parliamentarian pursuers in 1650 during the English Civil War; the tree has since been known as the Royal Oak. This event was celebrated nationally on 29 May as Oak Apple Day, which is continued to this day in some communities.[18] ‘The Royal Oak’ is the third most popular pub name in Britain (541 in 2007)[19] and has been the name of eight major Royal Navy
Royal Navy
warships. The naval associations are strengthened by the fact that oak was the main construction material for sailing warships. The Royal Navy
Royal Navy
was often described as ‘The Wooden Walls of Old England’[20] (a paraphrase of the Delphic Oracle) and the Navy’s official quick march is "Heart of Oak". In folklore, the Major Oak
Oak
is where Robin Hood is purportedly to have taken shelter[21]. Furthermore, the oak is the most common woodland tree in England.[22] An oak tree has been depicted on the reverse of the pound coin (the 1987 and 1992 issues) and a sprig of oak leaves and acorns is the emblem of the National Trust. Germany[edit] In Germany, the oak tree is used as a typical object and symbol in romanticism. It can be found in several paintings of Caspar David Friedrich and in "Of the life of a Good-For-Nothing" written by Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff as a symbol of the state protecting every man. In those works the oak is shown in different situations, with leaves and flowers or dead without any of its previous beauty. Those conditions are mostly symbols for the conditions Germany
Germany
is in or going through. Furthermore, the oak's stem is a symbol for Germany's strength and stability. Oak
Oak
branches were displayed on the reverse of the small coins of the old Deutsche Mark
Deutsche Mark
currency (1 through 10 Pfennigs; the 50 Pfennigs coin showed a woman planting an oak seedling), and are now also displayed on the reverse of the small German-issue Euro
Euro
currency coins (1 through 5 cents). Ireland[edit] In Ireland, at Birr Castle, an example, over 400 years old has a girth of 6.5 m. It is known as the Carroll Oak, referring to the local Chieftains, Ely O'Carroll who ruled prior to Norman occupation.[23] Romania[edit] The Romanian Rugby Union
Rugby Union
side is known as The Oaks. Chemistry[edit] Grandinin/roburin E, castalagin/vescalagin, gallic acid, monogalloyl glucose (glucogallin) and valoneic acid dilactone, monogalloyl glucose, digalloyl glucose, trigalloyl glucose, rhamnose, quercitrin and ellagic acid are phenolic compounds found in Q. robur.[24] The heartwood contains triterpene saponins.[25] See also[edit]

Trees portal

Knopper gall Oak
Oak
marble gall Gernika
Gernika
Oak

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Quercus robur.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Quercus robur

^ "The Plant
Plant
List: A Working List of All Plant
Plant
Species".  ^ Flora of North America, Quercus robur
Quercus robur
Linnaeus, 1753. English oak, pedunculate oak, chêne pédoncule ^ Flora of China, Quercus robur
Quercus robur
Linnaeus, 1753. 夏栎 xia li ^ Ducousso, A. & Bordacs, S. (2004), Pedunculate and sessile oaks - Quercus robur/Quercus petraea: Technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use (PDF), European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, p. 6  ^ "Kong Frederik den Syvendes Stiftelse paa Jægerspris". www.kongfrederik.dk. Retrieved 23 October 2017.  ^ Moström, Jerker (May 2006). "The Oak
Oak
Tree, from Peasant Torment to a Unifying Concept of Landscape Management" (PDF). The Oak
Oak
– History, Ecology Management and Planning. Linköping, Sweden: National Heritage Board of Sweden.  ^ Eniņš, Guntis (2008). 100 dižākie un svētākie, AS Lauku Avīze, p. 25. ISBN 978-9984-827-15-5 ^ White, John (1995). Forest and Woodland Trees in Britain. Oxford University Press. p. 131. ISBN 0-19-854883-4.  ^ British Oak. Niche Timbers. Accessed 19-08-2009. ^ "Quercus robur". Metrotrees.com.au. Retrieved 2012-05-02.  ^ Nina Smith (2009-12-10). "Australia's Biggest Oak
Oak
Tree". Donnybrookmail.com.au. Retrieved 2012-05-02.  ^ "Kew: Plants: Turner's Oak, Quercus x turneri". Rbgkew.org.uk. 16 October 1987. Archived from the original on 20 August 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2012.  ^ " Plant
Plant
of the Month". Buckeyegardening.com. Retrieved 2012-05-02.  ^ "''International Oak
Oak
Society Link''". Oaknames.org. Retrieved 2012-05-02.  ^ " Oak
Oak
mildew". Forestry
Forestry
Commission. 2013. Retrieved 13 April 2013.  ^ Croatian National Bank Archived 6 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. Kuna and Lipa, Coins of Croatia
Croatia
Archived 22 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine.: 5 Lipa Coin Archived 4 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. – Retrieved on 31 March 2009. ^ "Croatian National Symbols". www.kwintessential.co.uk/. Retrieved 2013-04-23.  ^ "Wiltshire - Moonraking - Oak
Oak
Apple Day". BBC. 1931-05-29. Retrieved 2012-05-02.  ^ "Real Ale and Pub News Features Archive". Solihullcamra.org.uk. 15 November 2007. Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2012.  ^ "National Maritime Museum". Nmm.ac.uk. Retrieved 2012-05-02.  ^ "The Definitive List of British Oak
Oak
Trees & Their History EHBP". English Heritage Buildings. 2018-02-16. Retrieved 2018-03-12.  ^ Smith, Steve. "The National Inventory of Woodland and Trees - England" (PDF). UK: Forestry
Forestry
Commission. Table 1. p. 52.  ^ Fifty Trees of Distinction by Prof. D.A. Webb and the Earl of Ross. Booklet, published by Birr Castle
Birr Castle
Demesne, 2000. ^ Analysis of oak tannins by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Pirjo Mämmelä, Heikki Savolainenb, Lasse Lindroosa, Juhani Kangasd and Terttu Vartiainen, Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 891, Issue 1, 1 September 2000, Pages 75-83, doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(00)00624-5 ^ Identification of triterpene saponins in Quercus robur
Quercus robur
L. and Q. petraea Liebl. Heartwood
Heartwood
by LC-ESI/MS and NMR. Arramon G, Saucier C, Colombani D and Glories Y, Phytochem Anal., November-DEcember 2002, volume 13, issue 6, pages 305-310, PMID 12494747

Flora Europaea: Quercus robur Bean, W. J. (1976). Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles 8th ed., revised. John Murray. Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. HarperCollins ISBN 0-00-220013-9. (in French) Chênes: Quercus robur

External links[edit]

Oaks from Bialowieza Forest in Poland (biggest oak cluster with the monumental sizes in Europe) English [permanent dead link] Monumental Trees, Photos and location details of large English oak trees

Latvia
Latvia
- the land of oaks Den virtuella floran - Distribution Quercus robur
Quercus robur
at the Encyclopedia of Life
Encyclopedia of Life
Quercus robur
Quercus robur
- information, genetic conservation units and related resources. European Forest Genetic Resources Programme (EUFORGEN)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q165145 APDB: 13665 ARKive: quercus-robur BioLib: 3458 EoL: 1151323 EPPO: QUERO FNA: 210001863 FoC: 210001863 GBIF: 2878688 GRIN: 30739 iNaturalist: 56133 IPNI: 296690-1 ITIS: 19405 IUCN: 63532 NCBI: 38942 PalDat: Quercus_robur Plant
Plant
List: kew-174750 PLANTS: QURO2 Tropicos: 13100004 VASCAN: 5969 WCSP: 174750

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