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The Queen of Sheba
Sheba
is a figure first mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. The tale of her visit to King Solomon
King Solomon
has undergone extensive Jewish, Islamic, and Ethiopian elaborations, and has become the subject of one of the most widespread and fertile cycles of legends in the Orient.[1][jargon]

Contents

1 Narratives

1.1 Bible 1.2 Christian 1.3 Jewish 1.4 Islam 1.5 Coptic 1.6 Ethiopian 1.7 Yoruba

2 In art

2.1 Medieval 2.2 Renaissance 2.3 Literature 2.4 Film 2.5 Music 2.6 Television

3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography

Narratives[edit] Bible[edit]

Queen of Sheba
Sheba
and Solomon, around 1280, window nowadays in Cologne Cathedral

The Queen of Sheba's visit to Solomon, Tintoretto
Tintoretto
(around 1555)

The queen of Sheba
Sheba
(מַלְכַּת־שְׁבָא‬,[2] "malkat-šəḇā" in the Hebrew Bible, βασίλισσα Σαβὰ in the Septuagint,[3] Syriac ܡܠܟܬ ܫܒܐ,[4] Ethiopic ንግሥተ፡ሳባእ፡[5]) came to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
"with a very great retinue, with camels bearing spices, and very much gold, and precious stones" ( I Kings
I Kings
10:2). "Never again came such an abundance of spices" (10:10; II Chron. 9:1–9) as those she gave to Solomon. She came "to prove him with hard questions," which Solomon
Solomon
answered to her satisfaction. They exchanged gifts, after which she returned to her land.[6][7] The use of the term ḥiddot or "riddles" ( I Kings
I Kings
10:1), an Aramaic loanword whose shape points to a sound shift no earlier than the sixth century B.C., indicates a late origin for the text.[6] Since there is no mention of the fall of Babylon
Babylon
in 539 BC, Martin Noth has held that the Book of Kings received a definitive redaction around 550 BC[8] Virtually all modern scholars agree that Sheba
Sheba
was the South Arabian kingdom of Saba, centered around the oasis of Marib, in present-day Yemen. Sheba
Sheba
was quite known in the classical world, and its country was called Arabia
Arabia
Felix.[7] Around the middle of the first millennium B.C., there were Sabaeans
Sabaeans
also in the Horn of Africa, in the area that later became the realm of Aksum.[9] There are five places in the Bible where the writer distinguishes Sheba
Sheba
(שׁבא), i. e. the Yemenite Sabaeans, from Seba (סבא), i. e. the African Sabaeans. In Ps. 72:10 they are mentioned together: "the kings of Sheba
Sheba
and Seba shall offer gifts".[10] This spelling differentiation, however, may be purely factitious; the indigenous inscriptions make no such difference, and both Yemenite and African Sabaeans
Sabaeans
are there spelt in exactly the same way.[9] The alphabetic inscriptions from South Arabia
Arabia
furnish no evidence for women rulers, but Assyrian inscriptions repeatedly mention Arab
Arab
queens in the north.[11] Queens are well attested in Arabia, though according to Kitchen, not after 690 B.C.[6] Furthermore, Sabaean tribes knew the title of mqtwyt (high official). Makada or Makueda, the personal name of the queen in Ethiopian legend, might be interpreted as a popular rendering of the title of mqtwyt.[12] This title may be derived from Ancient Egyptian m'kit (𓅖𓎡𓇌𓏏𓏛 ) "protectress, housewife".[13] The queen's visit could have been a trade mission.[7][9] Early South Arabian trade with Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
involving wood and spices transported by camels is attested in the early ninth century B.C. and may have begun as early as the tenth.[6] The ancient Sabaic Awwām Temple, known in folklore as Maḥram (the Sanctuary of) Bilqīs, was recently excavated by archaeologists, but no trace of Queen of Sheba
Sheba
has been discovered so far in the many inscriptions found there.[7] Bible
Bible
stories of the Queen of Sheba
Sheba
and the ships of Ophir served as a basis for legends about the Israelites
Israelites
traveling in the Queen of Sheba's entourage when she returned to her country to bring up her child by Solomon.[14] Christian[edit]

The Queen of Sheba, from a 15th-century manuscript now at Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Göttingen

Christian
Christian
scriptures mention a "queen of the South" (Greek: βασίλισσα νότου, Latin: Regina austri), who "came from the uttermost parts of the earth", i.e. from the extremities of the then known (Christian) world, to hear the wisdom of Solomon
Solomon
(Mt. 12:42; Lk. 11:31).[15] The mystical interpretation of the Canticles, which was felt of supplying a literal basis for the speculations of the allegorists, makes its first appearance in Origen, who wrote a voluminous commentary on the Canticles.[16] In his commentary, Origen
Origen
identified the bride of the Canticles with the "queen of the South" of the Gospels, i. e. the Queen of Sheba, who is assumed to have been Ethiopian.[17] Others have proposed either the marriage of Solomon with Pharaoh's daughter, or his marriage with an Israelitish woman, the Shulamite. The former was the favorite opinion of the mystical interpreters to the end of the 18th century; the latter has obtained since its introduction by Good (1803).[16]

The Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba, Claude Lorrain
Claude Lorrain
(1600‒1682), oil on canvas

The bride of the Canticles is assumed to have been black due to a passage in Cant. 1:5, which the Revised Standard Version
Revised Standard Version
(1952) translates as "I am very dark, but comely", as does Jerome
Jerome
(Latin: Nigra sum, sed formosa), while the New Revised Standard Version
Revised Standard Version
(1989) has "I am black and beautiful", as the Septuagint
Septuagint
(Greek: μέλαινα ἐιμί καί καλή).[18]

Solomon
Solomon
and The Queen of Sheba
Sheba
Giovanni De Min 1789–1859

One legend has it that the Queen of Sheba
Sheba
brought Solomon
Solomon
the same gifts that the Magi
Magi
later gave to Christ.[19] During the Middle Ages, Christians sometimes identified the queen of Sheba
Sheba
with the sibyl Sabba.[20] Jewish[edit] According to Josephus
Josephus
(Ant. 8:165–73), the queen of Sheba
Sheba
was the queen of Egypt
Egypt
and Ethiopia, and brought to Israel the first specimens of the balsam, which grew in the Holy Land in the historian's time.[7][21] Josephus
Josephus
(Antiquities 2.5-2.10) represents Cambyses
Cambyses
as conquering the capital of Aethiopia, and changing its name from Seba to Meroe.[22] Josephus
Josephus
affirms that the Queen of Sheba
Sheba
or Saba came from this region, and that it bore the name of Saba before it was known by that of Meroe. There seems also some affinity between the word Saba and the name or title of the kings of the Aethiopians, Sabaco.[23] The Talmud ( Bava Batra 15b) insists that it was not a woman but a kingdom of Sheba
Sheba
(based on varying interpretations of Hebrew mlkt) that came to Jerusalem, obviously intended to discredit existing stories about the relations between Solomon
Solomon
and the Queen.[1] Baba Bathra 15b: "Whoever says malkath Sheba
Sheba
( I Kings
I Kings
X, 1) means a woman is mistaken; ... it means the kingdom (מַלְכֻת) of Sheba".[24] The most elaborate account of the queen's visit to Solomon
Solomon
is given in the 8th century (?) Targum Sheni
Targum Sheni
to Esther (see: Colloquy of the Queen of Sheba). A hoopoe informed Solomon
Solomon
that the kingdom of Sheba
Sheba
was the only kingdom on earth not subject to him and that its queen was a sun worshiper. He thereupon sent it to Kitor in the land of Sheba
Sheba
with a letter attached to its wing commanding its queen to come to him as a subject. She thereupon sent him all the ships of the sea loaded with precious gifts and 6,000 youths of equal size, all born at the same hour and clothed in purple garments. They carried a letter declaring that she could arrive in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
within three years although the journey normally took seven years. When the queen arrived and came to Solomon's palace, thinking that the glass floor was a pool of water, she lifted the hem of her dress, uncovering her legs. Solomon
Solomon
informed her of her mistake and reprimanded her for her hairy legs. She asked him three (Targ. Sheni to Esther 1:3) or, according to the Midrash (Prov. ii. 6; Yalḳ. ii., § 1085, Midrash
Midrash
ha-Hefez), more riddles to test his wisdom.[1][6][7][21] A Yemenite manuscript entitled " Midrash
Midrash
ha-Hefez" (published by S. Schechter in "Folk-Lore", 1890, pp. 353 et seq.) gives nineteen riddles, most of which are found scattered through the Talmud and the Midrash, which the author of the " Midrash
Midrash
ha-Hefez" attributes to the Queen of Sheba.[25] Most of these riddles are simply Bible
Bible
questions, some not of a very edifying character. The two that are genuine riddles are: "Without movement while living, it moves when its head is cut off," and "Produced from the ground, man produces it, while its food is the fruit of the ground." The answer to the former is, "a tree, which, when its top is removed, can be made into a moving ship"; the answer to the latter is, "a wick."[26] The rabbis who denounce Solomon
Solomon
interpret I Kings
I Kings
10:13 as meaning that Solomon
Solomon
had criminal intercourse with the Queen of Sheba, the offspring of which was Nebuchadnezzar, who destroyed the Temple (comp. Rashi
Rashi
ad loc.). According to others, the sin ascribed to Solomon
Solomon
in I Kings 11:7 et seq. is only figurative: it is not meant that Solomon fell into idolatry, but that he was guilty of failing to restrain his wives from idolatrous practises (Shab. 56b).[25] The Alphabet of Sirach
Alphabet of Sirach
avers that Nebuchadnezzar
Nebuchadnezzar
was the fruit of the union between Solomon
Solomon
and the Queen of Sheba.[1] In the Kabbalah, the Queen of Sheba
Sheba
was considered one of the queens of the demons and is sometimes identified with Lilith, first in the Targum of Job
Job
(1:15), and later in the Zohar
Zohar
and the subsequent literature. A Jewish and Arab
Arab
myth maintains that the Queen was actually a jinn, half human and half demon.[27][28] In Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
folklore, the figure merged with the popular image of Helen of Troy
Helen of Troy
or the Frau Venus of German mythology. Ashkenazi incantations commonly depict the Queen of Sheba
Sheba
as a seductive dancer. Until recent generations she was popularly pictured as a snatcher of children and a demonic witch.[28] Islam[edit]

Bilqis reclining in a garden, Persian miniature (ca. 1595), tinted drawing on paper

Illustration in a Hafez
Hafez
Frontispiece Depicting Queen Sheba, Walters manuscript W.631, around 1539

In the Quran, the story is essentially similar to the Bible
Bible
and other Jewish sources.[7] Solomon
Solomon
commanded the Queen of Sheba
Sheba
to come to him as a subject, whereupon she appeared before him (XXVII, 30–31, 45). Before the queen had arrived, Solomon
Solomon
had moved her throne to his palace with the help of a wise man, who was able to move the throne faster than a Jinn. She recognized the throne, which had been disguised, and finally accepted the faith of Solomon. Muslim
Muslim
commentators such as al-Tabari, al-Zamakhshari, al-Baydawi supplement the story at various points. The Queen's name is given as Bilqīs (Arabic: بلقيس‎), probably derived from Greek παλλακίς (pallakis) or the Hebraised pilegesh, "concubine".[29] According to some he then married the Queen, while other traditions assert that he gave her in marriage to a tubba of Hamdan.[1] According to the Islamic tradition as represented by al-Hamdani, the queen of Sheba
Sheba
was the daughter of Ilsharah Yahdib, the Himyarite king of Najran.[12] The Quran
Quran
and its commentators have preserved the earliest literary reflection of the complete Bilkis legend, which among scholars complements the narrative that is derived from a Jewish Midrash.[1] Coptic[edit] The story of Solomon
Solomon
and the queen was popular among Copts, as shown by fragments of a Coptic legend preserved in a Berlin papyrus. The queen, having been subdued by deceit, gives Solomon
Solomon
a pillar on which all earthly science is inscribed. Solomon
Solomon
sends one of his demons to fetch the pillar from Ethiopia, whence it instantly arrives. In a Coptic poem, queen Yesaba of Cush asks riddles of Solomon.[30] Ethiopian[edit]

Solomon
Solomon
and the Queen of Sheba, Konrad Witz

The fullest and most significant version of the legend appears in the Kebra Nagast
Kebra Nagast
(Glory of the Kings), the Ethiopian national saga, translated from Arabic in 1322.[31][32][33] Here Menelik I is the child of Solomon
Solomon
and Makeda (the Ethiopic name of Bilkis) from whom the Ethiopian dynasty claims descent to the present day. While the Abyssinian story offers much greater detail, it omits any mention of the Queen's hairy legs or any other element that might reflect on her unfavourably.[1][34] Based on the Gospels of Matthew (12:42) and Luke (11:31), the "queen of the South" is claimed to be the queen of Ethiopia. In those times, King Solomon
King Solomon
sought merchants from all over the world, in order to buy materials for the building of the Temple. Among them was Tamrin, great merchant of Queen Makeda of Ethiopia. Having returned to Ethiopia, Tamrin told the queen of the wonderful things he had seen in Jerusalem, and of Solomon's wisdom and generosity, whereupon she decided to visit Solomon. She was warmly welcomed, given a palace for dwelling, and received great gifts every day. Solomon
Solomon
and Makeda spoke with great wisdom, and instructed by him, she converted to Judaism. Before she left, there was a great feast in the king's palace. Makeda stayed in the palace overnight, after Solomon
Solomon
had sworn that he would not do her any harm, while she swore in return that she would not steal from him. As the meals had been spicy, Makeda awoke thirsty at night, and went to drink some water, when Solomon
Solomon
appeared, reminding her of her oath. She answered: "Ignore your oath, just let me drink water." That same night, Solomon
Solomon
had a dream about the sun rising over Israel, but being mistreated and despised by the Jews, the sun moved to shine over Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Rome (i. e. the Byzantine empire). Solomon gave Makeda a ring as a token of faith, and then she left. On her way home, she gave birth to a son, whom she named Baina-leḥkem (i. e. bin al-ḥakīm, "Son of the Wise Man", later called Menilek). After the boy had grown up in Ethiopia, he went to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
carrying the ring, and was received with great honors. The king and the people tried in vain to persuade him to stay. Solomon
Solomon
gathered his nobles and announced that he would send his first-born son to Ethiopia
Ethiopia
together with their first-borns. He added that he was expecting a third son, who would marry the king of Rome's daughter and reign over Rome, so that the entire world would be ruled by David's descendants. Then Baina-leḥkem was anointed king by Zadok the high priest, and he took the name David. The first-born nobles who followed him are named, and even today some Ethiopian families claim their ancestry from them. Prior to leaving, the priests' sons had stolen the Ark of the Covenant, after their leader Azaryas had offered a sacrifice as commanded by one God's angel. With much wailing, the procession left Jerusalem
Jerusalem
on a wind cart lead and carried by the archangel Michael. Having arrived at the Red Sea, Azaryas revealed to the people that the Ark is with them. David
David
prayed to the Ark and the people rejoiced, singing, dancing, blowing horns and flutes, and beating drums. The Ark showed its miraculous powers during the crossing of the stormy Sea, and all arrived unscathed. When Solomon
Solomon
learned that the Ark had been stolen, he sent a horseman after the thieves, and even gave chase himself, but neither could catch them. Solomon
Solomon
returned to Jerusalem, and gave orders to the priests to remain silent about the theft and to place a copy of the Ark in the Temple, so that the foreign nations could not say that Israel had lost its fame.[35][36] According to some sources, Queen Makeda was part of the dynasty founded by Za Besi Angabo in 1370 B.C., with her grandfather and father being the last male rulers of the royal line. The family's intended choice to rule Aksum
Aksum
was Makeda's brother, Prince Nourad, but his early death led to her succession to the throne. She apparently ruled the Ethiopian kingdom for more than 50 years.[37] In the Ethiopian Book of Aksum, Makeda is described as establishing a new capital city at Azeba. Edward Ullendorff holds that Makeda is a corruption of Candace, the name or title of several Ethiopian queens from Meroe
Meroe
or Seba. Candace was the name of that queen of the Ethiopians whose chamberlain was converted to Christianity under the preaching of Philip the Evangelist (Acts 8:27) in 30 A.D. In the 14th century (?) Ethiopic version of the Alexander romance, Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
of Macedonia (Ethiopic Meqédon) is said to have met a queen Kandake of Nubia.[38] Historians believe that the Solomonic dynasty
Solomonic dynasty
actually began in 1270 with the emperor Yekuno Amlak, who, with the support of the Ethiopian Church, overthrew the Zagwe Dynasty, which had ruled Ethiopia
Ethiopia
since sometime during the 10th century. The link to King Solomon
King Solomon
provided a strong foundation for Ethiopian national unity. Despite the fact that the dynasty officially ended in 1769 with Emperor Iyaos, Ethiopian rulers continued to trace their connection to it, right up to the last 20th-century emperor, Haile Selassie.[34] According to one tradition, the Ethiopian Jews
Jews
(Beta Israel, "Falashas") also trace their ancestry to Menelik I, son of King Solomon
Solomon
and the Queen of Sheba.[39] An opinion that appears more historical is that the Falashas descend from those Jews
Jews
who settled in Egypt
Egypt
after the first exile, and who, upon the fall of the Persian domination (539–333 B.C.) on the borders of the Nile, penetrated into the Sudan, whence they went into the western parts of Abyssinia.[40] Yoruba[edit] Main article: Sungbo's Eredo The Yoruba Ijebu clan of Ijebu-Ode, Nigeria, claim that she was a noblewoman of theirs known as Oloye Bilikisu Sungbo, which is similar to the queen's name mentioned in the Quran. They also assert that a medieval system of walls and ditches, built sometime around the 10th century, was dedicated to her. After excavations in 1999 the archaeologist Patrick Darling was quoted as saying, "I don't want to overplay the Sheba
Sheba
theory, but it cannot be discounted... The local people believe it and that's what is important... The most cogent argument against it at the moment is the dating."[41] In art[edit]

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Medieval[edit] The treatment of Solomon
Solomon
in literature, art, and music also involves the sub-themes of the Queen of Sheba
Sheba
and the Shulammite
Shulammite
of the Song of Songs. King Solomon
King Solomon
and the Queen of Sheba
Sheba
was not a common subject until the 12th century. In Christian
Christian
iconography Solomon
Solomon
represented Jesus, and Sheba
Sheba
represented the gentile Church; hence Sheba's meeting with Solomon
Solomon
bearing rich gifts foreshadowed the adoration of the Magi. On the other hand, Sheba
Sheba
enthroned represented the coronation of the virgin.[6] Sculptures of the Queen of Sheba
Sheba
are found on great Gothic cathedrals such as Chartres, Rheims, Amiens, and Wells.[6] The 12th century cathedrals at Strasbourg, Chartres, Rochester and Canterbury include artistic renditions in stained glass windows and doorjamb decorations.[42] Likewise of Romanesque art, the enamel depiction of a black woman at Klosterneuburg Monastery.[43] The Queen of Sheba, standing in water before Solomon, is depicted on a window in King's College Chapel, Cambridge.[1] Renaissance[edit]

Florence Baptistry
Florence Baptistry
door, Lorenzo Ghiberti
Lorenzo Ghiberti
(1378‒1455), bronze relief

The reception of the queen was a popular subject during the Italian Renaissance. It appears in the bronze doors to the Florence Baptistery by Lorenzo Ghiberti, in frescoes by Benozzo Gozzoli
Benozzo Gozzoli
(Campo Santo, Pisa) and in the Raphael Loggie (Vatican). Examples of Venetian art are by Tintoretto
Tintoretto
(Prado) and Veronese (Pinacotheca, Turin). In the 17th century, Claude Lorrain
Claude Lorrain
painted The Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba
Sheba
(National Gallery, London).[6] Piero della Francesca's frescoes in Arezzo
Arezzo
(ca. 1466) on the Legend of the True Cross contain two panels on the visit of the Queen of Sheba to Solomon. The legend links the beams of Solomon's palace (adored by Queen of Sheba) to the wood of the crucifixion. The Renaissance continuation of the analogy between the Queen's visit to Solomon
Solomon
and the adoration of the Magi
Magi
is evident in the Triptych of the Adoration of the Magi
Magi
(ca. 1510) by Hieronymus Bosch.[44]

Berta Golahny with her sculpture of 'Sheba'.

Literature[edit] Boccaccio's On Famous Women
On Famous Women
(Latin: De Mulieribus Claris) follows Josephus
Josephus
in calling the Queen of Sheba
Sheba
Nicaula. Boccaccio goes on to explain that not only was she the Queen of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Egypt, but also the queen of Arabia. She also is related to have had a grand palace on "a very large island" called Meroe, located someplace near the Nile
Nile
river, "practically on the other side of the world." From there Nicaula crossed the deserts of Arabia, through Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Egypt
Egypt
and up the coast of the Red Sea, to come to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to see "the great King Solomon."[45] Christine de Pizan's The Book of the City of Ladies
The Book of the City of Ladies
continues the convention of calling the Queen of Sheba
Sheba
"Nicaula". The author praises the Queen for secular and religious wisdom and lists her besides Christian
Christian
and Hebrew prophetesses as first on a list of dignified female pagans.[citation needed] Christopher Marlowe's Doctor Faustus refers to the Queen of Sheba
Sheba
as Saba, when Mephistopheles
Mephistopheles
is trying to persuade Faustus of the wisdom of the women with whom he supposedly shall be presented every morning.[46] Gérard de Nerval's autobiographical novel, Voyage to the Orient (1851), details his travels through the Middle East with much artistic license. He recapitulates at length a tale told in a Turkish cafe of King Soliman's love of Balkis, the Queen of Saba, but she, in turn, is destined to love Adoniram (Hiram Abif), Soliman's chief craftsman of the Temple, owing to both her and Adoniram's divine genealogy. Soliman grows jealous of Adoniram, and when he learns of three craftsmen who wish to sabotage his work and later kill him, Soliman willfully ignores warnings of these plots. Adoniram is murdered and Balkis flees Soliman's kingdom.[47] Léopold Sédar Senghor's "Elégie pour la Reine de Saba," published in his Elégies majeures in 1976, uses the Queen of Sheba
Sheba
in a love poem and for a political message. In the 1970s, he used the Queen of Sheba
Sheba
fable to widen his view of Negritude and Eurafrique
Eurafrique
by including 'Arab-Berber Africa.'[48] Neil Gaiman's 2001 novel American Gods
American Gods
features a version of Sheba called Bilquis. The character is played by Yetide Badaki in the identically named television adaptation on Starz.[49][50][51] Rudyard Kipling's book Just So Stories includes the tale of "The Butterfly That Stamped." Therein, Kipling identifies Balkis, "Queen that was of Sheba
Sheba
and Sable and the Rivers of the Gold of the South" as best, and perhaps only, beloved of the 1000 wives of Suleiman-bin-Daoud, King Solomon. Explicitly ascribed great wisdom, "Balkis, almost as wise as the Most Wise Suleiman-bin-Daoud", nevertheless Kipling perhaps implies in her a greater wisdom than her husband, in that she is able to gently manipulate her husband, the afrits and djinns he commands, the other quarrelsome 999 wives of Suleimin-bin-Daoud, the butterfly of the title and the butterfly's wife, thus bringing harmony and happiness for all. Film[edit]

Betty Blythe
Betty Blythe
as the queen in The Queen of Sheba
Sheba
(1921).

Played by Gabrielle Robinne
Gabrielle Robinne
in La reine de Saba
La reine de Saba
(1913) Played by Betty Blythe
Betty Blythe
in The Queen of Sheba
Sheba
(1921) Played by France Dhélia in Le berceau de dieu (1926) Played by Dorothy Page in King Solomon
King Solomon
of Broadway (1935) Played by Leonora Ruffo
Leonora Ruffo
in The Queen of Sheba
Sheba
(1952) Played by Gina Lollobrigida
Gina Lollobrigida
in Solomon
Solomon
and Sheba
Sheba
(1959) Played by Winifred Bryan in Queen of Sheba
Sheba
Meets the Atom Man (1963) Played by Anya Phillips in Rome '78 (1978)

Music[edit]

Solomon
Solomon
(composed in 1748; first performed in 1749), oratorio by George Frideric Handel; the "Arrival of the Queen of Sheba" from this work is often performed as a concert piece La reine de Saba
La reine de Saba
(1862), opera by Charles Gounod Die Königin von Saba
Die Königin von Saba
(1875), opera by Karl Goldmark La Reine de Scheba (1926), opera by Reynaldo Hahn Belkis, Regina di Saba (1931), ballet by Ottorino Respighi Solomon
Solomon
and Balkis (1942), opera by Randall Thompson Black Beauty (1970), song by Focus Makeda (1998), French R&B by Chadian duo Les Nubians Aïcha
Aïcha
(1996), by Khaled Balqis (2000), song by Siti Nurhaliza

Television[edit]

Played by Halle Berry
Halle Berry
in Solomon
Solomon
& Sheba
Sheba
(1995) Played by Vivica A. Fox
Vivica A. Fox
in Solomon
Solomon
(1997) Played by Andrulla Blanchette in Lexx, Season 4, Episode 21: "Viva Lexx
Lexx
Vegas" (2002) Played by Amani Zain in Queen of Sheba: Behind the Myth (2002) Played by Yetide Badaki in American Gods
American Gods
(2017)[52][53]

See also[edit]

Biblical and Quranic narratives Bilocation Hadhramaut Legends of Africa Minaeans Qahtanite Qataban Tay al-Arz

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h E. Ullendorff (1991), "BILḲĪS", The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2 (2nd ed.), Brill, pp. 1219–1220  ^ Francis Brown, ed. (1906), "שְׁבָא", Hebrew and English Lexicon, Oxford University Press, p. 985a  ^ Alan England Brooke; Norman McLean; Henry John Thackeray, eds. (1930), The Old Testament in Greek (PDF), II.2, Cambridge University Press, p. 243  ^ J. Payne Smith, ed. (1903), "ܡܠܟܬܐ", A compendious Syriac dictionary, 1, Oxford University Press, p. 278a  ^ Dillmann, August (1865), "ንግሥት", Lexicon linguae Aethiopicae, Weigel, p. 687a  ^ a b c d e f g h Samuel
Samuel
Abramsky; S. David
David
Sperling; Aaron Rothkoff; Haïm Zʾew Hirschberg; Bathja Bayer (2007), "SOLOMON", Encyclopaedia Judaica, 18 (2nd ed.), Gale, pp. 755–763  ^ a b c d e f g Yosef Tobi (2007), "QUEEN OF SHEBA", Encyclopaedia Judaica, 16 (2nd ed.), Gale, p. 765  ^ John Gray (2007), "Kings, Book of", Encyclopaedia Judaica, 12 (2nd ed.), Gale, pp. 170–175  ^ a b c A. F. L. Beeston (1995), "SABAʾ", The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 8 (2nd ed.), Brill, pp. 663–665  ^ John McClintock; James Strong, eds. (1894), "Seba", Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature, 9, Harper & Brothers, pp. 495–496  ^ John Gray (2007), "SABEA", Encyclopaedia Judaica, 17 (2nd ed.), Gale, p. 631  ^ a b A. Jamme (2003), "SABA (SHEBA)", New Catholic Encyclopedia, 12 (2nd ed.), Gale, pp. 450–451  ^ E. A. Wallis Budge
E. A. Wallis Budge
(1920), "m'kit", Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary, 1, John Murray, p. 288b  ^ Haïm Zʿew Hirschberg; Hayyim J. Cohen (2007), "ARABIA", Encyclopaedia Judaica, 3 (2nd ed.), Gale, p. 295  ^ John McClintock; James Strong, eds. (1891), "Sheba", Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature, 9, Harper & Brothers, pp. 626–628  ^ a b John McClintock; James Strong, eds. (1891), "Canticles", Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature, 2, Harper & Brothers, pp. 92–98  ^ Origen
Origen
(1829), D. Caillau; D. Guillon, eds., Origenis commentaria, Collectio selecta ss. Ecclesiae Patrum, 10, Méquiqnon-Havard, p. 332  ^ Raphael Loewe; et al. (2007), "BIBLE", Encyclopaedia Judaica, 3 (2nd ed.), Gale, p. 615  ^ John McClintock; James Strong, eds. (1891), "Solomon", Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature, 9, Harper & Brothers, pp. 861–872  ^ Arnaldo Momigliano; Emilio Suarez de la Torre (2005), "SIBYLLINE ORACLES", Encyclopedia of Religion, 12 (2nd ed.), Gale, pp. 8382–8386  ^ a b Blau, Ludwig (1905), "SHEBA, QUEEN OF", Jewish Encyclopedia, 11, Funk and Wagnall, pp. 235‒236  ^ William Bodham Donne
William Bodham Donne
(1854), "AETHIOPIA", in William Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, 1, Little, Brown & Co., p. 60b  ^ William Bodham Donne
William Bodham Donne
(1857), "SABA", in William Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, 2, Murray, p. 863a‒863b  ^ Jastrow, Marcus (1903), "מַלְכׇּה", A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature, 2, Luzac, p. 791b  ^ a b Max Seligsohn; Mary W. Montgomery (1906), "SOLOMON", in Isidore Singer; et al., Jewish Encyclopedia, 11, p. 436a–448a  ^ Joseph Jacobs
Joseph Jacobs
(1906), "RIDDLE", in Isidore Singer; et al., Jewish Encyclopedia, 10, p. 408b–409a  ^ Gershom Scholem (2007), "DEMONS, DEMONOLOGY", Encyclopaedia Judaica, 5 (2nd ed.), Gale, pp. 572–578  ^ a b Susannah Heschel (2007), "LILITH", Encyclopaedia Judaica, 13 (2nd ed.), Gale, pp. 17–20  ^ Freytag, Georg (1837), "ﺑَﻠٔﻘَﻊٌ", Lexicon arabico-latinum, Schwetschke, p. 44a  ^ Leipoldt, Johannes (1909), "Geschichte der koptischen Litteratur", in Carl Brockelmann; Franz Nikolaus Finck; Johannes Leipoldt; Enno Littmann, Geschichte der christlichen Litteraturen des Orients (2nd ed.), Amelang, pp. 165–166  ^ Belcher, Wendy Laura (2010-01-01). "FROM SHEBA THEY COME Medieval Ethiopian Myth, US Newspapers, and a Modern American Narrative". Callaloo. 33 (1): 239–257.  ^ Munro-Hay, Stuart (2006-10-31). The Quest for the Ark of the Covenant: The True History of the Tablets of Moses
Moses
(New ed.). I.B.Tauris. ISBN 9781845112486.  ^ Munro-Hay, Stuart. "Abu al-Faraj and Abu al-ʽIzz". Annales d'Ethiopie. 20 (1): 23–28. doi:10.3406/ethio.2004.1067.  ^ a b Willie F. Page; R. Hunt Davis, Jr., eds. (2005), "Solomonic dynasty", Encyclopedia of African History and Culture, 2 (revised ed.), Facts on File, p. 206  ^ Littmann, Enno (1909), "Geschichte der äthiopischen Litteratur", in Carl Brockelmann; Franz Nikolaus Finck; Johannes Leipoldt; Enno Littmann, Geschichte der christlichen Litteraturen des Orients (2nd ed.), Amelang, pp. 246–249  ^ E. A. Wallis Budge
E. A. Wallis Budge
(1922), The Queen of Sheba
Sheba
& Her Only Son Menyelek, The Medici Society  ^ Willie F. Page; R. Hunt Davis, Jr., eds. (2005), "Makeda, Queen (queen of Sheba)", Encyclopedia of African History and Culture, 1 (revised ed.), Facts on File, pp. 158–159  ^ Vincent DiMarco, 'Travels in Medieval Femenye:Alexander the Great and the Amazon Queen,' in Theodor Berchem, Volker Kapp, Franz Link (eds.)Literaturwissenschaftliches Jahrbuch Duncker & Humblot, 1973 pp.47-66 pp.56-7. ^ K. Hruby; T. W. Fesuh (2003), "FALASHAS", New Catholic Encyclopedia, 5 (2nd ed.), Gale, pp. 609–610  ^ Faitlovitch, Jacques (1920), "The Falashas" (PDF), American Jewish Year Book, 22: 80–100  ^ "Archaeologists find clues to Queen of Sheba
Sheba
in Nigeria, Find May Rival Egypts's Pyramids". www.hartford-hwp.com.  ^ Byrd, Vickie, editor; Queen of Sheba: Legend and Reality, (Santa Ana, California: The Bowers Museum of Cultural Art, 2004), p. 17. ^ Nicholas of Verdun: Klosterneuburg Altarpiece, 1181; column #4/17, row #3/3. NB the accompanying subject and hexameter verse: "Regina Saba." "Vulnere dignare regina fidem Salemonis." The Warburg Institute Iconographic Database; retrieved 24 December 2013. ^ Web Gallery of Art, http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/html/b/bosch/91adorat/01tripty.html, website accessed August 2, 2006 ^ Giovanni Boccaccio, Famous Women translated by Virginia Brown 2001, p. 90; Cambridge and London, Harvard University Press; ISBN 0-674-01130-9; ^ Marlowe, Christopher; Doctor Faustus and other plays: Oxford World Classics, p. 155. ^ Gérard de Nerval. Journey to the Orient, III.3.1-12. Trans. Conrad Elphinston. Antipodes Press. 2013. ^ Spleth, Janice. The Arabic Constituents of Africanité : Senghor and the Queen of Sheba. Research in African literatures, Winter 2002, vol. 33, no 4, p. 60-75.Review on Muse ^ Jensen, Jeff (2017-04-17). "American Gods: EW review". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2017-04-17.  ^ Kosin, Julie (2017-04-30). " American Gods
American Gods
Star
Star
Yetide Badaki on Finding Bilquis and That Sex Scene". Harper's Bazaar. Retrieved 2017-05-10.  ^ " American Gods
American Gods
episode 1 review: Shadow meets Wednesday in intoxicating, blood-soaked pilot". International Business Times. 2017-04-17. Retrieved 2017-04-17.  ^ " American Gods
American Gods
mythology guide: Who is Bilquis, Queen of Sheba
Sheba
and goddess of love?". RadioTimes. Retrieved 2017-06-07.  ^ Hughes, Sarah (2017-05-08). "American Gods' Yetide Badaki: 'Why can't a black woman be a love goddess?'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-06-07. 

Bibliography[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Queen of Sheba.

Look up Queen of Sheba
Sheba
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Thaʿlabī, Qiṣaṣ ̣(1356 A.H.), 262–4 Kisāʾī, Qiṣaṣ (1356 A.H.), 285–92 G. Weil, The Bible, the Koran, and the Talmud ... (1846) G. Rosch, Die Königin von Saba
Die Königin von Saba
als Königin Bilqis (Jahrb. f. Prot. Theol., 1880) 524‒72 M. Grünbaum, Neue Beiträge zur semitischen Sagenkunde (1893) 211‒21 E. Littmann, The legend of the Queen of Sheba
Sheba
in the tradition of Axum (1904) L. Ginzberg, Legends of the Jews, 3 (1911), 411; 4 (1913), 143–9; (1928), 288–91 H. Speyer, Die biblischen Erzählungen im Qoran (1931, repr. 1961), 390–9 E. Budge, The Queen of Sheba
Sheba
and her only son Menyelek (1932) J. Ryckmans, L'Institution monarchique en Arabie méridionale avant l'Islam (1951) E. Ullendorff, Candace
Candace
(Acts VIII, 27) and the Queen of Sheba
Sheba
(New Testament Studies, 1955, 53‒6) E. Ullendorff, Hebraic-Jewish elements in Abyssinian (monophysite) Christianity (JSS, 1956, 216‒56) D. Hubbard, The literary sources of the Kebra Nagast
Kebra Nagast
(St. Andrews University Ph. D. thesis, 1956, 278‒308) La Persécution des chrétiens himyarites au sixième siècle (1956) Bulletin of American Schools of Oriental Research 143 (1956) 6–10; 145 (1957) 25–30; 151 (1958) 9–16 A. Jamme, La Paléographique sud-arabe de J. Pirenne (1957) R. Bowen, F. Albright (eds.), Archaeological Discoveries in South Arabia
Arabia
(1958) Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Bible
Bible
(1963) 2067–70 T. Tamrat, Church and State in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(1972) 1270–1527 W. Daum (ed.), Die Königin von Saba: Kunst, Legende und Archäologie zwischen Morgenland und Abendland (1988) J. Lassner, Demonizing the Queen of Sheba: Boundaries of Gender and Culture in Postbiblical Judaism and Medieval Islam (1993) M. Brooks (ed.), Kebra Nagast
Kebra Nagast
(The Glory of Kings) (1998) J. Breton, Arabia Felix from the Time of the Queen of Sheba: Eighth Century B.C. to First Century A.D. (1999) D. Crummey, Land and Society in the Christian
Christian
Kingdom of Ethiopia: From the Thirteenth to the Twentieth Century (2000) A. Gunther (ed.), Caravan Kingdoms: Yemen
Yemen
and the Ancient Incense Trade (2005)

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah

Non-related

Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinns

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar
Nebuchadnezzar
II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam (Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad
Muhammad
and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat (Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or relationship)

v t e

Important women in Islam

Generations of Adam

Hawwa

Generations of Ibrāhīm and his sons

Sarah Hājar Rebecca Rāḥīl

Generation of Mūsa

Asiya Jochebed Miriam Ṣaffūrah

Reign of Kings

Bilquis, the Queen of Sheba

House of Amram

Hannah Mariam Elizabeth

Time of Muhammad

Aminah Khadija bint Khuwaylid Mothers of the Believers Fatimah Zaynab bint Ali

Early Sufism

Rabi'a al-'Adawiyya

v t e

Solomon

Family and reputed relations

David Queen of Sheba Pharaoh's daughter Naamah Rehoboam Menelik I

Occurrences

Solomon's Temple Judgment of Solomon Solomon's Pools Solomon's shamir Solomon
Solomon
in Islam

Reputed works

Proverbs Ecclesiastes Song of Songs Book of Wisdom Odes of Solomon Key of Solomon Lesser Key of Solomon Magical Treatise of Solomon Psalms
Psalms
of Solomon Testament of Solomon Prayer of Solomon

Related articles

Solomonic column Seal of Solomon Solomon's knot United Mon

.