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Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land
(Norwegian: Dronning Maud Land)[note 1] is a c. 2.7 million-square-kilometre (1 million sq mi)[4] region of Antarctica
Antarctica
claimed as a dependent territory[5] by Norway. The territory lies between 20° west and 45° east, between the self-claimed British Antarctic Territory
British Antarctic Territory
to the west and the similarly self-claimed Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
to the east. On most maps there had been an unclaimed area between Queen Maud Land's borders of 1939 and the South Pole
South Pole
until June 12, 2015 when Norway
Norway
formally annexed that area.[6] Positioned in East Antarctica, the territory comprises about one-fifth of the total area of Antarctica. The claim is named after the Norwegian queen Maud of Wales
Maud of Wales
(1869–1938). Norwegian Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen
Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen
was the first person known to have set foot in the territory, in 1930. On 14 January 1939, the territory was claimed by Norway. From 1939 until 1945, Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
claimed New Swabia,[7] which consisted of part of Queen Maud Land. On 23 June 1961, Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land
became part of the Antarctic Treaty
Antarctic Treaty
System, making it a demilitarised zone. It is one of two Antarctic claims made by Norway, the other being Peter I Island. They are administrated by the Polar Affairs Department of the Norwegian Ministry of Justice and Public Security in Oslo. Most of the territory is covered by the Antarctic ice sheet, and a tall ice wall stretches throughout its coast. In some areas further within the ice sheet, mountain ranges breach through the ice, allowing for birds to breed and the growth of a limited flora. The region is divided into the Princess Martha Coast, Princess Astrid Coast, Princess Ragnhild Coast, Prince Harald Coast and Prince Olav Coast. The waters off the coast are called the King Haakon VII Sea. There is no permanent population, although there are 12 active research stations housing a maximum average of 40 scientists, the numbers fluctuating depending on the season. Six are occupied year-round, while the remainder are seasonal summer stations. The main aerodromes for intercontinental flights, corresponding with Cape Town, South Africa, are Troll Airfield, near the Norwegian Troll research station, and a runway at the Russian Novolazarevskaya Station.[8]

Contents

1 Geography 2 History

2.1 Early activity 2.2 Later developments

3 Legal status 4 Fauna and flora 5 Research stations 6 In Popular Culture 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links

Geography[edit]

The Drygalski Mountains, a constituent range of the Orvin Mountains

Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land
extends from the boundary with Coats Land
Coats Land
in the west to the boundary with Enderby Land
Enderby Land
in the east, and is divided into the Princess Martha Coast, Princess Astrid Coast, Princess Ragnhild Coast, Prince Harald Coast and Prince Olav Coast.[9] The territory is estimated to cover around 2,700,000 square kilometres (1,000,000 sq mi).[4] The limits of the claim, put forth in 1939, did not fix the northern and southern limits other than as "the mainland beach in Antarctica
Antarctica
... with the land that lies beyond this beach and the sea beyond".[10][note 2] The sea that extends off the coast between the longitudal limits of Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land
is generally called King Haakon VII Sea.[11][note 3] There is no ice-free land at the coast; the coast consists of a 20-to-30-metre high (70 to 100 ft) wall of ice throughout almost the entire territory.[12][13][14] It is thus only possible to disembark from a ship in a few places.[14] Some 150 to 200 kilometres (90 to 120 mi) from the coast, rocky peaks pierce the ice cap, itself at a mean height of around 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) above sea level, with the highest point at Jøkulkyrkja
Jøkulkyrkja
(3,148 metres or 10,328 feet) in the Mühlig-Hofmann Mountains.[12][13] The other major mountain ranges are the Heimefront Range, Orvin Mountains, Wohlthat Mountains and Sør Rondane Mountains.[2] Geologically, the ground of Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land
is dominated by Precambrian
Precambrian
gneiss, formed c. 1 to 1.2 Ga, before the creation of the supercontinent Gondwana. The mountains consist mostly of crystalline and granitic rocks, formed c. 500 to 600 Ma in the Pan-African orogeny
Pan-African orogeny
during the assembly of Gondwana.[15] In the farthest western parts of the territory, there are younger sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Research on the thickness of the ice has revealed that without the ice, the coast would be similar to those of Norway and Greenland, with deep fjords and islands.[12] History[edit] Early activity[edit] Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land
was the first part of Antarctica
Antarctica
to be sighted, on 27 January 1820 by Fabian von Bellingshausen. It was however among the last to be explored, as it required aircraft in combination with ships to undertake systematic exploration.[2] Early Norwegian research activities in Antarctica
Antarctica
rested entirely on whaling and sealing expeditions funded by ship owners, particularly by Christen Christensen and his son Lars. The first two Norwegian expeditions were carried out by sealing ships in 1892–93 and 1893–94. While they were primarily sent for exploring, sealing, and whaling possibilities, they also performed scientific research.[16] Further Norwegian expeditions were mounted into the first decades of the 20th century.[17] The Antarctic Plateau
Antarctic Plateau
was claimed for Norway
Norway
by Roald Amundsen
Roald Amundsen
as the King Haakon VII Plateau when his expedition was the first to reach South Pole
South Pole
on 14 December 1911. It was mapped as a circular territory comprising the plateau around the South Pole, including all the land above latitude 85°S. However, roughly the same area had been claimed by the British as the King Edward VII Plateau, which was in conflict with the Norwegian claim. Amundsen's claim has never been officially claimed by the Norwegian government.[18][19][20]

Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen, aviator and polar explorer who explored much of Queen Maud Land.

The name Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land
was initially applied in January 1930 to the land between 37°E and 49°30′E discovered by Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen and Finn Lützow-Holm
Finn Lützow-Holm
during Lars Christensen's Norvegia expedition of 1929–30.[2][12] It was named after the Norwegian queen Maud of Wales, wife of the then-reigning King Haakon VII.[13] The territory was explored further during the Norvegia expedition of 1930–31.[12] During this whaling season, a total of 265 whaling ships, mostly Norwegian, worked off the coast of Queen Maud Land.[1] In the same season, Riiser-Larsen discovered the Prince Olav Coast, Princess Martha Coast and Princess Ragnhild Coast from the air. Captain H. Halvorsen of the whaler Sevilla discovered the Princess Astrid Coast independently at the same time. Six years later, during Christensen's expedition of 1936–37, Viggo Widerøe
Viggo Widerøe
flew over and discovered the Prince Harald Coast.[2] Negotiations with the British government in 1938 resulted in the western border of Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land
being set at 20°W.[12] Norway's claim was disputed by Germany,[7] which in 1938 dispatched the German Antarctic Expedition, led by Alfred Ritscher, to fly over as much of it as possible.[2][12] The ship Schwabenland reached the pack ice off Antarctica
Antarctica
on 19 January 1939.[21] During the expedition, an area of about 350,000 square kilometres (140,000 sq mi) was photographed from the air by Ritscher,[22] who dropped darts inscribed with swastikas every 26 kilometres (16 mi). Germany eventually attempted to claim the territory surveyed by Ritscher under the name New Swabia,[2] but lost any claim to the land following its defeat in the Second World War.[7][note 4] On 14 January 1939, five days prior to the German arrival, Queen Maud Land was annexed by Norway, [13] by royal decree:[12]

That part of the mainland coast in the Antarctic extending from the limits of the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
Dependencies in the west (the boundary of Coats Land) to the limits of the Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
in the east (45° east long.), with the land lying within this coast and the environing sea, shall be brought under Norwegian sovereignty. — Norwegian royal resolution, 14 January 1939.[23]

The primary bases for the annexation were the Norwegian explorations and the need to secure the Norwegian whaling industry's access to the region.[13][24] Scientific operations were also a basis, with Norwegian contributions to international polar science extending back to the late 19th century.[13] Norway
Norway
was in addition forced to contend with competing claims made by the United Kingdom and other countries in the years prior to the Norwegian claim, including the new threat of German claims in Queen Maud Land.[24] The Norwegian claim was sometimes referred to as the "Bouvet sector", drawing from the previously annexed Bouvet Island.[7] During 1946 and 1947, vast areas of Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land
were photographed during the Richard Evelyn Byrd expedition. In 1948, Norway
Norway
and the United Kingdom agreed to limit Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land
to longitudes from 20°W to 45°E, and that the Bruce Coast and Coats Land
Coats Land
were to be incorporated into Norwegian territory.[12] Later developments[edit]

Lake Untersee in Queen Maud Land. View from NW to Mt. Bastei.

The Norwegian–British–Swedish Antarctic Expedition of 1949–52 was the first international scientific expedition in Antarctica. The expedition established its winter quarters at a base called Maudheim at 71°S, 11°W, and mapped much of western Queen Maud Land.[25][26] During the International Geophysical Year
International Geophysical Year
(1957–1958), year-round stations were established in Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land
by Norway, the Soviet Union, Belgium and Japan. The Norwegian expedition continued with topographical mapping, while the others started geophysical and geological research. Norway's Norway
Norway
Station was lent to South Africa following the withdrawal of the Norwegian expedition in 1960. South Africa later built the SANAE
SANAE
station, near the now-defunct Norway Station. The Soviet Union, and later Russia, has maintained continual operations, although it moved from Lazarev Station to Novolazarevskaya Station. Japan has been based at its Showa Station since 1957, except for a hiatus of a few years. Belgium closed its Roi Baudouin station in 1961, though it mounted limited operations in cooperation with the Netherlands in 1964–66. The United States established the temporary Plateau Station
Plateau Station
in 1966.[12] In 1948, the newly created Norwegian Polar Institute
Norwegian Polar Institute
was assigned the administration of Norwegian territories in the Arctic
Arctic
and Antarctic, including Queen Maud Land.[17] Norway
Norway
sent two major expeditions to the territory in the 1940s and 1950s, but its efforts declined after that.[13] On 21 June 1957, Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land
became subject to Norwegian sovereignty as a dependency (biland),[5] and the Antarctic Treaty officially came into force on 23 June 1961.[27] Norwegian activity during the 1960s was limited to some minor co-expeditions with the United States, until it gradually picked up again following a larger expedition to western Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land
and the eastern Weddell Sea
Weddell Sea
by the Norwegian Polar Institute
Norwegian Polar Institute
in 1976–77.[12][13] Founded in 1978,[28] the Polar Affairs Department of the Norwegian Ministry of Justice and the Police, headquartered in Oslo, has been assigned the administration of the Norwegian polar areas including Queen Maud Land.[29] Since 1979, the Norwegian Polar Institute
Norwegian Polar Institute
has been a directorate under the Ministry of the Environment.[30]

Norway's main research station, Troll, in Queen Maud Land.

In 1992, an expedition by Ivar Tollefsen made the first ascents of several mountains, including the tallest, Jøkulkyrkja.[12] Norway established the summer station Troll in 1989–90.[12][13] In 2003, Minister of the Environment Børge Brende
Børge Brende
was the first Norwegian minister to visit Queen Maud Land, and he soon allocated funds to expand the Troll station.[31] Troll was upgraded to a year-round station in 2005[12][13] as part of the centenary of Norway's independence.[31] Among the guests were Minister of Foreign Affairs Jan Petersen
Jan Petersen
and Minister of the Environment Knut Arild Hareide,[31] and Troll was officially opened by Queen Sonja of Norway, the first queen to ever visit Antarctica.[8][32] In 2008, Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg, accompanied by forty officials, scientists and reporters, became the first Norwegian prime minister to visit Queen Maud Land. He personally named three mountains around the Troll station where he was based, although he chose to sleep outdoors in a tent, rather than in a bed inside. He said the purposes of the visit were to claim Norway's possessions in Antarctica, as well as to learn more about the climate research at Troll, which he said was key to better understanding of global climate change.[8][32] In 2015, King Harald V became the world's first reigning monarch to visit Antarctica
Antarctica
when he went to Queen Maud Land.[33] Legal status[edit]

The locations of Norway
Norway
(yellowish white) and Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land
(red stripes). This map in Winkel tripel projection distorts sizes; Antarctica
Antarctica
is much smaller than it appears here.

Like all other territorial claims in Antarctica, the Norwegian claim of Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land
(along with its claim of Peter I Island) is subject to the Antarctic Treaty
Antarctic Treaty
System. The treaty makes clear that Antarctica can only be used for peaceful purposes and assures the freedom of scientific activity. It promotes international scientific cooperation and bans any nuclear-related activities. Although territorial claims are not invalidated by the treaty, all claims under Article III of the treaty are in effect suspended as long as it is in force.[30][34][35] Norway, Australia, France, New Zealand and the United Kingdom have all mutually recognised each other's claims in Antarctica.[36] But there is a question on the actual boundaries of the claim, since the initial Norwegian demarcations both towards the South Pole
South Pole
and into the sea were left unclear. Apparently this was to avoid accepting use of the "sector principle" for Arctic
Arctic
Ocean claims by the Soviet Union.[37] Norwegian administration of Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land
is controlled by the Polar Affairs Department of the Ministry of Justice and the Police, located in Oslo.[38] The annexation of the territory is regulated by the Dependency Act of 24 March 1933; Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land
was added on 21 June 1957. It establishes that Norwegian criminal law, private law and procedural law applies to the territory, in addition to other laws that explicitly state they are valid in the territory. Furthermore, it establishes that all the land belongs to the state, and prohibits both nuclear detonations and the storage of nuclear waste.[39] Since 5 May 1995, Norwegian law has required all Norwegian activity in Antarctica
Antarctica
to follow international environmental law for Antarctica. Norwegian citizens who plan activities in Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land
must therefore report to the Norwegian Polar Institute, which may prohibit any non-compliant activity. Those who visit Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land
must follow laws regarding protection of nature, treatment of waste, pollution and insurance for search and rescue operations.[40]

Fauna and flora[edit]

The snow petrel is one of the species of birds found in Queen Maud Land.

There are three types of birds around Troll: the Antarctic petrel, the snow petrel and the south polar skua. The Antarctic petrel
Antarctic petrel
lives on the sea ice for most of the year, with the exception of its breeding season (in Antarctica, from November to February), when it moves to the inland mountains and nunataks.[41] The 3.9-square-kilometre (1.5 sq mi) area of ice-free cliffs in Princess Astrid Coast called Svarthamaren Mountain
Svarthamaren Mountain
hosts Antarctica's largest known inland colony of breeding seabirds, almost 1 million (250,000 pairs) Antarctic petrels.[13][41] Many snow petrels and south polar skuas also breed in this area. Snow petrels are generally spread out in smaller colonies throughout the mountainous areas of Queen Maud Land. During the breeding season, the south polar skua feeds exclusively upon the eggs, as well as both young and adult birds, of both petrel species.[41] The emperor penguin has some of its breeding places concentrated in Queen Maud Land.[42] All four of the true Antarctic seals, namely the Weddell seal, leopard seal, crabeater seal and Ross seal, can be found in the King Haakon VII Sea
King Haakon VII Sea
off Queen Maud Land.[43][44] The Ross seal is notably found in its greatest numbers in the King Haakon VII Sea.[45] The nunatak areas have a scarcity of flora, limited to lichen, bryophyte and algae. Flowering plants are not found there. The Norwegian Polar Institute
Norwegian Polar Institute
has not registered the occurrence of any threatened or rare plants or animals in Queen Maud Land, the known ones thus existing in healthy populations.[43] Research stations[edit] Further information: Research stations in Antarctica
Antarctica
and Research stations in Queen Maud Land

SANAE
SANAE
IV station

Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land
is currently home to 12 research stations: the Norwegian Troll and Tor stations; Russia's Novolazarevskaya Station; South Africa's SANAE
SANAE
IV; the Swedish Wasa; the Finnish Aboa; the German Neumayer-Station III
Neumayer-Station III
and Kohnen; Indias Maitri
Maitri
station; the Japanese Showa Station and Dome Fuji Station; and Belgium's Princess Elisabeth Base. These stations are connected by the Dronning Maud Land Air Network Project (DROMLAN), which is a cooperative agreement for transportation between eleven nations with research stations in East Antarctica. Long-range aircraft fly between Cape Town, South Africa
South Africa
and either the Troll Airfield, located at the Troll research station, or the runway at the Novolazarevskaya Station. From these two main airfields, smaller aircraft may fly further to other Antarctic destinations.[8] Norway's Troll station serves as a major hub of the DROMLAN network through the Troll Airfield.[8] Research at Troll include air and atmospheric measurements,[46] monitoring of greenhouse gases and bird colonies, as well as meteorological and climate research.[31] The other Norwegian station, Tor, was established for researching birds at the breeding colony in Svarthamaren Mountain.[41] Activities conducted by Russia's Novolazarevskaya Station
Novolazarevskaya Station
include environmental monitoring, geodesy/mapping, geomagnetic and meteorological observations, glaciology, biology, ionospheric / auroral observations, limnology, geology, geophysics and seismology.[47]

Charnockitic rock needle, northern Holtedahlfjella, Queen Maud Land, aerial photograph in SSE direction.

South Africa's SANAE
SANAE
IV station, the successor to three former stations, was completed in 1997. Research at SANAE
SANAE
IV include invasion biology/ecology, geology, geomorphology and atmospheric sciences. Its facilities include a small hospital and a two-helicopter hangar.[48] The Swedish Wasa station and the Finnish Aboa station together make up the Nordenskiöld Base, and cooperate in research and logistics. Research carried out includes geodesy/mapping, glaciology, human biology, meteorological observations, geology and geophysics.[49] The German Neumayer-Station III, finished in 2009, succeeded two former stations that were buried by snow and ice.[1] It conducts geophysical, meteorological and seismological research, as well as air chemistry measurements and atmospheric ozone monitoring.[50] Germany's other station, Kohnen, was opened as part of a major ice-drilling project.[51] The Maitri
Maitri
station succeeded the Dakshin Gangotri
Dakshin Gangotri
station in 1989, India's first Antarctic base.[52] Maitri's research focus on geology, and the study of the supercontinent Gondwana, when India and Antarctica
Antarctica
belonged to the same landmass. It also includes low-temperature engineering research that is relevant to conditions in the Himalayas.[53] The Showa Station is Japan's main research station in Antarctica. A vast array of research is conducted there, including upper atmosphere physics, meteorology, seismology, gravimetry, geodesy/mapping, oceanography, glaciology, geology, marine and terrestrial biology, and medical research.[54] Japan's other station, Dome Fuji Station
Dome Fuji Station
was opened as part of a major ice-coring project.[2] It mainly studies climate change and conducts deep drilling and atmospheric observations.[55] Belgium's Princess Elisabeth Base
Princess Elisabeth Base
was established as a project to promote polar sciences, as well as to demonstrate the possibility of building a zero emission station.[56] Research is conducted by an international team of scientists, studying climatology, glaciology and microbiology.[57] In Popular Culture[edit] In 1996, the Irish band The Fat Lady Sings release a single entitled 'Dronning Maud Land' which reached number 6 in the Irish Singles chart and number 20 in the US Modern Rock chart. See also[edit]

Institut Geologii Arktiki Rocks Queen Maud Mountains New Swabia Zapadnoye Lake

Notes[edit]

^ The Norwegian name, Dronning Maud Land, is also used by English speakers.[1][2] This derives from a 1974 agreement between Norway
Norway
and the United Kingdom, in which it was agreed to not translate the place names in each other's respective claims. Informal corresponding agreements are also in effect with Australia, New Zealand and France.[3] ^ At the time of the claim, Norway
Norway
did not validate the sector method of demarcating polar territory. This was in line with Norwegian claims in the Arctic
Arctic
and hence to avoid compromising Norway's position with regard to the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and present-day Russia. In the 2015 White Paper No. 32 (2014–2015) "Norwegian Interests and Policy in Antarctica" the Foreign Ministry confirmed that while Norway
Norway
rejected the sector method of delimiting claims it was not intended create a difference in interpreation of the Norwegian claim in the Antarctica; White Paper No. 19 (1939) had stated that the purpose of the annexation was to annex "land which is currently terra nullius and that only Norwegians have researched and mapped". ^ Russian cartographers however interpose three marginal seas along the coast, namely the Lazarev Sea, Riiser-Larsen Sea
Riiser-Larsen Sea
and the Cosmonaut Sea.[11] ^ Although some, notably Norwegian writer Bjarne Aagaard and German geographer Ernst Herrmann, have claimed that Germany never actually occupied the territory, it is well documented that Germany issued a decree about the establishment of a German Antarctic Sector called New Swabia after the expedition's return in August 1939.[7]

References[edit]

^ a b c Rubin, 2008, p. 304. ^ a b c d e f g h Mills, 2003, p. 540. ^ Ørvoll, Oddveig Øien. "Kartlegginga av Antarktis: Internasjonale avtaler" (in Norwegian). Norwegian Polar Institute. Retrieved 15 July 2011.  ^ a b "Minifacts about Norway
Norway
2011: 2. Geography, climate and environment". Statistics Norway. 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2011.  ^ a b "Forutsetninger for Antarktistraktaten: Dronning Maud Lands statsrettslige stilling – "utviklingen" frem til 1957". Norsk Polarhistorie (in Norwegian). Retrieved 15 May 2011.  ^ Rapp, Ole Magnus (21 September 2015). "Norge utvider Dronning Maud Land helt frem til Sydpolen". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). Oslo, Norway: Aftenposten. Retrieved 22 September 2015. …formålet med anneksjonen var å legge under seg det landet som til nå ligger herreløst og som ingen andre enn nordmenn har kartlagt og gransket. Norske myndigheter har derfor ikke motsatt seg at noen tolker det norske kravet slik at det går helt opp til og inkluderer polpunktet.  ^ a b c d e Widerøe, Turi (2008). "Annekteringen av Dronning Maud Land". Norsk Polarhistorie (in Norwegian). Retrieved 15 July 2011.  ^ a b c d e Rubin, 2008, p. 305. ^ "Queen Maud Land". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 25 April 2011.  ^ White Paper No. 32 (2014–2015) "Norwegian Interests and Policy in Antarctica" ^ a b Stonehouse, pp. 155–156. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Gjeldsvik, Tore. "Dronning Maud Land". Store norske leksikon
Store norske leksikon
(in Norwegian). Retrieved 9 May 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Dronning Maud Land" (in Norwegian). Norwegian Polar Institute. Retrieved 10 May 2011.  ^ a b Shirihai, Hadoram; Cox, John (2008). The complete guide to Antarctic wildlife: birds and marine mammals of the Antarctic continent and the Southern Ocean. Princeton University. p. 517.  ^ Elvevold, Synnøve (2005). "Geologi i Antarktis" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Norwegian Polar Institute. Retrieved 18 July 2011.  ^ Heldal, 2011, p. 10. ^ a b Heldal, 2011, p. 11. ^ Joyner, 1992, p. 47. ^ Hatherton, Trevor (1965). Antarctica. Taylor & Francis. The New Zealand Antarctic Society. p. 21.  ^ "1911:". Norsk Polarhistorie (in Norwegian). Retrieved 11 July 2011.  ^ Murphy, 2002, p. 192. ^ Murphy, 2002, p. 204. ^ Hince, Bernadette (2000). The Antarctic dictionary: a complete guide to Antarctic English. CSIRO. ISBN 978-0-9577471-1-1.  ^ a b "Forutsetninger for Antarktistraktaten". Norsk Polarhistorie (in Norwegian). Retrieved 15 May 2011.  ^ Molle, Kris (2 December 2010). "Maudheim". Polar Conservation Organisation. Retrieved 22 July 2011.  ^ "Maudheim-ekspedisjonen (NBSX)". Norsk Polarhistorie (in Norwegian). Retrieved 22 July 2011.  ^ "Forutsetninger for Antarktistraktaten: Antarktistraktaten". Norsk Polarhistorie (in Norwegian). Retrieved 15 May 2011.  ^ "Polar Affairs Department". Norwegian Social Science Data Services. Retrieved 12 July 2011.  ^ "Polar Affairs Department". Norwegian Ministry of Justice and the Police. Retrieved 12 July 2011.  ^ a b Molle, Kris (29 October 2010). " Norway
Norway
and Antarctica". Polar Conservation Organisation. Retrieved 22 July 2011.  ^ a b c d Jaklin, G. S. (2005). "Norge: Året rundt i Antarktis" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Norwegian Polar Institute. Retrieved 18 July 2011.  ^ a b Jenssen, Elin Vinje (22 January 2008). "Stoltenberg named mountains in Antarctica". Norwegian Polar Institute. Retrieved 15 May 2011.  ^ "King Harald visits Antarctic namesake". The Local. 11 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.  "Sun shines for king in Antarctica". newsinenglish.no. 11 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.  "King Harald begins Antarctic visit". The Norway
Norway
Post. NRK/Aftenposten. 11 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.  ^ "Antarktistraktaten" (in Norwegian). Norwegian Polar Institute. Retrieved 18 July 2011.  ^ The Antarctic Treaty ^ National Research Council (U.S.) Polar Research Board (1986). Antarctic treaty system: an assessment. National Academies Press. p. 370. ISBN 978-0-309-03640-5.  ^ Antarctica
Antarctica
and the Law of the Sea ^ "Polar Affairs Department". Norwegian Ministry of the Environment. Retrieved 18 July 2011.  ^ "Lov om Bouvet-øya, Peter I's øy og Dronning Maud Land m.m. (bilandsloven)." Lovdata (in Norwegian). 13 July 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2011.  ^ "Antarktis". Norwegian Ministry of the Environment. Retrieved 19 May 2010.  ^ a b c d Strøm, Hallvard. "Faktaark: Sjøfuglene i Antarktis" (in Norwegian). Norwegian Polar Institute. Retrieved 11 July 2011.  ^ Rubin, 2008, p. 120. ^ a b "Dronning Maud Land" (in Norwegian). Miljøstatus i Norge. 6 September 2010. Retrieved 15 July 2011.  ^ Joyner, 1992, p. 26. ^ Stone, David (1995). Seals. International Union for Conservation of Nature. p. 19. ISBN 978-2-8317-0049-6.  ^ "Antarktis: Troll får nye krefter". Norwegian Institute for Air Research. Archived from the original on 4 October 2010. Retrieved 4 October 2010.  ^ Molle, Kris (2 December 2010). "Novolazarevskaya". Polar Conservation Organisation. Retrieved 21 August 2011.  ^ Rubin, 2008, pp. 304–305. ^ Molle, Kris (2 November 2010). "Aboa". Polar Conservation Organisation. Retrieved 21 August 2011.  ^ Molle, Kris (2 December 2010). "Neumayer". Polar Conservation Organisation. Retrieved 21 August 2011.  ^ Mills, 2003, p. 259. ^ Rubin, 2008, p. 306. ^ McGonigal, 2009, p. 110. ^ "Syowa". Polar Conservation Organisation. 3 November 2010. Retrieved 21 August 2011.  ^ Molle, Kris (3 November 2010). "Dome Fuji". Polar Conservation Organisation. Retrieved 21 August 2011.  ^ "Princess Elisabeth Antarctica". Princess Elisabeth Antarctica. Retrieved 21 August 2011.  ^ Molle, Kris (2 November 2010). "Princess Elisabeth". Polar Conservation Organisation. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 

Bibliography[edit]

Heldal, Tom (2011). Abstracts and Proceedings of the Geological Society of Norway: Vinterkonferansen 2011 (PDF). Stavanger: Geological Society of Norway. ISBN 978-82-92394-62-5.  Joyner, Christopher C. (1992). Antarctica
Antarctica
and the law of the sea. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7923-1823-1.  McGonigal, David (2009). Antarctica: Secrets of the Southern Continent. frances lincoln ltd. ISBN 978-0-7112-2980-8.  Mills, William James (2003). Exploring Polar frontiers: A – L., Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-422-0.  Murphy, David Thomas (2002). German exploration of the polar world: a history, 1870–1940. University of Nebraska. ISBN 978-0-8032-3205-1.  Rubin, Jeff (2008). Antarctica. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-549-9.  Stonehouse, Bernard (2002). Encyclopedia of Antarctica
Antarctica
and the southern oceans. John Wiley and Son. ISBN 978-0-471-98665-2. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dronning Maud Land.

Norwegian Polar Institute Polar Affairs Department

v t e

Territories of Antarctica

Territorial claims

Adélie Land
Adélie Land
(France) Argentine Antarctica Australian Antarctic Territory British Antarctic Territory Chilean Antarctic Territory Peter I Island
Peter I Island
(Norway) Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land
(Norway) Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(New Zealand)

Other territories

Brazilian Antarctica
Antarctica
(zone of Interest) Marie Byrd Land
Marie Byrd Land
(unclaimed) Uruguayan Antarctica
Antarctica
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Former territories

New Swabia
New Swabia
(Germany) Yamato Yukihara
Yamato Yukihara
(Japan)

v t e

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Integral territories

Svalbard Jan Mayen

Dependent territories

Bouvet Island Peter I Island Queen Maud Land

v t e

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Territories under European sovereignty but closer to or on continents other than Europe
Europe
(see inclusion criteria for further information).

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Greenland

France

Clipperton Island French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern and Antarctic Lands

Adélie Land Crozet Islands Île Amsterdam Île Saint-Paul Kerguelen Islands Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean

Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte New Caledonia Réunion Saint Barthélemy Saint Martin Saint Pierre and Miquelon Wallis and Futuna

Italy

Pantelleria Pelagie Islands

Lampedusa Lampione Linosa

Netherlands

Aruba Caribbean Netherlands

Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius

Curaçao Sint Maarten

Norway

Bouvet Island Peter I Island Queen Maud Land

Portugal

Azores Madeira

Spain

Canary Islands Ceuta Melilla Plazas de soberanía

Chafarinas Islands Alhucemas Islands Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera

United Kingdom

Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic Territory British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Montserrat Pitcairn Islands Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands

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Antarctica

General

Antarctic Treaty
Antarctic Treaty
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Geographic regions

Antarctic Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Ecozone Extreme points Floristic Kingdom Islands

Waterways

Lake Vostok List of rivers McMurdo Sound Ross Sea Southern Ocean Weddell Sea Lake CECs

Famous explorers

Roald Amundsen Richard E. Byrd Douglas Mawson James Clark Ross Robert Falcon Scott Ernest Shackleton more...

Category Commons Antarctica
Antarctica
portal Index

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 134765552 LCCN: n90685

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