The QUECHUA PEOPLE are the indigenous peoples of
The Quechua word for a Quechua speaker is runa or nuna ("person"); the plural is runakuna or nunakuna ("people").
Some historical Quechua peoples are:
Chanka people , who lived in the Huancavelica , Ayacucho , and
Apurímac regions of Peru.
Huanca people of the
Junín Region of Peru, who spoke Quechua
before the Incas did.
* 1 Historical and sociopolitical background * 2 Material culture and social history * 3 Examples of recent persecution of Quechuas * 4 Mythology * 5 Contribution in Modern Medicine * 6 Traditional clothing
* 7 Further reading on Quechua-speaking ethnic groups
* 8 Gallery * 9 Notable people * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 External links
HISTORICAL AND SOCIOPOLITICAL BACKGROUND
The speakers of Quechua, who total some 4.4 million people in Peru,
1.6 million in Bolivia, 2.2 million in
Quechua became Peru’s second official language in 1969 under the
military regime of
Juan Velasco Alvarado
MATERIAL CULTURE AND SOCIAL HISTORY
Quechua woman with llamas (
Despite their ethnic diversity and linguistic distinctions, the
various Quechua ethnic groups have numerous cultural characteristics
in common. They also share many of these with the Aymara , or other
indigenous peoples of the central
Traditionally, Quechua identity is locally oriented and inseparably linked in each case with the established economic system. It is based on agriculture in the lower altitude regions, and on pastoral farming in the higher regions of the Puna . The typical Andean community extends over several altitude ranges and thus includes the cultivation of a variety of arable crops and/or livestock. The land is usually owned by the local community (ayllu ) and is either cultivated jointly or redistributed annually.
Beginning with the colonial era and intensifying after the South
American states had gained their independence, large landowners
appropriated all or most of the land and forced the native population
into bondage (known in
Some indigenous farmers re-occupied their ancestors' lands and
expelled the hacendados during the takeover of governments by
reform-minded juntas in the middle of the 20th century, such as in
The struggle for land rights continues up to the present time to be a
political focal point of everyday Quechua life. The
A distinction is made between two primary types of joint work. In the case of mink\'a , people work together for projects of common interest (such as the construction of communal facilities). Ayni is, in contrast, reciprocal assistance, whereby members of an ayllu help a family to accomplish a large private project, for example house construction, and in turn can expect to be similarly helped later with a project of their own.
In almost all Quechua ethnic groups, many traditional handicrafts are
an important aspect of material culture . This includes a tradition of
weaving handed down from
The disintegration of the traditional economy, for example,
regionally through mining activities and accompanying proletarian
social structures, has usually led to a loss of both ethnic identity
and the Quechua language. This is also a result of steady migration to
large cities (especially to
EXAMPLES OF RECENT PERSECUTION OF QUECHUAS
Hilaria Supa , human rights activist and Peruvian politician
Up to the present time Quechuas continue to be victims of political conflicts and ethnic persecution. In the Peruvian civil war of the 1980s between the government and Sendero Luminoso about three quarters of the estimated 70,000 death toll were Quechuas, whereas the war parties were without exception whites and mestizos (people with mixed descent from both natives and Spaniards).
The forced sterilization policy under Alberto Fujimori affected almost exclusively Quechua and Aymara women, a total exceeding 200,000. The Bolivian film director Jorge Sanjines dealt with the issue of forced sterilization in 1969 in his Quechua language feature film Yawar Mallku .
Perceived ethnic discrimination continues to play a role at the
parliamentary level. When the newly elected Peruvian members of
Hilaria Supa Huamán and
María Sumire swore their oath of
office in Quechua—for the first time in the history of
Practically all Quechuas in the
The Quechuas came to terms with their repeated historical experience of tragedy in the form of various myths. These include the figure of Nak'aq or Pishtaco (“butcher”), the white murderer who sucks out the fat from the bodies of the indigenous peoples he kills, and a song about a bloody river. In their myth of Wiraquchapampa the Q'ero Indians describe the victory of the Apus over the Spaniards. Of the myths still alive today, the Inkarrí myth common in southern Peru is especially interesting; it forms a cultural element linking the Quechua Indians throughout the region from Ayacucho to Cusco.
CONTRIBUTION IN MODERN MEDICINE
Quinine , which is found naturally in bark of cinchona tree, is known to be used by Quechuas people for malaria -like symptoms.
When chewed, coca acts as a mild stimulant and suppresses hunger, thirst, pain, and fatigue; it is also used to alleviate altitude sickness .
Many indigenous women wear the colorful traditional costume, complete with bowler style hat . The hat has been worn by Quechua and Aymara women since the 1920s, when it was brought to the country by British railway workers. They are still commonly worn today.
The traditional dress worn by Quechua women today is a mixture of styles from Pre-Spanish days and Spanish Colonial peasant dress. Younger Quechua men generally wear Western-style clothing, the most popular being synthetic football shirts and tracksuit pants. In certain regions, women also generally wear Western-style clothing. Older men still wear dark wool knee-length handwoven bayeta pants . A woven belt called a chumpi is also worn which provides protection to the lower back when working in the fields. Men's fine dress includes a woollen waistcoat, similar to a sleeveless juyuna as worn by the women but referred to as a chaleco. Chalecos can be richly decorated.
The most distinctive part of men's clothing is the handwoven poncho . Nearly every Quechua man and boy has a poncho, generally red in colour decorated with intricate designs. Each district has a distinctive pattern. In some communities such as Huilloc, Patacancha, and many villages in the Lares Valley ponchos are worn as daily attire. However most men use their ponchos on special occasions such as festivals, village meetings, weddings etc.
As with the women, ajotas , sandals made from recycled tyres, are the standard footwear. They are cheap and durable.
A ch\'ullu is frequently worn. This is a knitted hat with earflaps.
The first ch'ullu that a child receives is traditionally knitted by
his father. In the
FURTHER READING ON QUECHUA-SPEAKING ETHNIC GROUPS
The following list of Quechua ethnic groups is only a selection and delimitations vary. In some cases these are village communities of just a few hundred people, in other cases ethnic groups of over a million.
* Quechuas Lamistas * Southern Pastaza Quechua
* Kolla * Kallawaya
* * *
Magaly Solier , actress
Túpac Amaru II , revolutionary
Manco Cápac , Sapa Inca
Ollanta Humala , President of Perù
* Q\'orianka Kilcher , actress
* Anthropology portal * Latin America portal
* ^ 2001 INEC census
* ^ "Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas 2010:
Resultados definitivos: Serie B No 2: Tomo 1" (PDF) (in Spanish).
INDEC. p. 281. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
* ^ CUNAN CRISTO JESUS BENDICIAN HCJB: "El Pueblo Quichua".
* ^ Consejo Educativo de la Nación Quechua: Quienes somos, Consejo
Educativo de la Nación Quechua / Qhichwa Suyu Yachachiymanta Umalliq:
Currículo Regionalizado de la Nación Quechua, Sucre 2012
* ^ Orin Starn: Villagers at Arms: War and Counterrevolution in the
Central-South Andes. In Steve Stern (ed.): Shining and Other Paths:
War and Society in Peru, 1980–1995. Duke University Press, Durham
und London, 1998, ISBN 0-8223-2217-X
* ^ Mass sterilisation scandal shocks Peru, 24 July 2002, BBC News,
* ^ Perú: Congresista quechua Maria Sumire sufrió presiones para
juramentar en español. http://www.servindi.org/archivo/2006/927
* ^ Congresistas indígenas sesionarán en quechua. Diario Hispano
* ^ Examples (
Ancash Quechua with Spanish translation) at "Archived
copy". Archived from the original on 19 December 2007. Retrieved 12
May 2009. and (in
Chanka Quechua ) "Archived copy". Archived from the
original on 12 March 2010. Retrieved 12 May 2009.
* ^ Karneval von Tambobamba. In: José María Arguedas: El sueño
del pongo, cuento quechua y Canciones quechuas tradicionales.
Editorial Universitaria, Santiago de