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Convention of 1800[1][2]

Cessation of Franco-American alliance Reduction in French privateer attacks on American shipping American neutrality and renunciation of claims by France

Belligerents

 United States Co-belligerent:  Kingdom of Great Britain  France

Commanders and leaders

John Adams George Washington Alexander Hamilton Benjamin Stoddert Paul Barras Napoléon Bonaparte Edme Desfourneaux Victor Hugues André Rigaud

Strength

A fleet of 54 including: 18 Frigates 4 Sloops 2 Brigs 3 Schooners 5,700 Sailors and Marines 365 privateers Unknown fleet size Unknown number of Sailors and Marines

Casualties and losses

American: Before U.S. military involvement:

28 killed 42 wounded 22 privateers captured Over 2000 merchant ships captured in total

After U.S. military involvement:

1 ship captured (later recaptured)[3] 54+ killed 43+ wounded

British:

Unknown

French:

Unknown number of killed or wounded Several French privateers and warships captured or destroyed

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Quasi-War

USS Delaware vs La Croyable USS Constellation vs L'Insurgente Action of 1 January 1800 USS Constellation vs La Vengeance Jacmel Puerto Plata Harbor USS Boston vs Berceau USS Enterprise vs Flambeau Curaçao

The Quasi-War
Quasi-War
(French: Quasi-guerre) was an undeclared war fought almost entirely at sea between the United States
United States
of America and the French Republic from 1798 to 1800. After the toppling of the French crown during the French Revolutionary Wars, the United States
United States
refused to continue repaying its debt to France
France
on the grounds that it had been owed to a previous regime. French outrage led to a series of attacks on American shipping, ultimately leading to retaliation from the U.S. The war was called "quasi" because it was undeclared. It involved two years of hostilities at sea, in which both navies attacked the other's shipping in the West Indies. The unexpected fighting ability of the U.S. Navy, which destroyed the French West Indian trade, together with the growing weaknesses and final overthrow of the ruling Directory in France, led Talleyrand to reopen negotiations. At the same time, President Adams feuded with Hamilton over control of the Adams administration. Adams took sudden and unexpected action, rejecting the anti-French hawks in his own party and offering peace to France. In 1800 he sent William Vans Murray
William Vans Murray
to France
France
to negotiate peace; Federalists cried betrayal. Hostilities ended with the signing of the Convention of 1800.[4]

Contents

1 Background 2 Naval engagements 3 Conclusion of hostilities 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Background[edit] The Kingdom of France, a crucial ally of the United States
United States
in the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
since early 1776, had lent the US large sums of money, and had signed in 1778 a treaty of alliance with the United States
United States
of America against Great Britain. Louis XVI of France fell from power in 1792 during the French Revolution
French Revolution
and the French monarchy was abolished. As a result, in 1794 the American government came to an agreement with Great Britain, the Jay Treaty, ratified in 1795. It resolved several points of contention between the United States and Great Britain that had lingered after the end of the American Revolutionary War. It also encouraged bilateral trade but it outraged the Jeffersonian Democrat Republicans, who favored France.[5] The United States
United States
had already declared neutrality in the conflict between Great Britain and revolutionary France, and American legislation was being passed for a trade deal with Britain. When the U.S. refused to continue repaying its debt using the argument that the debt was owed to the previous government, not to the French First Republic, French outrage led to a series of responses. First, French privateers began seizing American ships trading with Britain and bringing them in as prizes to be sold. Next, the French government refused to receive Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, the new U.S. Minister, when he arrived in Paris
Paris
in December 1796. In his annual message to Congress at the close of 1797, President John Adams
John Adams
reported on France's refusal to negotiate a settlement and spoke of the need "to place our country in a suitable posture of defense."[6] In April 1798, President Adams informed Congress of the "XYZ Affair", in which French agents demanded a large bribe before engaging in substantive negotiations with United States
United States
diplomats. Meanwhile, French privateers inflicted substantial losses on American shipping. On 21 February 1797, Secretary of State Timothy Pickering told Congress that during the previous eleven months, France
France
had seized 316 American merchant ships. French marauders cruised the length of the Atlantic seaboard virtually unopposed. The United States government had nothing to combat them, as the navy had been abolished at the end of the Revolutionary War and its last warship sold in 1785. The United States
United States
had only a flotilla of small revenue cutters and a few neglected coastal forts.[7] Increased depredations by French privateers led to the rebirth of the United States
United States
Navy and the creation of the United States
United States
Marine Corps to defend the expanding American merchant fleet. Congress authorized the president to acquire, arm, and man not more than twelve ships of up to twenty two guns each. Several merchantmen were immediately purchased and refitted as ships of war,[8] and construction of the frigate Congress resumed. Congress rescinded the treaties with France
France
on 7 July 1798. That date is now considered the beginning of the Quasi-War. This was followed two days later with the passage of the Congressional authorization of attacks on French warships in American waters. Naval engagements[edit] The U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy
operated with a battle fleet of about twenty-five vessels, which patrolled the southern coast of the United States
United States
and throughout the Caribbean, hunting down French privateers. Captain Thomas Truxtun's insistence on the highest standards of crew training paid dividends when the frigate Constellation captured the French Navy's frigate L'Insurgente and severely damaged the frigate La Vengeance. French privateers generally resisted, as did La Croyable, which was captured on 7 July 1798, by Delaware outside of Egg Harbor, New Jersey.[9] Enterprise captured eight privateers and freed eleven American merchant ships from captivity. Experiment captured the French privateers Deux Amis and Diane. Numerous American merchantmen were recaptured by Experiment. Boston forced Le Berceau
Le Berceau
into submission. Silas Talbot
Silas Talbot
engineered an expedition to Puerto Plata harbor in Hispaniola. On 11 May 1800, sailors and marines from Constitution under Lieutenant Isaac Hull
Isaac Hull
captured the French privateer Sandwich in the harbor and spiked the guns of the fort. The U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy
lost only one ship to the French, Retaliation, which was later recaptured. She was the captured privateer La Croyable, recently purchased by the U.S. Navy. Retaliation departed Norfolk on 28 October 1798, with Montezuma and Norfolk, and cruised in the West Indies protecting American commerce. On 20 November 1798, the French frigates L’Insurgente and Volontaire overtook Retaliation while her consorts were away and forced commanding officer Lieutenant William Bainbridge to surrender the out-gunned schooner. Montezuma and Norfolk escaped after Bainbridge convinced the senior French commander that those American warships were too powerful for his frigates and persuaded him to abandon the chase. Renamed Magicienne by the French, the schooner again came into American hands on 28 June, when a broadside from Merrimack forced her to haul down her colors. Revenue cutters in the service of the United States
United States
Revenue-Marine, the predecessor to the United States
United States
Coast Guard, also took part in the conflict. The cutter USRC Pickering, commanded by Edward Preble, made two cruises to the West Indies
West Indies
and captured ten prizes. Preble turned command of Pickering over to Benjamin Hillar, who captured the much larger and more heavily armed French privateer l'Egypte Conquise after a nine-hour battle. In September 1800, Hillar, Pickering, and her entire crew were lost at sea in a storm. Preble next commanded the frigate Essex, which he sailed around Cape Horn
Cape Horn
into the Pacific to protect American merchantmen in the East Indies. He recaptured several American ships that had been seized by French privateers.[10][11][12] American naval losses may have been light, but the French had successfully seized many American merchant ships by the war's end in 1800—more than 2,000, according to one source.[13] Although they were fighting the same enemy, the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
and the United States
United States
Navy did not cooperate operationally or share operational plans. There were no mutual understandings about deployment between their forces. The British sold naval stores and munitions to the American government, and the two navies shared a signal system so they could recognise the other's warships at sea and allowed their merchantmen to join each other's convoys for safety.

The fight between USS Constellation and L'Insurgente (William Bainbridge Hoff)

A 20th-century illustration depicting United States
United States
Marines escorting French prisoners

Conclusion of hostilities[edit] By late 1800, the United States
United States
Navy and the Royal Navy, combined with a more conciliatory diplomatic stance by the government of First Consul Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte, had reduced the activity of the French privateers and warships. The Convention of 1800, signed on 30 September, ended the Quasi-War. It was embodied in the Treaty of Mortefontaine of September 30, 1800. It affirmed the rights of Americans as neutrals upon the sea and abrogated the alliance with France
France
of 1778. The treaty failed to provide compensation for the $20,000,000 "French Spoliation Claims" of the United States. The treaty and the Convention of 1800
Convention of 1800
between the two nations implicitly ensured that the United States
United States
would remain neutral toward France
France
in the wars of Napoleon
Napoleon
and ended the "entangling" French alliance.[14] In truth, this alliance had only been viable between 1778 and 1783.[15][16] See also[edit]

United States
United States
portal France
France
portal War portal

First Barbary War Captured ships of the Quasi-War Louisa ( Quasi-War
Quasi-War
privateer) Oliver Hazard Perry

References[edit]

^ "Quasi War with France". Archived from the original on December 2014.  ^ "Military history – The Quasi War".  ^ America’s First Limited War, Lieutenant Colonel Gregory E. Fehlings, U.S. Army Reserve ^ E. Wilson Lyon, "The Franco-American Convention of 1800." Journal of Modern History 12.3 (1940): 305-333. online ^ Jerald A. Combs, The Jay Treaty: Political Battleground of the Founding Fathers (1970). ^ First State of the Nation Address by President John Adams Philadelphia, PA, 22 November 1797 ^ Department of the Navy – Naval Historical Center The Reestablishment of the Navy, 1787–1801 Historical Overview and Select Bibliography ^ Greg H., Williams (2009). McFarland, ed. The French Assault on American Shipping, 1793–1813: A History and Comprehensive Record of Merchant Marine Losses. p. 25. ISBN 07-86-45407-5.  ^ Mooney, James L., ed. (November 1983). Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. 6. Defense Dept., Navy, Naval History Division. p. 84. ISBN 0-16-002030-1. Retrieved 27 June 2011.  ^ The United States
United States
Coast Guard The Coast Guard at War ^ USRCS Lost at Sea ^ Love 1992, p. 68 ^ "America’s First Limited War", Lieutenant Colonel Gregory E. Fehlings, U.S. Army Reserve ^ E. Wilson Lyon, "The Franco-American Convention of 1800." Journal of Modern History 12.3 (1940): 305-333. online ^ Alexander DeConde, The Quasi-War: The Politics and Diplomacy of the Undeclared War with France, 1797-1801 (1966). ^ Paul A. Varg, Foreign policies of the founding fathers (1963) pp 117-44 online free

Further reading[edit]

Allen, Gardner W. (1909). Our Naval War with France. New York: Houghton Mifflin Publishers.  Bowman, Albert Hall. The struggle for neutrality: Franco-American diplomacy during the Federalist era (1974), online free Daughan, George C. (2008). If By Sea: The Forging of the American Navy – From the Revolution to the War of 1812. Philadelphia: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-01607-5.  De Conde, Alexander (1966). The quasi-war: the politics and diplomacy of the undeclared war with France
France
1797–1801. New York: Scribner's.  Kingston, Christopher. "Marine Insurance in Philadelphia During the Quasi-War
Quasi-War
with France, 1795–1801." Journal of Economic History (2011) 71#01 pp. 162–184 Leiner, Frederick C. (1999). Millions for Defense: The Subscription Warships of 1798. Annapolis: US Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-508-X.  Love, Robert (1992). History of the U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy
Volume One 1775–1941. Harrisburg PA: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-1862-X.  Nash, Howard Pervear. The forgotten wars: the role of the US Navy in the quasi war with France
France
and the Barbary Wars 1798–1805 (AS Barnes, 1968) Palmer, Michael A. Stoddert's war: Naval operations during the quasi-war with France, 1798–1801. Naval Institute Press, 1999 Toll, Ian W. (2006). Six Frigates: The Epic History of the Founding of The U.S. Navy. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-05847-6.  Unger, Harlow (2005). The French War Against America: How a Trusted Ally Betrayed Washington and the Founding Fathers. Hoboken NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 978-0-471-65113-0. 

External links[edit]

Selected Bibliography of The Quasi War with France
France
compiled by the United States
United States
Army Center of Military History U.S. Department of State The XYZ Affair
XYZ Affair
and the Quasi-War
Quasi-War
with France, 1798–1800 U.S. treaties and federal legal documents re "Quasi War with France 1791–1800", compiled by the Lillian Goldman Law Library of Yale Law School

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Armed conflicts involving the United States
United States
Armed Forces

listed chronologically

Domestic

Shays' Rebellion Whiskey Rebellion Fries's Rebellion Mormon War Dorr Rebellion Bleeding Kansas Utah War Civil War Indian Wars Brooks–Baxter War Range War Lincoln County War Johnson County War Coal Creek War Homestead strike Battle of Blair Mountain Bonus Army Battle of Athens

Foreign

Revolutionary War Quasi-War First Barbary War War of 1812 Second Barbary War First Sumatran expedition Second Sumatran expedition Ivory Coast Expedition Mexican–American War First Fiji Expedition Second Opium War Second Fiji Expedition Formosa Expedition Korean Expedition Spanish–American War Philippine–American War Boxer Rebellion Banana Wars Border War World War I Russian Civil War World War II Korean War Vietnam War U.S. invasion of the Dominican Republic Invasion of Grenada Lebanese Civil War Invasion of Panama Gulf War Somali Civil War Bosnian War Kosovo War Afghanistan War Iraq War War in North-West Pakistan Libyan Civil War Intervention against ISIL

Iraq Syria Cameroon Libya

Related articles

List of conflicts in the U.S. List of wars involving the U.S. Timeline of U.S. military operations Length of U.S. participation in major wars Overseas expansion Military history Covert regime-change actions Casualties of war Peace movement List of anti-war organizations Conscientious objector War on Terror

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French Revolution

Causes Timeline Ancien Régime Revolution Constitutional monarchy Republic Directory Consulate Glossary

Significant civil and political events by year

1788

Day of the Tiles
Day of the Tiles
(7 Jun 1788) Assembly of Vizille
Assembly of Vizille
(21 Jul 1788)

1789

What Is the Third Estate?
What Is the Third Estate?
(Jan 1789) Réveillon riots (28 Apr 1789) Convocation of the Estates-General (5 May 1789) National Assembly (17 Jun – 9 Jul 1790) Tennis Court Oath
Tennis Court Oath
(20 Jun 1789) National Constituent Assembly (9 Jul – 30 Sep 1791) Storming of the Bastille
Storming of the Bastille
(14 Jul 1789) Great Fear (20 Jul – 5 Aug 1789) Abolition of Feudalism (4-11 Aug 1789) Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
(27 Aug 1789) Women's March on Versailles
Women's March on Versailles
(5 Oct 1789)

1790

Abolition of the Parlements (Feb–Jul 1790) Abolition of the Nobility (19 Jun 1790) Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
(12 Jul 1790)

1791

Flight to Varennes
Flight to Varennes
(20–21 Jun 1791) Champ de Mars Massacre
Champ de Mars Massacre
(17 Jul 1791) Declaration of Pillnitz (27 Aug 1791) The Constitution of 1791 (3 Sep 1791) Legislative Assembly (1 Oct 1791 – Sep 1792)

1792

France
France
declares war (20 Apr 1792) Brunswick Manifesto
Brunswick Manifesto
(25 Jul 1792) Paris
Paris
Commune becomes insurrectionary (Jun 1792) 10th of August (10 Aug 1792) September Massacres
September Massacres
(Sep 1792) National Convention
National Convention
(20 Sep 1792 – 26 Oct 1795) First republic declared (22 Sep 1792)

1793

Execution of Louis XVI
Execution of Louis XVI
(21 Jan 1793) Revolutionary Tribunal
Revolutionary Tribunal
(9 Mar 1793 – 31 May 1795) Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
(27 Jun 1793 – 27 Jul 1794)

Committee of Public Safety Committee of General Security

Fall of the Girondists (2 Jun 1793) Assassination of Marat (13 Jul 1793) Levée en masse
Levée en masse
(23 Aug 1793) The Death of Marat
The Death of Marat
(painting) Law of Suspects
Law of Suspects
(17 Sep 1793) Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
is guillotined (16 Oct 1793) Anti-clerical laws (throughout the year)

1794

Danton and Desmoulins guillotined (5 Apr 1794) Law of 22 Prairial
Law of 22 Prairial
(10 Jun 1794) Thermidorian Reaction
Thermidorian Reaction
(27 Jul 1794) Robespierre guillotined (28 Jul 1794) White Terror (Fall 1794) Closing of the Jacobin Club (11 Nov 1794)

1795

Constitution of the Year III
Constitution of the Year III
(22 Aug 1795) Conspiracy of the Equals
Conspiracy of the Equals
(Nov 1795) Directoire (1795–99)

Council of Five Hundred Council of Ancients

13 Vendémiaire
13 Vendémiaire
5 Oct 1795

1797

Coup of 18 Fructidor
Coup of 18 Fructidor
(4 Sep 1797) Second Congress of Rastatt
Second Congress of Rastatt
(Dec 1797)

1799

Coup of 30 Prairial VII (18 Jun 1799) Coup of 18 Brumaire
Coup of 18 Brumaire
(9 Nov 1799) Constitution of the Year VIII
Constitution of the Year VIII
(24 Dec 1799) Consulate

Revolutionary campaigns

1792

Verdun Thionville Valmy Royalist Revolts

Chouannerie Vendée Dauphiné

Lille Siege of Mainz Jemappes Namur (fr)

1793

First Coalition Siege of Toulon
Siege of Toulon
(18 Sep – 18 Dec 1793) War in the Vendée Battle of Neerwinden) Battle of Famars
Battle of Famars
(23 May 1793) Expédition de Sardaigne
Expédition de Sardaigne
(21 Dec 1792 - 25 May 1793) Battle of Kaiserslautern Siege of Mainz Battle of Wattignies Battle of Hondschoote Siege of Bellegarde Battle of Peyrestortes
Battle of Peyrestortes
(Pyrenees) First Battle of Wissembourg (13 Oct 1793) Battle of Truillas
Battle of Truillas
(Pyrenees) Second Battle of Wissembourg (26–27 Dec 1793)

1794

Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
(24 Apr 1794) Battle of Boulou
Battle of Boulou
(Pyrenees) (30 Apr – 1 May 1794) Battle of Tournay
Battle of Tournay
(22 May 1794) Battle of Fleurus (26 Jun 1794) Chouannerie Battle of Tourcoing
Battle of Tourcoing
(18 May 1794) Battle of Aldenhoven (2 Oct 1794)

1795

Peace of Basel

1796

Battle of Lonato
Battle of Lonato
(3–4 Aug 1796) Battle of Castiglione
Battle of Castiglione
(5 Aug 1796) Battle of Theiningen Battle of Neresheim
Battle of Neresheim
(11 Aug 1796) Battle of Amberg
Battle of Amberg
(24 Aug 1796) Battle of Würzburg
Battle of Würzburg
(3 Sep 1796) Battle of Rovereto
Battle of Rovereto
(4 Sep 1796) First Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(8 Sep 1796) Battle of Emmendingen
Battle of Emmendingen
(19 Oct 1796) Battle of Schliengen
Battle of Schliengen
(26 Oct 1796) Second Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(6 Nov 1796) Battle of Calliano (6–7 Nov 1796) Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
(15–17 Nov 1796) The Ireland Expedition (Dec 1796)

1797

Naval Engagement off Brittany (13 Jan 1797) Battle of Rivoli
Battle of Rivoli
(14–15 Jan 1797) Battle of the Bay of Cádiz (25 Jan 1797) Treaty of Leoben
Treaty of Leoben
(17 Apr 1797) Battle of Neuwied (18 Apr 1797) Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
(17 Oct 1797)

1798

French invasion of Switzerland
French invasion of Switzerland
(28 January – 17 May 1798) French Invasion of Egypt (1798–1801) Irish Rebellion of 1798 (23 May – 23 Sep 1798) Quasi-War
Quasi-War
(1798–1800) Peasants' War (12 Oct – 5 Dec 1798)

1799

Second Coalition (1798–1802) Siege of Acre (20 Mar – 21 May 1799) Battle of Ostrach
Battle of Ostrach
(20–21 Mar 1799) Battle of Stockach (25 Mar 1799) Battle of Magnano
Battle of Magnano
(5 Apr 1799) Battle of Cassano (27 Apr 1799) First Battle of Zurich
First Battle of Zurich
(4–7 Jun 1799) Battle of Trebbia (19 Jun 1799) Battle of Novi (15 Aug 1799) Second Battle of Zurich
Second Battle of Zurich
(25–26 Sep 1799)

1800

Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
(14 Jun 1800) Battle of Hohenlinden
Battle of Hohenlinden
(3 Dec 1800) League of Armed Neutrality (1800–02)

1801

Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville
(9 Feb 1801) Treaty of Florence
Treaty of Florence
(18 Mar 1801) Algeciras Campaign
Algeciras Campaign
(8 Jul 1801)

1802

Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
(25 Mar 1802)

Military leaders

French Army

Eustache Charles d'Aoust Pierre Augereau Alexandre de Beauharnais Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte Louis-Alexandre Berthier Jean-Baptiste Bessières Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune Jean François Carteaux Jean Étienne Championnet Chapuis de Tourville Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine Louis-Nicolas Davout Louis Desaix Jacques François Dugommier Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Charles François Dumouriez Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino Louis-Charles de Flers Paul Grenier Emmanuel de Grouchy Jacques Maurice Hatry Lazare Hoche Jean-Baptiste Jourdan François Christophe de Kellermann Jean-Baptiste Kléber Pierre Choderlos de Laclos Jean Lannes Charles Leclerc Claude Lecourbe François Joseph Lefebvre Jacques MacDonald Jean-Antoine Marbot Jean Baptiste de Marbot François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey Jean Victor Marie Moreau Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise Joachim Murat Michel Ney Pierre-Jacques Osten (fr) Nicolas Oudinot Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon Jean-Charles Pichegru Józef Poniatowski Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier Joseph Souham Jean-de-Dieu Soult Louis-Gabriel Suchet Belgrand de Vaubois Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno

French Navy

Charles-Alexandre Linois

Opposition

Austria

József Alvinczi Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen Count of Clerfayt (Walloon) Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
(Swiss) Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth Pál Kray (Hungarian) Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
(French) Maximilian Baillet de Latour (Walloon) Karl Mack von Leiberich Rudolf Ritter von Otto (Saxon) Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich Prince Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
(Hungarian) Karl Philipp Sebottendorf Dagobert von Wurmser

Britain

Sir Ralph Abercromby Admiral Sir James Saumarez Admiral Sir Edward Pellew Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

Dutch Republic

William V, Prince of Orange

 Prussia

Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen

Russia

Alexander Korsakov Alexander Suvorov

Spain

Luis Firmin de Carvajal Antonio Ricardos

Other significant figures and factions

Society of 1789

Jean Sylvain Bailly Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt Isaac René Guy le Chapelier Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord Nicolas de Condorcet

Feuillants and monarchiens

Madame de Lamballe Madame du Barry Louis de Breteuil Loménie de Brienne Charles Alexandre de Calonne de Chateaubriand Jean Chouan Grace Elliott Arnaud de La Porte Jean-Sifrein Maury Jacques Necker François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas Antoine Barnave Lafayette Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth Charles Malo François Lameth André Chénier Jean-François Rewbell Camille Jordan Madame de Staël Boissy d'Anglas Jean-Charles Pichegru Pierre Paul Royer-Collard

Girondists

Jacques Pierre Brissot Roland de La Platière Madame Roland Father Henri Grégoire Étienne Clavière Marquis de Condorcet Charlotte Corday Marie Jean Hérault Jean Baptiste Treilhard Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jean Debry Jean-Jacques Duval d'Eprémesnil Olympe de Gouges Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux

The Plain

Abbé Sieyès de Cambacérès Charles François Lebrun Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot Philippe Égalité Louis Philippe I Mirabeau Antoine Christophe Merlin
Antoine Christophe Merlin
de Thionville Jean Joseph Mounier Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours François de Neufchâteau

Montagnards

Maximilien Robespierre Georges Danton Jean-Paul Marat Camille Desmoulins Louis Antoine de Saint-Just Paul Nicolas, vicomte de Barras Louis Philippe I Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau Jacques-Louis David Marquis de Sade Jacques-Louis David Georges Couthon Roger Ducos Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois Jean-Henri Voulland Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier Jean-Pierre-André Amar Prieur de la Côte-d'Or Prieur de la Marne Gilbert Romme Jean Bon Saint-André Jean-Lambert Tallien Pierre Louis Prieur Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Antoine Christophe Saliceti

Hébertists and Enragés

Jacques Hébert Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne Pierre Gaspard Chaumette Charles-Philippe Ronsin Antoine-François Momoro François-Nicolas Vincent François Chabot Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel François Hanriot Jacques Roux Stanislas-Marie Maillard Charles-Philippe Ronsin Jean-François Varlet Theophile Leclerc Claire Lacombe Pauline Léon Gracchus Babeuf Sylvain Maréchal

Others

Charles X Louis XVI Louis XVII Louis XVIII Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien Louis Henri, Prince of Condé Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé Marie Antoinette Napoléon Bonaparte Lucien Bonaparte Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Fesch Joséphine de Beauharnais Joachim Murat Jean Sylvain Bailly Jacques-Donatien Le Ray Guillaume-Chrétien de Malesherbes Talleyrand Thérésa Tallien Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target Catherine Théot List of people associated with the French Revolution

Influential thinkers

Les Lumières Beaumarchais Edmund Burke Anacharsis Cloots Charles-Augustin de Coulomb Pierre Claude François Daunou Diderot Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson Antoine Lavoisier Montesquieu Thomas Paine Jean-Jacques Rousseau Abbé Sieyès Voltaire Mary Wollstonecraft

Cultural impact

La Marseillaise French Tricolour Liberté, égalité, fraternité Marianne Bastille Day Panthéon French Republican Calendar Cult of the Supreme Being Cult of Reason

Temple of Reason

Sans-culottes Metric system Phrygian cap Women in the French Revolution Symbolism in the French Revolution Historiography of the French Revolution Influence of the French Revolution

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John Adams

2nd President of the United States, 1797–1801 1st Vice President of the United States, 1789–1797 U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom, 1785–1788 U.S. Ambassador to the Netherlands, 1782–1788 Delegate, Second Continental Congress, 1775–1778 Delegate, First Continental Congress, 1774

Founding of the United States

Braintree Instructions (1765) Boston Massacre defense Continental Association Novanglus; A History of the Dispute with America, From Its Origin in 1754 to the Present Time (1775) Thoughts on Government
Thoughts on Government
(1776) Declaration of Independence

May 15 preamble Committee of Five

Model Treaty

Treaty of Amity and Commerce Treaty of Alliance

Board of War Chairman of the Marine Committee, 1775-1779

Continental Navy

Staten Island Peace Conference

Conference House

Constitution of Massachusetts (1780) Treaty of Paris, 1783

Presidency

Inauguration Quasi War with France

XYZ Affair Commerce Protection Act United States
United States
Marine Corps Convention of 1800

Alien and Sedition Acts

Naturalization Act of 1798

Navy Department Library Treaty of Tellico Treaty of Tripoli Midnight Judges Act

Marbury v. Madison

State of the Union Address (1797 1798 1799 1800) Cabinet Federal judiciary appointments

Other writings

Massachusetts Historical Society holdings

Adams Papers Editorial Project

Life and homes

Early life and education Adams National Historical Park

John Adams
John Adams
Birthplace Family home and John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
birthplace Peacefield Presidential Library

Massachusetts Hall, Harvard University Presidents House, Philadelphia Co-founder and second president, American Academy of Arts and Sciences United First Parish Church and gravesite

Elections

United States
United States
presidential election 1788–1789 1792 1796 1800

Legacy

Adams House at Harvard University John Adams
John Adams
Building U.S. Postage stamps Adams Memorial

Popular culture

Profiles in Courage (1964 series) American Primitive (1969 play) 1776 (1969 musical 1972 film) The Adams Chronicles (1976 miniseries) Liberty! (1997 documentary series) Liberty's Kids
Liberty's Kids
(2002 animated series) John Adams
John Adams
(2001 book 2008 miniseries) Sons of Liberty (2015 miniseries)

Related

"Adams and Liberty" campaign song Adams' personal library American Enlightenment Congress Hall Federalist Party

Federalist Era First Party System republicanism

American Philosophical Society Gazette of the United States The American Museum American Revolution

patriots

Family

Abigail Adams

wife Quincy family

Abigail Adams
Abigail Adams
Smith (daughter) John Quincy Adams

son presidency

Charles Adams (son) Thomas Boylston Adams (son) George W. Adams (grandson) Charles Adams Sr. (grandson) John Adams
John Adams
II (grandson) John Q. Adams (great-grandson) Henry Adams
Henry Adams
(great-grandson) Brooks Adams
Brooks Adams
(great-grandson) John Adams
John Adams
Sr. (father) Susanna Boylston (mother) Elihu Adams (brother) Samuel Adams
Samuel Adams
(second cousin) Louisa Adams

daughter-in-law First Lady

← George Washington Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson

.