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Quanzhou, formerly known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level city beside the Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
in Fujian
Fujian
Province, China. Its is Fujian's largest metropolitan region, with an area of 11,245 square kilometers (4,342 sq mi) and, as of the 2010 census, a population of 8,128,530.[2] Its built-up area is home to 6,107,475 inhabitants, encompassing the Licheng, Fengze, and Luojiang urban districts; Jinjiang, Nan'an, and Shishi cities; Hui'an
Hui'an
County; and the Quanzhou District for Taiwanese Investment.[3] Quanzhou
Quanzhou
was China's 12th-largest extended metropolitan area in 2010. Quanzhou
Quanzhou
was China's major port for foreign traders, who knew it as Zaiton,[a] during the 11th through 14th centuries. It was visited by both Marco Polo
Marco Polo
and Ibn Battuta; both travelers praised it as one of the most prosperous and glorious cities in the world. It was the naval base from which the Mongol attacks on Japan and Java were primarily launched and a cosmopolitan center with Buddhist and Hindu temples, Islamic mosques, and Christian churches, including a Catholic cathedral and Franciscan monasteries. A failed revolt prompted a massacre of the city's foreign communities in 1357. Economic dislocations—including piracy and an imperial overreaction to it during the Ming and Qing—reduced its prosperity, with Japanese trade shifting to Ningbo
Ningbo
and Zhapu
Zhapu
and other foreign trade restricted to Guangzhou. Quanzhou
Quanzhou
became an opium-smuggling center in the 19th century but the siltation of its harbor long reduced its capacity for trade by larger ships.

Contents

1 Names 2 Geography

2.1 Climate 2.2 Earthquake

3 History 4 Administrative divisions 5 Demographics

5.1 Religion 5.2 Language 5.3 Emigration

6 Economy

6.1 Notable products

7 Transport

7.1 Air 7.2 Railway 7.3 Bus

8 Colleges and universities 9 Culture 10 Notable residents 11 Gallery 12 Notes 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

Names[edit] Quanzhou
Quanzhou
is the atonal pinyin romanization of the city's Chinese name 泉州, using its pronunciation in the Mandarin dialect. The name derives from the city's former status as the seat of the imperial Chinese Quan ("Spring") Prefecture. Ch‘üan-chou was the Wade-Giles romanization of the same name;[4][5][6] other forms include Chwanchow-foo,[7] Chwan-chau fu,[8] Chwanchew,[9] Ts'üan-chou,[10] Tswanchow-foo,[7] Tswanchau,[9] T'swan-chau fu,[8] Ts'wan-chiu,[11] Ts'wan-chow-fu,[12] Thsiouan-tchéou-fou,[8] and Thsíouan-chéou-fou.[7] The romanization Chuan-chiu,[11] Choan-Chiu,[13] and Shanju[14] reflect the local Hokkien
Hokkien
pronunciation Choân-chiu. The Postal Map name of the city was "Chinchew",[15] a variant of Chincheo, the Portuguese and Spanish transcription of Chiāng-chiu, the local Hokkien
Hokkien
name for Zhangzhou,[b] the major Fujianese port trading with Macao and Manila in the 16th and 17th centuries.[7] It is uncertain when or why British sailors first applied the name to Quanzhou. Variants include Kangiu,[11] Chinchu,[7] and Chincheu.[16] Its Arabic name Zaiton[17] or "Zayton"[18] (زيتون), once popular in English, means "[City] of Olives" and is a calque of Quanzhou's former Chinese nickname Citong Cheng meaning "tung-tree city", which is derived from the avenues of oil-bearing tung trees ordered to be planted around the city by the city's 10th-century ruler Liu Congxiao.[19][20] Variant transcriptions from the Arabic name include Caiton,[21] Çaiton,[21] Çayton,[21] Zaytún,[12] Zaitûn,[7] Zaitún,[8] and Zaitūn.[19] The common folk etymology of satin as deriving from "Zaiton cloth"[23] seems, however, unsupported by the record.[24][c] Geography[edit]

Quanzhou

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    34     15 10

    74     14 10

    105     16 11

    133     21 15

    152     24 20

    197     28 24

    91     30 25

    130     30 25

    83     29 24

    44     26 21

    33     22 17

    28     17 12

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Source: The Public Weather Service Center of CMA 1981–2010 normals

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    1.3     59 49

    2.9     58 49

    4.1     61 52

    5.2     69 60

    6     76 67

    7.7     82 74

    3.6     86 77

    5.1     86 78

    3.3     84 75

    1.7     78 69

    1.3     71 62

    1.1     63 54

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

Quanzhou
Quanzhou
proper lies on a spit of land between the estuaries of the Jin and Luo rivers as they flow into Quanzhou
Quanzhou
Bay on the Taiwan Strait. Its surrounding prefecture extends west halfway across the province and is hilly and mountainous. Along with Xiamen
Xiamen
and Zhangzhou to its south and Putian
Putian
to its north, it makes up Fujian
Fujian
Province's Southern Coast region. In its mountainous interior, it borders Longyan to the southwest and Sanming
Sanming
to the northwest. Climate[edit] The city features a humid subtropical climate. Quanzhou
Quanzhou
has four distinct seasons. Its moderate temperature ranges from 0 to 38 degrees Celsius. In summer, there are typhoons that bring rain and some damage to the city. Earthquake[edit]

The year of 1394[25] 29 December 1604[26]

History[edit]

Tomb of the two worthies, who were among the earliest Islamic missionaries in China.

Trade routes in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
during Quanzhou's heyday.

Zayton as imagined by a 15th-century European illustrator of The Travels of Marco Polo

Wang Guoqing (王國慶) used the area as a base of operations for the Chen State before he was subdued by the Sui general Yang Su in the AD 590s.[27] Quanzhou
Quanzhou
proper was established under the Tang in 718[17] on a spit of land between two branches of the Jin River.[7] Muslim traders reached the city early on in its existence, along with their existing trade at Guangzhou
Guangzhou
and Yangzhou.[28] Already connected to inland Fujian
Fujian
by roads and canals, Quanzhou
Quanzhou
grew to international importance in the first century of the Song.[29] It received an office of the maritime trade bureau in 1079[30] or 1087[17][31] and functioned as the starting point of the Maritime Silk Road into the Yuan, eclipsing both the overland trade routes[32] and Guangzhou. A 1095 inscription records two convoys, each of twenty ships, arriving from the Southern Seas each year.[29] Quanzhou's maritime trade developed the area's ceramics, sugar, alcohol, and salt industries.[29] 90% of Fujian's ceramic production at the time was jade-colored celadon, produced for export.[33] Frankincense
Frankincense
was such a coveted import that promotions for the trade superintendents at Guangzhou
Guangzhou
and Quanzhou
Quanzhou
were tied to the amount they were able to bring in during their terms in office.[34] During this period it was one of the world's largest and most cosmopolitan seaports.[d] By 1120, its prefecture claimed a population of around 500,000.[35] Its Luoyang Bridge was formerly the most celebrated bridge in China.[7] The Anping Bridge is also well known. Quanzhou
Quanzhou
initially continued to thrive under the Southern Song produced by the Jin–Song Wars. A 1206 report listed merchants from Arabia, Sumatra, Cambodia, Brunei, Java, Champa, Burma, Korea, and the city-states of the Philippines.[29] One of its customs inspectors, Zhao Rugua, completed his compendious Description of Barbarian Nations c. 1225, recording the people, places, and items involved in China's foreign trade in his age. Other imperial records from the time use it as the zero mile for distances between China
China
and foreign countries.[36] Tamil merchants carved idols of Vishnu
Vishnu
and Shiva[37] and constructed Hindu temples in Quanzhou.[38][39] Over the course of the 13th century, however, Quanzhou's prosperity declined due to instability among its trading partners[29] and increasing restrictions introduced by the Song in an attempt to restrict the outflow of copper and bronze currency from areas forced to use hyperinflating paper money.[40] The increasing importance of Japan to China's foreign trade also benefited Ningbonese merchants at Quanzhou's expense, given their extensive contacts with Japan's major ports on Hakata Bay
Hakata Bay
on Kyushu.[29] Under the Mongolian Yuan dynasty, a superintendent of foreign trade was established in the city in 1277,[41] along with those at Shanghai, Ningbo, and Guangzhou.[10] The former Song superintendent Pu Shougeng, an Arab or Persian Muslim,[42] was retained for the new post, using his contacts to restore the city's trade under its new rulers.[41] He was broadly successful, restoring much of the port's former greatness,[43] and his office became hereditary in his descendants.[41] Into the 1280s, Quanzhou
Quanzhou
sometimes served as the provincial capital for Fujian.[10][e] Its population was around 455,000 in 1283, the major items of trade being pepper and other spices, gemstones, pearls, and porcelain.[17] Marco Polo
Marco Polo
recorded that the Yuan emperors derived "a vast revenue" from their 10% duty on the port's commerce;[44] he called Quanzhou's port "one of the two greatest havens in the world for commerce"[44] and "the Alexandria
Alexandria
of the East".[45] Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
simply called it the greatest port in the world.[10][f] Polo noted its tattoo artists were famed throughout Southeast Asia.[44] It was the point of departure for Marco Polo's 1292 return expedition, escorting the 17-year-old Mongolian princess Kököchin
Kököchin
to her fiancé in the Persian Ilkhanate;[46] a few decades later, it was the point of arrival and departure for Ibn Battuta.[12][36][g] Kublai Khan's invasions of Japan[17][36][47] and Java sailed primarily from its port.[48] The Islamic geographer Abulfeda noted c. 1321 that its city walls remained ruined from its conquest by the Mongols.[8] In the mid-1320s, Friar Odoric
Friar Odoric
noted the town's two Franciscan monasteries, but admitted the Buddhist monasteries were much larger, with over 3000 monks in one.[8] In 1357, the Shiite Muslim
Shiite Muslim
garrison undertook the Ispah Rebellion
Ispah Rebellion
against the Yuan and their local Sunni Muslim
Sunni Muslim
leadership. By 1362, they controlled the countryside as far as the outskirts of Fuzhou, but after a defeat by the Yuan there they retreated to Quanzhou. There, their leaders were killed by Nawuna, a descendant of Pu Shougeng, who was killed in turn by Chen Youding. Chen began a campaign of persecution against the city's Sunni community—including massacres and grave desecration—that eventually became a general anti-Muslim pogrom.[42] Emigrants fleeing the persecution rose to prominent positions throughout Southeast Asia, spurring the development of Islam
Islam
on Java and elsewhere.[42] The Yuan were expelled in 1368.[17] The Ming discouraged foreign commerce other than formal tributary missions. By 1473, trade had declined to the point that Quanzhou
Quanzhou
was no longer the headquarters of the imperial customs service for Fujian.[36] The "Japanese" or "dwarf" pirates, most of whom were actually disaffected Chinese, forced Quanzhou's Superintendency of Trade to close completely in 1522.[49] The Sea Ban
Sea Ban
that followed did not help the city's traders or fishermen: they were forced to abandon their access to the sea for years at a time and coastal farmers forced to relocate miles inland. In the 19th century, the city walls still protected a circuit of 7–8 miles (11–13 km) but embraced much vacant ground.[7] The bay began to attract Jardines'
Jardines'
and Dents'
Dents'
opium ships from 1832. Following the First Opium War, Governor Henry Pottinger
Henry Pottinger
proposed using Quanzhou as an official opium depot to keep the trade out of Hong Kong and the other treaty ports but the rents sought by the imperial commissioner Qiying
Qiying
were too high.[49] When Chinese pirates overran the receiving ships in Shenhu Bay to capture their stockpiles of silver bullion in 1847, however, the traders moved to Quanzhou
Quanzhou
Bay regardless.[49] Around 1862, a Protestant mission was set up in Quanzhou. As late as the middle of the century, large Chinese junks could still access the town easily, trading in tea, sugar, tobacco, porcelain, and nankeens,[7] but sand bars created by the rivers around the town had generally incapacitated its harbor by the First World War. It remained a large and prosperous city, but conducted its maritime trade through Anhai.[4] In 2004, Quanzhou
Quanzhou
was listed among CCTV's "Ten Most Charming Cities in China". Administrative divisions[edit] The prefecture-level city of Quanzhou
Quanzhou
administers four districts, three county-level cities, four counties, and two special economic districts. The People's Republic of China
China
claims Jinmen County, more widely known as Kinmen
Kinmen
County, as part of Quanzhou, but the territory is currently under the jurisdiction of the Republic of China.

Map

1 2 Luojiang Quangang Hui'an County Anxi County Yongchun County Dehua County Shishi (City) Jinjiang (City) Nan'an (City) 1. Licheng 2. Fengze Jinmen* Note: PRC claims Jinmen but has never controlled Jinmen.

English Name Simplified Pinyin POJ Area Population Density

Licheng District 鲤城区 Lǐchéng Qū Lí-siâⁿ-khu 52.41 404,817 7,724

Fengze
Fengze
District 丰泽区 Fēngzé Qū Hong-te̍k-khu 132.25 529,640 4,005

Luojiang District 洛江区 Luòjiāng Qū Lo̍k-kang-khu 381.72 187,189 490

Quangang District 泉港区 Quán'gǎng Qū Chôan-káng-khu 306.03 313,539 1025

Shishi City 石狮市 Shíshī Shì Chio̍h-sai-chhī 189.21 636,700 3,365

Jinjiang City 晋江市 Jìnjiāng Shì Chìn-kang-chhī 721.64 1,986,447 2,753

Nan'an City 南安市 Nánān Shì Lâm-oaⁿ-chhī 2,035.11 1,418,451 697

Hui'an
Hui'an
County 惠安县 Huì'ān Xiàn Hūiⁿ-oaⁿ-kūiⁿ 762.19 944,231 1,239

Anxi County 安溪县 Ānxī Xiàn An-khoe-kūiⁿ 2,983.07 977,435 328

Yongchun County 永春县 Yǒngchūn Xiàn Éng-chhun-kūiⁿ 1,445.8 452,217 313

Dehua
Dehua
County 德化县 Déhuà Xiàn Tek-hòe-kūiⁿ 2,209.48 277,867 126

Jinmen County * 金门县 Jīnmén Xiàn Kim-mn̂g-kūiⁿ — — —

*: Since its founding in 1949, the People's Republic of China ("Mainland China") has claimed the Jinmen Islands as part of Quanzhou but has never controlled them. They are presently administered as Kinmen
Kinmen
County in the Republic of China
China
("Taiwan").

Demographics[edit] Religion[edit]

Kaiyuan Temple's Renshou Pagoda

See also: Hinduism in China Medieval Quanzhou
Quanzhou
was long one of the most cosmopolitan Chinese cities, with folk, Buddhist, and Hindu temples; Islamic mosques; and Christian churches, including a cathedral (financed by a rich Armenian lady) and two Franciscan monasteries. Andrew of Perugia
Andrew of Perugia
served as the Roman Catholic bishop of the city from 1322.[8] Odoric of Pordenone was responsible for relocating the relics of the four Franciscans martyred at Thana in India
India
in 1321 to the mission in Quanzhou.[17] Protestant The English Presbyterian missionaries raised a chapel around 1862.[7] The Qingjing Mosque
Qingjing Mosque
dates to 1009 but is now preserved as a museum.[45][50] The Buddhist Kaiyuan Temple has been repeatedly rebuilt but includes two 5-story 13th-century pagodas.[45] Among the most popular folk or Taoist temples is that to Guandi
Guandi
(关帝庙), the war god who is honored for his control of weather and wealth.[45] Jinjiang also preserves the Cao'an Temple (草庵寺), originally constructed by Manicheans under the Yuan but now used by New Age spiritualists, and a Confucian Temple
Confucian Temple
(文庙, Wenmiao).[45] Language[edit] Locals speak the Quanzhou
Quanzhou
variety of Min Nan
Min Nan
similar to Amoy (spoken in Xiamen), similar to South East Asian Hokkien
Hokkien
and Taiwanese. It is essentially the same as the dialect spoken in Xiamen
Xiamen
and is unintelligible with Mandarin. Many overseas Chinese whose ancestors came from the Quanzhou
Quanzhou
area, especially those in Southeast Asia, often speak mainly Hokkien
Hokkien
at home. In Taiwan, the locals speak a version of the Minnan language which is called Taiwanese. Around the "Southern Min triangle area," which includes Quanzhou, Xiamen
Xiamen
and Zhangzhou, locals all speak Minnan languages. The dialects they speak are similar but have different intonations. Emigration[edit]

New developments east of the city center

Quanzhou
Quanzhou
has been a center for Chinese emigration to Southeast Asia and Taiwan. Some of these communities date to Quanzhou's heyday a millennia ago under the Song and Yuan dynasties.[51] About 6 million overseas Chinese trace their ancestry to Quanzhou. Most of them live in Southeast Asian countries like Singapore, the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Burma, or Thailand. Economy[edit]

Quanzhou's Sunwu Creek

Historically, Quanzhou
Quanzhou
exported black tea, camphor, sugar, indigo, tobacco, ceramics, cloth made of grass, and some minerals. They imported, primarily from Guangzhou, wool cloth, wine, and watches, as of 1832. As of that time, the East India
India
Company was exporting an estimated ₤150,000 a year in black tea from Quanzhou.[52] Quanzhou
Quanzhou
is a major exporter of agricultural products such as tea, banana, lychee and rice. It is also a major producer of quarry granite and ceramics. Other industries include textiles, footwear, fashion and apparel, packaging, machinery, paper and petrochemicals.[53] Quanzhou
Quanzhou
is the biggest automotive market in Fujian; it has the highest rate of private automobile possession.[54] Its GDP ranked first in Fujian
Fujian
Province for 20 years, from 1991 to 2010. In 2008, Quanzhou's textile and apparel production accounted for 10% of China's overall apparel production, the production of sport and tourism shoes accounts for 80% of Chinese, and 20% of world production, stone exports account for 50% of Chinese stone exports, resin handicraft exports account for 70% of the country's total, ceramic exports account for 67% of the country's total, and candy production accounts for 20%. Different districts and counties in Quanzhou
Quanzhou
have their own special industries which are known to the rest of China. Jinjiang and Shishi are famous for apparel and textiles, Huian
Huian
is famous for its stone, Quangang is famous for petrifaction, Dehua
Dehua
for Ceramics, Yongchun for Citrus, Anxi for wulong tea, Nan An for building materials, and Fengze for resin.[citation needed] Notable products[edit]

Dehua
Dehua
porcelain (德化瓷器) Huian
Huian
stoneware (惠安石刻) Anxi Tieguanyin
Tieguanyin
(安溪铁观音)

Transport[edit]

Jinjiang International airport

Quanzhou
Quanzhou
Railway Station

Buses in Quanzhou

Quanzhou
Quanzhou
is an important transport hub within southeastern Fujian province. Many export industries in the Fujian
Fujian
interior cities will transport goods to Quanzhou
Quanzhou
ports. Quanzhou
Quanzhou
Port was one of the most prosperous port in Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
while now still an important one for exporting. Quanzhou
Quanzhou
is also connected by major roads from Fuzhou
Fuzhou
to the north and Xiamen
Xiamen
to the south. There is a passenger ferry terminal in Shijing, Nan'an, Fujian, with regular service to the Shuitou Port in the ROC-controlled Kinmen Island. Air[edit] Quanzhou Jinjiang International Airport
Quanzhou Jinjiang International Airport
is Quanzhou
Quanzhou
region's airport, served by passenger flights within Fujian
Fujian
province and other destinations throughout the country. Railway[edit] Quanzhou
Quanzhou
has two kinds of railway service. The Zhangping–Quanzhou–Xiaocuo Railway, a "conventional" rail line opened ca. 2001, connects several cargo stations within Quanzhou Prefecture with the interior of Fujian
Fujian
and the rest of the country. Until 2014, this line also had passenger service, with fairly slow passenger trains from Beijing, Wuhan, and other places throughout the country terminating at the Quanzhou
Quanzhou
East Railway Station, a few kilometers northeast of the center of the city. Passenger service on this line was terminated, and Quanzhou
Quanzhou
East Railway Station closed on December 9, 2014.[55] Since 2010, Quanzhou
Quanzhou
is served by the high-speed Fuzhou–Xiamen Railway, part of the Hangzhou–Fuzhou–Shenzhen High-Speed Railway, which runs along China's southeastern sea coast. High-speed trains on this line stop at Quanzhou Railway Station
Quanzhou Railway Station
(in Beifeng Subdistrict of Fengze
Fengze
District, some 10 miles north of Quanzhou
Quanzhou
city center) and Jinjiang Railway Station. Trains to Xiamen
Xiamen
take under 45 minutes, making it a convenient weekend or day trip. By 2015, direct high-speed service has become available to a number of cities in the country's interior, from Beijing to Chongqing and Guiyang. Bus[edit] Long-distance bus services also run daily/nightly to Shenzhen and other major cities. Colleges and universities[edit]

Huaqiao University
Huaqiao University
(national) Yang-en University (private) Quanzhou Normal University (public) Quanzhou
Quanzhou
Medical College (public) Huguang Photography and Art College Liming Vocational University(public)

Culture[edit] Quanzhou
Quanzhou
is generally ignored by Chinese tourists in favor of nearby Xiamen.[45] Nonetheless, Quanzhou
Quanzhou
was one of the 24 famous historic cultural cities first approved by the Chinese government. Notable cultural practices include:

Liyuan Opera (梨园戏) Puppet Show
Puppet Show
(提线木偶戏) Gaojia Opera (高甲戏) Dacheng Opera (打城戏) Nanyin (南音), a musical style dating to the Han but performed in the local dialect[45] Quanzhou
Quanzhou
Shaolin Five Ancestors
Five Ancestors
Fist (泉州五祖拳) Yongchun martial arts

The city hosted the Sixth National Peasants' Games in 2008. Signature local dishes include rice dumplings and oyster omelettes.[45] Notable Historical and cultural sites (the 18 views of Quanzhou
Quanzhou
as recommended by the Fujian
Fujian
tourism board) include the Ashab Mosque and Kaiyuan Temple mentioned above, as well as:

Qing Yuan mountain (清源山) - The tallest hill within the city limits, which hosts a great view of West lake. East Lake Park (东湖) - Located in the city center. It is home to a small zoo. West Lake Park (西湖公园) - The largest body of fresh water within the city limits. Scholar Street (状元街) - Champion street about 500 meters long, elegant environment, mainly engaged in tourism and cultural crafts.

Notable Modern cultural sites include:

Fengze
Fengze
Square - Located in the city center and acts as a venue for shows and events. Dapingshan - The second tallest hill within the city limits, crowned with an enormous equestrian statue of Zheng Chenggong. The Embassy Lounge - Situated in the "1916 Cultural Ideas Zone" which acts as a platform for mixing traditional Chinese art with modern building techniques and designs[56]

Relics
Relics
from Quanzhou's past are preserved at the Maritime[45] or Overseas-Relations History Museum.[57] It includes large exhibits on Song-era ships and Yuan-era tombstones.[45] A particularly important exhibit is the so-called Quanzhou
Quanzhou
ship, a seagoing junk that sunk some time after 1272 and was recovered in 1973–74.[57] The old city center preserves "balcony buildings" (骑楼, qilou), a style of southern Chinese architecture
Chinese architecture
from the Republican Era.[45] Notable residents[edit] Li Nu, son of Li Lu, visited Hormuz in Persia
Persia
in 1376, converted to Islam, married a Persian girl, and brought her back to Quanzhou. Li Nu was the ancestor of the Ming reformer Li Chih.[58][59][60] The Ding or Ting family of Chendai in Quanzhou
Quanzhou
claims descent from the Muslim leader Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar through his son Nasr al-Din or Nasruddin (Chinese: Nasulading).[61] The Dings have branches in Taiwan, the Philippines, and Malaysia
Malaysia
among the Chinese communities there, no longer practicing Islam
Islam
but still maintaining a Hui identity. The deputy secretary-general of the Chinese Muslim Association on Taiwan, Ishag Ma (馬孝棋) has claimed "Sayyid is an honorable title given to descendants of the Prophet Mohammed, hence Sayyid Shamsuddin must be connected to Prophet Mohammed". The Ding family in Taisi Township
Taisi Township
in Yunlin County
Yunlin County
of Taiwan, traces descent from him through the Ding of Quanzhou
Quanzhou
in Fujian.[62] Nasruddin was appointed governor in Karadjang and retained his position in Yunnan till his death, which Rashid, writing about 1300, says occurred five or six years before. (According to the Yüan shi, "Nasulading" died in 1292.) Nasruddin's son Abubeker, who had the surname Bayan Fenchan (evidently the Boyen ch'a-r of the Yüan shi), was governor in Zaitun at the time Rashid wrote. He bore also his grandfather's title of Sayid Edjell and was Minister of Finance under Kublai's successor.[63] Nasruddin is mentioned by Marco Polo, who styles him "Nescradin".[64][65][66] Quanzhou
Quanzhou
is also the birthplace of the actress Yao Chen. Gallery[edit]

Mount Qingyuan Buddha

Quanzhou
Quanzhou
Tianhou temple

Quanzhou
Quanzhou
Buddhist Temple

Notes[edit]

^ Zaiton's identification with Quanzhou
Quanzhou
was controversial in the 19th century, with some scholars preferring to associate Polo and Ibn Battuta's great port with the much more attractive harbor at Xiamen
Xiamen
on a variety of pretexts. The Chinese records are, however, clear as to Quanzhou's former status and the earlier excellence of its harbor, which slowly silted up over the centuries. ^ Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
itself is named for its former status as the seat of the imperial Chinese Zhang River Prefecture. ^ "Satin" actually derives via French from the Italian adjective setino ("silken") derived from Latin
Latin
sētā ("silk").[24] ^ Among other testaments to this age are tombstones which have been found written in Chinese, Arabic, Syriac, and Latin.[17] ^ It was considered so important by the Jesuits that they sometimes called all of Fujian
Fujian
Chinheo.[7] In 1515, Giovanni d'Empoli mistakenly recorded that "Zeiton" was the seat of the "Great Can" who ruled China[36] but Quanzhou
Quanzhou
never served as an imperial capital. ^ Notwithstanding the derivation of Zayton from Quanzhou's old nickname "City of the Tung Trees", some details of Ibn Battuta's description suggest he was referring to Zhangzhou.[10] ^ Quanzhou
Quanzhou
was also the probable point of departure for the Franciscan monk John of Marignolli around the same time but this is uncertain given the partial nature of the record of his time in China.

^ 泉州市2009年国民经济和社会发展统计公报 (in Chinese). Quanzhou
Quanzhou
Municipal Statistic Bureau. 2010-03-08. Retrieved 2010-05-03.  ^ (in Chinese) Compilation by Lianxin website. Data from the Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
China
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References[edit]

 Yule, Henry (1878), "Chinchew", in Baynes, T.S., Encyclopædia Britannica, 5 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 673   Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), "Chinchew", Encyclopædia Britannica, 6 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 231  Ibn Battúta
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(1929), Gibb, H.A.R.; Eileen Power; E. Denison Ross, eds., Travels in Asia and Africa, The Broadway Travellers, Routledge & Kegan Paul, Book II, Ch. XI . Schottenhammer, Angela (2008), The East Asian Mediterranean: Maritime Crossroads of Culture, Commerce, and Human Migration, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3-447-05809-9 . Schottenhammer, Angela (2010), "Transfer of Xiangyao 香藥 from Iran and Arabia to China: A Reinvestigation of Entries in the Youyang Zazu 酉陽雜俎 (863)", Aspects of the Maritime Silk
Silk
Road: From the Persian Gulf to the East China
China
Sea, East Asian Maritime History, Vol. 10, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, p. 145 . Marco Polo
Marco Polo
(1903), "Of the City and Great Haven of Zayton", in Yule, Henry, The Book of Ser Marco Polo
Marco Polo
the Venetian Concerning the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East, 3rd ed., Vol. II , annotated by Henri Cordier in 1920, London: John Murray.

Further reading[edit]

Brown, Bill (2004), Mystic Quanzhou: City of Light, Xiamen: Xiamen University Press .

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Quanzhou.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Quanzhou.

The Stones of Zayton speak from China
China
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