Quanzhou, formerly known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level city
Taiwan Strait in
Fujian Province, China. Its is Fujian's
largest metropolitan region, with an area of 11,245 square kilometers
(4,342 sq mi) and, as of the 2010 census, a population of
8,128,530. Its built-up area is home to 6,107,475 inhabitants,
encompassing the Licheng, Fengze, and Luojiang urban districts;
Jinjiang, Nan'an, and Shishi cities;
Hui'an County; and the Quanzhou
District for Taiwanese Investment.
Quanzhou was China's
12th-largest extended metropolitan area in 2010.
Quanzhou was China's major port for foreign traders, who knew it as
Zaiton,[a] during the 11th through 14th centuries. It was visited by
Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta; both travelers praised it as one of
the most prosperous and glorious cities in the world. It was the naval
base from which the Mongol attacks on Japan and Java were primarily
launched and a cosmopolitan center with Buddhist and Hindu temples,
Islamic mosques, and Christian churches, including a Catholic
cathedral and Franciscan monasteries. A failed revolt prompted a
massacre of the city's foreign communities in 1357. Economic
dislocations—including piracy and an imperial overreaction to it
during the Ming and Qing—reduced its prosperity, with Japanese trade
Zhapu and other foreign trade restricted to
Quanzhou became an opium-smuggling center in the 19th
century but the siltation of its harbor long reduced its capacity for
trade by larger ships.
4 Administrative divisions
6.1 Notable products
8 Colleges and universities
10 Notable residents
14 Further reading
15 External links
Quanzhou is the atonal pinyin romanization of the city's Chinese name
泉州, using its pronunciation in the Mandarin dialect. The name
derives from the city's former status as the seat of the imperial
Chinese Quan ("Spring") Prefecture. Ch‘üan-chou was the Wade-Giles
romanization of the same name; other forms include
Chwanchow-foo, Chwan-chau fu, Chwanchew, Ts'üan-chou,
Tswanchow-foo, Tswanchau, T'swan-chau fu, Ts'wan-chiu,
Ts'wan-chow-fu, Thsiouan-tchéou-fou, and
Thsíouan-chéou-fou. The romanization Chuan-chiu,
Choan-Chiu, and Shanju reflect the local
The Postal Map name of the city was "Chinchew", a variant of
Chincheo, the Portuguese and Spanish transcription of Chiāng-chiu,
Hokkien name for Zhangzhou,[b] the major Fujianese port
trading with Macao and Manila in the 16th and 17th centuries. It is
uncertain when or why British sailors first applied the name to
Quanzhou. Variants include Kangiu, Chinchu, and Chincheu.
Its Arabic name Zaiton or "Zayton" (زيتون), once popular
in English, means "[City] of Olives" and is a calque of Quanzhou's
former Chinese nickname Citong Cheng meaning "tung-tree city", which
is derived from the avenues of oil-bearing tung trees ordered to be
planted around the city by the city's 10th-century ruler Liu
Congxiao. Variant transcriptions from the Arabic name include
Caiton, Çaiton, Çayton, Zaytún, Zaitûn,
Zaitún, and Zaitūn. The common folk etymology of satin as
deriving from "Zaiton cloth" seems, however, unsupported by the
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: The Public Weather Service Center of CMA 1981–2010 normals
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Quanzhou proper lies on a spit of land between the estuaries of the
Jin and Luo rivers as they flow into
Quanzhou Bay on the Taiwan
Strait. Its surrounding prefecture extends west halfway across the
province and is hilly and mountainous. Along with
Xiamen and Zhangzhou
to its south and
Putian to its north, it makes up
Southern Coast region. In its mountainous interior, it borders Longyan
to the southwest and
Sanming to the northwest.
The city features a humid subtropical climate.
Quanzhou has four
distinct seasons. Its moderate temperature ranges from 0 to 38 degrees
Celsius. In summer, there are typhoons that bring rain and some damage
to the city.
The year of 1394
29 December 1604
Tomb of the two worthies, who were among the earliest Islamic
missionaries in China.
Trade routes in
Southeast Asia during Quanzhou's heyday.
Zayton as imagined by a 15th-century European illustrator of The
Travels of Marco Polo
Wang Guoqing (王國慶) used the area as a base of operations for the
Chen State before he was subdued by the Sui general
Yang Su in the
Quanzhou proper was established under the Tang in
718 on a spit of land between two branches of the Jin River.
Muslim traders reached the city early on in its existence, along with
their existing trade at
Guangzhou and Yangzhou.
Already connected to inland
Fujian by roads and canals,
to international importance in the first century of the Song. It
received an office of the maritime trade bureau in 1079 or
1087 and functioned as the starting point of the Maritime Silk
Road into the Yuan, eclipsing both the overland trade routes and
Guangzhou. A 1095 inscription records two convoys, each of twenty
ships, arriving from the Southern Seas each year. Quanzhou's
maritime trade developed the area's ceramics, sugar, alcohol, and salt
industries. 90% of Fujian's ceramic production at the time was
jade-colored celadon, produced for export.
Frankincense was such a
coveted import that promotions for the trade superintendents at
Quanzhou were tied to the amount they were able to bring
in during their terms in office. During this period it was one of
the world's largest and most cosmopolitan seaports.[d] By 1120, its
prefecture claimed a population of around 500,000. Its Luoyang
Bridge was formerly the most celebrated bridge in China. The Anping
Bridge is also well known.
Quanzhou initially continued to thrive under the Southern Song
produced by the Jin–Song Wars. A 1206 report listed merchants from
Arabia, Sumatra, Cambodia, Brunei, Java, Champa, Burma, Korea, and the
city-states of the Philippines. One of its customs inspectors,
Zhao Rugua, completed his compendious Description of Barbarian Nations
c. 1225, recording the people, places, and items involved in China's
foreign trade in his age. Other imperial records from the time use it
as the zero mile for distances between
China and foreign
countries. Tamil merchants carved idols of
Vishnu and Shiva
and constructed Hindu temples in Quanzhou. Over the course of
the 13th century, however, Quanzhou's prosperity declined due to
instability among its trading partners and increasing restrictions
introduced by the Song in an attempt to restrict the outflow of copper
and bronze currency from areas forced to use hyperinflating paper
money. The increasing importance of Japan to China's foreign trade
also benefited Ningbonese merchants at Quanzhou's expense, given their
extensive contacts with Japan's major ports on
Hakata Bay on
Under the Mongolian Yuan dynasty, a superintendent of foreign trade
was established in the city in 1277, along with those at Shanghai,
Ningbo, and Guangzhou. The former Song superintendent Pu Shougeng,
an Arab or Persian Muslim, was retained for the new post, using
his contacts to restore the city's trade under its new rulers. He
was broadly successful, restoring much of the port's former
greatness, and his office became hereditary in his
descendants. Into the 1280s,
Quanzhou sometimes served as the
provincial capital for Fujian.[e] Its population was around
455,000 in 1283, the major items of trade being pepper and other
spices, gemstones, pearls, and porcelain.
Marco Polo recorded that
the Yuan emperors derived "a vast revenue" from their 10% duty on the
port's commerce; he called Quanzhou's port "one of the two
greatest havens in the world for commerce" and "the
Ibn Battuta simply called it the greatest port in the
world.[f] Polo noted its tattoo artists were famed throughout
Southeast Asia. It was the point of departure for Marco Polo's
1292 return expedition, escorting the 17-year-old Mongolian princess
Kököchin to her fiancé in the Persian Ilkhanate; a few decades
later, it was the point of arrival and departure for Ibn
Battuta.[g] Kublai Khan's invasions of Japan and
Java sailed primarily from its port. The Islamic geographer
Abulfeda noted c. 1321 that its city walls remained ruined from its
conquest by the Mongols. In the mid-1320s,
Friar Odoric noted the
town's two Franciscan monasteries, but admitted the Buddhist
monasteries were much larger, with over 3000 monks in one. In 1357,
Shiite Muslim garrison undertook the
Ispah Rebellion against the
Yuan and their local
Sunni Muslim leadership. By 1362, they controlled
the countryside as far as the outskirts of Fuzhou, but after a defeat
by the Yuan there they retreated to Quanzhou. There, their leaders
were killed by Nawuna, a descendant of Pu Shougeng, who was killed in
turn by Chen Youding. Chen began a campaign of persecution against the
city's Sunni community—including massacres and grave
desecration—that eventually became a general anti-Muslim pogrom.
Emigrants fleeing the persecution rose to prominent positions
throughout Southeast Asia, spurring the development of
Islam on Java
and elsewhere. The Yuan were expelled in 1368.
The Ming discouraged foreign commerce other than formal tributary
missions. By 1473, trade had declined to the point that
no longer the headquarters of the imperial customs service for
Fujian. The "Japanese" or "dwarf" pirates, most of whom were
actually disaffected Chinese, forced Quanzhou's Superintendency of
Trade to close completely in 1522. The
Sea Ban that followed did
not help the city's traders or fishermen: they were forced to abandon
their access to the sea for years at a time and coastal farmers forced
to relocate miles inland.
In the 19th century, the city walls still protected a circuit of 7–8
miles (11–13 km) but embraced much vacant ground. The bay
began to attract
Dents' opium ships from 1832. Following
the First Opium War, Governor
Henry Pottinger proposed using Quanzhou
as an official opium depot to keep the trade out of Hong Kong and the
other treaty ports but the rents sought by the imperial commissioner
Qiying were too high. When Chinese pirates overran the receiving
ships in Shenhu Bay to capture their stockpiles of silver bullion in
1847, however, the traders moved to
Quanzhou Bay regardless.
Around 1862, a Protestant mission was set up in Quanzhou. As late as
the middle of the century, large Chinese junks could still access the
town easily, trading in tea, sugar, tobacco, porcelain, and
nankeens, but sand bars created by the rivers around the town had
generally incapacitated its harbor by the First World War. It remained
a large and prosperous city, but conducted its maritime trade through
Quanzhou was listed among CCTV's "Ten Most Charming Cities in
The prefecture-level city of
Quanzhou administers four districts,
three county-level cities, four counties, and two special economic
districts. The People's Republic of
China claims Jinmen County, more
widely known as
Kinmen County, as part of Quanzhou, but the territory
is currently under the jurisdiction of the Republic of China.
Note: PRC claims Jinmen but
has never controlled Jinmen.
Jinmen County *
*: Since its founding in 1949, the People's Republic of China
("Mainland China") has claimed the Jinmen Islands as part of Quanzhou
but has never controlled them. They are presently administered as
Kinmen County in the Republic of
Kaiyuan Temple's Renshou Pagoda
See also: Hinduism in China
Quanzhou was long one of the most cosmopolitan Chinese
cities, with folk, Buddhist, and Hindu temples; Islamic mosques; and
Christian churches, including a cathedral (financed by a rich Armenian
lady) and two Franciscan monasteries.
Andrew of Perugia
Andrew of Perugia served as the
Roman Catholic bishop of the city from 1322. Odoric of Pordenone
was responsible for relocating the relics of the four Franciscans
martyred at Thana in
India in 1321 to the mission in Quanzhou.
Protestant The English Presbyterian missionaries raised a chapel
around 1862. The
Qingjing Mosque dates to 1009 but is now preserved
as a museum. The Buddhist Kaiyuan Temple has been repeatedly
rebuilt but includes two 5-story 13th-century pagodas. Among the
most popular folk or Taoist temples is that to
Guandi (关帝庙), the
war god who is honored for his control of weather and wealth.
Jinjiang also preserves the Cao'an Temple (草庵寺), originally
constructed by Manicheans under the Yuan but now used by New Age
spiritualists, and a
Confucian Temple (文庙, Wenmiao).
Locals speak the
Quanzhou variety of
Min Nan similar to Amoy (spoken
in Xiamen), similar to South East Asian
Hokkien and Taiwanese. It is
essentially the same as the dialect spoken in
Xiamen and is
unintelligible with Mandarin. Many overseas Chinese whose ancestors
came from the
Quanzhou area, especially those in Southeast Asia, often
Hokkien at home. In Taiwan, the locals speak a version of
the Minnan language which is called Taiwanese. Around the "Southern
Min triangle area," which includes Quanzhou,
Xiamen and Zhangzhou,
locals all speak Minnan languages. The dialects they speak are similar
but have different intonations.
New developments east of the city center
Quanzhou has been a center for Chinese emigration to Southeast Asia
and Taiwan. Some of these communities date to Quanzhou's heyday a
millennia ago under the Song and Yuan dynasties. About 6 million
overseas Chinese trace their ancestry to Quanzhou. Most of them live
in Southeast Asian countries like Singapore, the Philippines,
Malaysia, Indonesia, Burma, or Thailand.
Quanzhou's Sunwu Creek
Quanzhou exported black tea, camphor, sugar, indigo,
tobacco, ceramics, cloth made of grass, and some minerals. They
imported, primarily from Guangzhou, wool cloth, wine, and watches, as
of 1832. As of that time, the East
India Company was exporting an
estimated ₤150,000 a year in black tea from Quanzhou.
Quanzhou is a major exporter of agricultural products such as tea,
banana, lychee and rice. It is also a major producer of quarry granite
and ceramics. Other industries include textiles, footwear, fashion and
apparel, packaging, machinery, paper and petrochemicals.
Quanzhou is the biggest automotive market in Fujian; it has the
highest rate of private automobile possession.
Its GDP ranked first in
Fujian Province for 20 years, from 1991 to
2010. In 2008, Quanzhou's textile and apparel production accounted for
10% of China's overall apparel production, the production of sport and
tourism shoes accounts for 80% of Chinese, and 20% of world
production, stone exports account for 50% of Chinese stone exports,
resin handicraft exports account for 70% of the country's total,
ceramic exports account for 67% of the country's total, and candy
production accounts for 20%.
Different districts and counties in
Quanzhou have their own special
industries which are known to the rest of China. Jinjiang and Shishi
are famous for apparel and textiles,
Huian is famous for its stone,
Quangang is famous for petrifaction,
Dehua for Ceramics, Yongchun for
Citrus, Anxi for wulong tea, Nan An for building materials, and Fengze
for resin.
Dehua porcelain (德化瓷器)
Huian stoneware (惠安石刻)
Jinjiang International airport
Quanzhou Railway Station
Buses in Quanzhou
Quanzhou is an important transport hub within southeastern Fujian
province. Many export industries in the
Fujian interior cities will
transport goods to
Quanzhou Port was one of the most
prosperous port in
Tang Dynasty while now still an important one for
Quanzhou is also connected by major roads from
the north and
Xiamen to the south.
There is a passenger ferry terminal in Shijing, Nan'an, Fujian, with
regular service to the Shuitou Port in the ROC-controlled Kinmen
Quanzhou Jinjiang International Airport
Quanzhou Jinjiang International Airport is
Quanzhou region's airport,
served by passenger flights within
Fujian province and other
destinations throughout the country.
Quanzhou has two kinds of railway service. The
Zhangping–Quanzhou–Xiaocuo Railway, a "conventional" rail line
opened ca. 2001, connects several cargo stations within Quanzhou
Prefecture with the interior of
Fujian and the rest of the country.
Until 2014, this line also had passenger service, with fairly slow
passenger trains from Beijing, Wuhan, and other places throughout the
country terminating at the
Quanzhou East Railway Station, a few
kilometers northeast of the center of the city. Passenger service on
this line was terminated, and
Quanzhou East Railway Station closed on
December 9, 2014.
Quanzhou is served by the high-speed Fuzhou–Xiamen
Railway, part of the Hangzhou–Fuzhou–Shenzhen High-Speed Railway,
which runs along China's southeastern sea coast. High-speed trains on
this line stop at
Quanzhou Railway Station
Quanzhou Railway Station (in
Beifeng Subdistrict of
Fengze District, some 10 miles north of
Quanzhou city center) and
Jinjiang Railway Station. Trains to
Xiamen take under 45 minutes,
making it a convenient weekend or day trip. By 2015, direct high-speed
service has become available to a number of cities in the country's
interior, from Beijing to Chongqing and Guiyang.
Long-distance bus services also run daily/nightly to Shenzhen and
other major cities.
Colleges and universities
Huaqiao University (national)
Yang-en University (private)
Quanzhou Normal University (public)
Quanzhou Medical College (public)
Huguang Photography and Art College
Liming Vocational University(public)
Quanzhou is generally ignored by Chinese tourists in favor of nearby
Quanzhou was one of the 24 famous historic
cultural cities first approved by the Chinese government. Notable
cultural practices include:
Liyuan Opera (梨园戏)
Puppet Show (提线木偶戏)
Gaojia Opera (高甲戏)
Dacheng Opera (打城戏)
Nanyin (南音), a musical style dating to the Han but performed in
the local dialect
Five Ancestors Fist (泉州五祖拳)
Yongchun martial arts
The city hosted the Sixth
National Peasants' Games in 2008. Signature
local dishes include rice dumplings and oyster omelettes.
Notable Historical and cultural sites (the 18 views of
recommended by the
Fujian tourism board) include the Ashab Mosque and
Kaiyuan Temple mentioned above, as well as:
Qing Yuan mountain (清源山) - The tallest hill within the city
limits, which hosts a great view of West lake.
East Lake Park (东湖) - Located in the city center. It is home to a
West Lake Park (西湖公园) - The largest body of fresh water within
the city limits.
Scholar Street (状元街) - Champion street about 500 meters long,
elegant environment, mainly engaged in tourism and cultural crafts.
Notable Modern cultural sites include:
Fengze Square - Located in the city center and acts as a venue for
shows and events.
Dapingshan - The second tallest hill within the city limits, crowned
with an enormous equestrian statue of Zheng Chenggong.
The Embassy Lounge - Situated in the "1916 Cultural Ideas Zone" which
acts as a platform for mixing traditional Chinese art with modern
building techniques and designs
Relics from Quanzhou's past are preserved at the Maritime or
Overseas-Relations History Museum. It includes large exhibits on
Song-era ships and Yuan-era tombstones. A particularly important
exhibit is the so-called
Quanzhou ship, a seagoing junk that sunk some
time after 1272 and was recovered in 1973–74.
The old city center preserves "balcony buildings" (骑楼, qilou), a
style of southern
Chinese architecture from the Republican Era.
Li Nu, son of Li Lu, visited Hormuz in
Persia in 1376, converted to
Islam, married a Persian girl, and brought her back to Quanzhou. Li Nu
was the ancestor of the Ming reformer Li Chih.
The Ding or Ting family of Chendai in
Quanzhou claims descent from the
Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar through his son Nasr
al-Din or Nasruddin (Chinese: Nasulading). The Dings have branches
in Taiwan, the Philippines, and
Malaysia among the Chinese communities
there, no longer practicing
Islam but still maintaining a Hui
identity. The deputy secretary-general of the Chinese Muslim
Association on Taiwan, Ishag Ma (馬孝棋) has claimed "Sayyid is an
honorable title given to descendants of the Prophet Mohammed, hence
Sayyid Shamsuddin must be connected to Prophet Mohammed". The Ding
Taisi Township in
Yunlin County of Taiwan, traces descent
from him through the Ding of
Quanzhou in Fujian. Nasruddin was
appointed governor in Karadjang and retained his position in Yunnan
till his death, which Rashid, writing about 1300, says occurred five
or six years before. (According to the Yüan shi, "Nasulading" died in
1292.) Nasruddin's son Abubeker, who had the surname Bayan Fenchan
(evidently the Boyen ch'a-r of the Yüan shi), was governor in Zaitun
at the time Rashid wrote. He bore also his grandfather's title of
Sayid Edjell and was Minister of Finance under Kublai's successor.
Nasruddin is mentioned by Marco Polo, who styles him
Quanzhou is also the birthplace of the actress Yao Chen.
Mount Qingyuan Buddha
Quanzhou Tianhou temple
Quanzhou Buddhist Temple
^ Zaiton's identification with
Quanzhou was controversial in the 19th
century, with some scholars preferring to associate Polo and Ibn
Battuta's great port with the much more attractive harbor at
a variety of pretexts. The Chinese records are, however, clear as to
Quanzhou's former status and the earlier excellence of its harbor,
which slowly silted up over the centuries.
Zhangzhou itself is named for its former status as the seat of the
imperial Chinese Zhang River Prefecture.
^ "Satin" actually derives via French from the Italian adjective
setino ("silken") derived from
Latin sētā ("silk").
^ Among other testaments to this age are tombstones which have been
found written in Chinese, Arabic, Syriac, and Latin.
^ It was considered so important by the Jesuits that they sometimes
called all of
Fujian Chinheo. In 1515, Giovanni d'Empoli mistakenly
recorded that "Zeiton" was the seat of the "Great Can" who ruled
Quanzhou never served as an imperial capital.
^ Notwithstanding the derivation of Zayton from Quanzhou's old
nickname "City of the Tung Trees", some details of Ibn Battuta's
description suggest he was referring to Zhangzhou.
Quanzhou was also the probable point of departure for the Franciscan
John of Marignolli around the same time but this is uncertain
given the partial nature of the record of his time in China.
^ 泉州市2009年国民经济和社会发展统计公报 (in
Quanzhou Municipal Statistic Bureau. 2010-03-08. Retrieved
^ (in Chinese) Compilation by Lianxin website. Data from the Sixth
National Population Census of the People's Republic of
March 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
^ a b EB (1911).
^ The Cambridge History of China, Vol. VI, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1994 .
^ Long So Kee (1991), "Financial Crisis and Local Economy:
Ch'üan-chou in the Thirteenth Century", T'oung Pao, No. 77,
pp. 119–37 .
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m EB (1878).
^ a b c d e f g h Yule & Cordier (1920), p. 237.
^ a b Yule & Cordier (1920), p. 617.
^ a b c d e Yule & Cordier (1920), p. 238.
^ a b c Yule & Cordier (1920), p. 233.
^ a b c Gibb (1929), p. 8.
^ Pitcher, Philip Wilson (1893), Fifty Years in Amoy or A History of
the Amoy Mission, China, New York: Reformed Church in America,
p. 33 .
^ Abulfeda, Geography, recorded by Cordier.
^ Postal Atlas of China.
^ Knight's (1841), p. 136.
^ a b c d e f g h Allaire, Gloria (2000), "Zaiton", Trade, Travel, and
Exploration in the Middle Ages: An Encyclopedia, Abingdon:
^ Goodrich, L. Carrington (1957), "Recent Discoveries at Zayton",
Journal of the American Oriental Society, No. 77,
pp. 161–5 .
^ a b Schottenhammer (2010), p. 145.
^ Haw, Stephen G. (2006), Marco Polo's China: a Venetian in the realm
of Khubilai Khan, Volume 3 of Routledge studies in the early history
of Asia, Psychology Press, p. 121, ISBN 0-415-34850-1
^ a b c Yule & Cordier (1920), p. 234.
^ Tellier, Luc-Normand (2009), Urban World History: An Economic and
Geographical Perspective, Quebec: University of Quebec Press,
p. 221, ISBN 978-2-7605-1588-8 .
^ As in the Encyclopædia Britannica and in Tellier.
^ a b "satin, n. (and adj.)", Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 1909 .
Yang Su 楊素 (544–606), zi Chudao 處道", Ancient and Early
Medieval Chinese Literature, Vol. III, Leiden: Brill, 2014,
p. 1831 .
^ Schottenhammer (2010), p. 117.
^ a b c d e f Von Glahn, Richard, The Economic History of China: From
Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century, p. 394 .
^ Qi Xia (1999), Economy of the Song Dynasty
[漆侠中国经济通史：宋代经济卷, Zhongguo Jingji Tongshi:
Song Dai Jingji Juan], pp. 1175–78,
ISBN 7-80127-462-8 . (in Chinese)
^ Wade (2015), p. 81.
^ Ye Yiliang (2010), "Introductory Essay: Outline of the Political
Relations between Iran and China", Aspects of the Maritime
From the Persian Gulf to the East
China Sea, East Asian Maritime
History, Vol. 10, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, p. 5 .
^ Pearson, Richard; Li Min; Li Guo (2001), "Port, City, and
Hinterlands: Archaeological Perspectives on
Quanzhou and its Overseas
Trade", The Emporium of the World: Maritime Quanzhou, 1000–1400,
Sinica Leidensia, Vol. 49, Brill, p. 192,
ISBN 90-04-11773-3 .
^ Schottenhammer (2010), p. 130.
^ Bowman, John, "China", Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and
Culture, p. 32 .
^ a b c d e Yule & Cordier (1920), p. 239.
^ Chow Chung-wah (7 September 2012), "Quanzhou: China's Forgotten
Historic Port", CNN Travel, Atlanta .
^ Krishnan, Ananth (19 July 2013), "Behind China's Hindu temples, a
Forgotten History", The Hindu .
^ "China's Hindu Temples: A Forgotten History", The Hindu, YouTube, 18
^ Schottenhammer, Angela (2001), "The Role of Metals and the Impact of
the Introduction of Huizi
Paper Notes in
Quanzhou on the Development
of Maritime Trade in the Song Period", The Emporium of the World:
Maritime Quanzhou, 1000–1400, Sinica Leidensia, Vol. 49, Brill,
153 ff, ISBN 90-04-11773-3 .
^ a b c Wade, Geoff (2015), "Chinese Engagement with the Indian Ocean
during the Song, Yuan, and Ming Dynasties (Tenth to Sixteenth
Centuries)", in Pearson, Michael, Trade, Circulation, and Flow in the
Indian Ocean World, Palgrave Series in Indian Ocean World Studies,
Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 72 .
^ a b c Wade, Geoff (2012), "Southeast Asian
Islam and Southern China
in the Fourteenth Century", Anthony Reid and the Study of the
Southeast Asian Past, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies,
pp. 131 ff .
^ Wade (2015), p. 73.
^ a b c Yule & Cordier (1920), p. 235.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k CNN, By Ramy Inocencio, for. "Could world's
tallest building bring
China to its knees? - CNN.com". Retrieved 29
^ Yule & Cordier (1920).
^ Rossabi, Morris, The Mongols: A Very Short Introduction,
p. 111 .
^ Sen Tan Ta Dasheng, Chen (2009), Cheng Ho and
Islam in Southeast
Asia, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, p. 186,
ISBN 9789812308375 .
^ a b c Nield, Robert, China's Foreign Places: The Foreign Presence in
China in the Treaty Port Era..., p. 68 .
^ Kauz, Ralph (2010), "A Kāzarūnī Network?", Aspects of the
Silk Road: From the Persian Gulf to the East
China Sea, East
Asian Maritime History, Vol. 10, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag,
p. 65 .
^ Wade (2015), p. 68.
^ Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of
Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers.
^ Quanzhou, Fujian. InJ. R. Logan (Ed.), The new Chinese city:
Globalization and market reform (pp. 227-245). Oxford: Blackwell
^ KFC, McDonald's to Open Drive-in Restaurants in
China Business Daily News. London (UK): Aug 23, 2007. pg. 1
^ 泉州东站将停止办理客运业务 (
Quanzhou East Station will
stop passenger service), 2014-12-04
^ The Embassy Lounge.
^ a b
Quanzhou Overseas-Relations History Museum
^ Association for Asian studies (Ann Arbor; Michigan) (1976), A-L,
Vols. 1-2, New York: Columbia University Press, p. 817,
ISBN 9780231038010 .
^ Chen, Da-Sheng. "Chinese-Iranian Relations, VII: Persian Settlements
China during the T'ang, Sung, and Yuan Dynasties".
Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
^ Needham, Joseph (1971). Science and Civilisation in China, Vol. 4.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 495.
^ Schottenhammer (2008), p. 123.
^ Loa Iok-Sin / STAFF REPORTER (August 31, 2008). "FEATURE :
Taisi Township re-engages its Muslim roots". Taipei Times. p. 4.
Retrieved May 29, 2011.
^ D'Ohsson, tom. ii, pp. 476, 507, 508.
^ vol. ii, p. 66.
^ Journal of the North-
China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, New
Series, Vol. X. Shanghai: Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and
China Branch. 1876. p. 122.
^ Bretschneider, E. (1876). Notices of the Mediaeval Geography and
History of Central and Western Asia. London: Trübner & Co.
Yule, Henry (1878), "Chinchew", in Baynes, T.S., Encyclopædia
Britannica, 5 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons,
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), "Chinchew", Encyclopædia
Britannica, 6 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press,
Ibn Battúta (1929), Gibb, H.A.R.; Eileen Power; E. Denison Ross,
eds., Travels in Asia and Africa, The Broadway Travellers, Routledge
& Kegan Paul, Book II, Ch. XI .
Schottenhammer, Angela (2008), The East Asian Mediterranean: Maritime
Crossroads of Culture, Commerce, and Human Migration, Otto
Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3-447-05809-9 .
Schottenhammer, Angela (2010), "Transfer of Xiangyao 香藥 from Iran
and Arabia to China: A Reinvestigation of Entries in the Youyang Zazu
酉陽雜俎 (863)", Aspects of the Maritime
Silk Road: From the
Persian Gulf to the East
China Sea, East Asian Maritime History, Vol.
10, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, p. 145 .
Marco Polo (1903), "Of the City and Great Haven of Zayton", in Yule,
Henry, The Book of Ser
Marco Polo the Venetian Concerning the Kingdoms
and Marvels of the East, 3rd ed., Vol. II , annotated by Henri
Cordier in 1920, London: John Murray.
Brown, Bill (2004), Mystic Quanzhou: City of Light, Xiamen: Xiamen
University Press .
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Quanzhou.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Quanzhou.
The Stones of Zayton speak from
China Heritage Newsletter
Fuzhou (PRC capital)
Jincheng (ROC capital)
Xiamen University of Technology
Min Chinese language
Hokkien earthen buildings
Shoushan stone carvings
Tale of the
Gongfu tea ceremony
Fujian White Crane
Dog Kung Fu
Bak kut teh
Buddha jumps over the wall
South Putuo Temple
County-level divisions of
Fujian Free-Trade Zone
Fujian Free-Trade Zone
Fujian Free-Trade Zone
Fujian Free-Trade Zone
¹ — Jinmen (Kinmen/Quemoy) is administered as a county by the
Republic of China, but claimed by the PRC.