The Quanrong (Chinese: 犬戎; pinyin: Quǎn Róng) or Dog Rong[a] were an ethnic group classified by the ancient Chinese as "Qiang" active in the northwestern part of China during the Zhou dynasty (1046–221 BCE) and after. Their language or languages are considered to have been members of the Tibeto-Burman branch of the Sino-Tibetan languages.
1 Etymology 2 See also 3 Notes 4 References
Quanrong was a later name for the
(written with xian, defined as a kind of dog with a long snout [Erya]
or a black dog with a yellow face [Shuowen Jiezi]). According to
sinologist Li Feng, "It is very probable that when the term Xianyun
came to be written with the two characters 獫狁, the notion of 'dog'
associated with the character xian thus gave rise to the term Quanrong
犬戎, or the 'Dog Barbarians'."
Claiming ancestry from two white dogs, the
Quanrong tribe worshipped a
totem in the form of a white dog. They are classified
as a nomadic tribe of the Qiang and were the sworn enemies of the
Former Emperor Gaoxin's (father of Emperor Yao) enemies were the Quanrong. The Emperor suffered violent invasion at their hands but did not retaliate.
The Discourses of Zhou in the Guoyu records that at the time of King
Mu of Zhou the power of the
Quanrong gradually increased. Conflicts
during the king's reign made him consider a punitive expedition to the
west against them. Duke of Zhai was against his father's plan: "this
is not advisable. The illustrious former Emperors[b] did not advocate
the use of force." King Mu did not listen but won an unexpected
victory in the subsequent clash, capturing the five kings of the
Quanrong along with five white wolves and five white deer.
In 771 BCE, the
Marquess of Shen invited the
Quanrong to join him in
an attack on King You of Zhou. The joint force subsequently occupied
the Zhōu capital Haojing, killing King You and capturing his
concubine Bao Si. In the end, the invaders left after taking a tribute
from the Zhou and stealing the Nine Tripod Cauldrons. Duke Xiang of
Qin sent an army to assist the Zhou as well as troops to escort King
King Ping of Zhou to the eastern capital of Chengzhou,
effectively ending the Western Zhou and ushering in the beginning of
More than 1.3 million households, roughly six million people, offer tribute to the White Wolves and other clans.
During the reign of
Emperor Taizong of Tang
The traditional base of the Quanrong is modern Wēiróng Town in Jingning County, Gansu. See also
Xirong (people) Shan Rong Murong Khitan people Jurchen people Chunwei Guifang Xianyun
Quanrong are sometimes referred to as the Báigǒu (白狗
"White Dogs") or Báiláng (白狼 "White Wolves").
Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors
^ Li, Feng (2006). Landscape And Power In Early China. Cambridge University Press. Page 346. ^ Duke of Zhai advises against expedition against the Quanrong (in Chinese) ^ 静宁威戎镇：犬戎定鼎之地？
Lectures on Wolf