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Oodgeroo Noonuccal[1]

Leeanne Enoch

Moreton Bay, Moreton Island
Moreton Island
and North Stradbroke Island, the traditional homes of the Quandamooka people

The Quandamooka people
Quandamooka people
are an Aboriginal Australian
Aboriginal Australian
group that live around Moreton Bay
Moreton Bay
in Southeastern Queensland. They are composed of three distinct tribes, the Nunukul, the Goenpul[a] and the Ngugi, and they live primarily on Moreton and North Stradbroke Islands, that form the eastern side of the bay. Many of them were pushed out of their lands when the English colonial government established a penal colony near there in 1824. Each tribe has its own language. A number of local food sources are utilised by the tribes.

Contents

1 Name 2 History 3 Culture

3.1 Nomadism 3.2 Language 3.3 Food 3.4 Art and tools

4 Native title 5 Prominent people

5.1 Oodgeroo Noonuccal 5.2 Leeanne Enoch 5.3 Lisa Bellear 5.4 Bob Bellear 5.5 Megan Cope

6 Notes

6.1 Citations

7 Sources

Name[edit] The term Quandamooka refers geographically to the southern Moreton Bay, the waters, islands and adjacent coastal areas of the mainland.[3] The Nunukul and Goenpul tribes lived on Stradbroke Island, while the Ngugi tribe lived on Moreton Island.[4] The Nunukul, Goenpul and Ngugi tribes together constitute the Quandamooka people.[3] History[edit] The archaeological remains of the Moreton Bay
Moreton Bay
islands were studied intensively by V.V. Ponosov in the mid 1960s,[5] and indigenous occupation of the islands seems to go back at least some 18,000 years BP.[6] The Quandamooka people
Quandamooka people
first encountered Europeans in 1799, when the English navigator and cartographer Matthew Flinders
Matthew Flinders
passsed several weeks exploring Moreton Bay.[7] The Moreton Bay
Moreton Bay
people occasionally took in and cared for English ticket-of-leave castaways, most notably Thomas Pamphlet, Richard Parsons and John Finnegan, whom the explorer John Oxley
John Oxley
found when he sailed into the bay in 1823.[8] The first settlement, a penal colony, was established the following year by Oxley at Redcliffe with 50 settlers, 20-30 of whom were convicts.[9][b] Contacts were scarce for over a decade, as no free settlers were allowed to enter within a 50 mile radius of the penal colony.[10] As free settlers began to move in, the indigenous peoples were pushed out of the more fertile lands into the coastal fringe, with many of them moving to the less occupied small islands.[11] The three Quandamooka peoples each faced dispossession and the loss of their hunting and fishing grounds. The presence of settlers introduced a number of diseases that ravaged the islands and coastal areas. Forced displacements and the removal of children also had an impact.[12] The indigenous people living on Stradbroke island were able to sustain their lifestyle for the longest period; however, in 1897 the Aboriginal Protection and Restriction of the sale of Opium Act moved all indigenous people to reservations, with the exception of those who were imprisoned or were employed as servants.[citation needed] Culture[edit] Nomadism[edit] The lifestyle of the Quandamooka people
Quandamooka people
was nomadic, moving between semi-permanent campsites. They built shelters of various kinds, ranging from simple lean-tos for an overnight stay to more robust huts used at well-frequented campsites. Their traditions were recorded in the form of art, songs, and dances.[11] Language[edit] The three tribes that comprise the Quandamooka people
Quandamooka people
spoke dialects of a Durubalic language. The language that the Goenpul tribe of central and southern Stradbroke Island speaks is Jandai, and the Nunukul dialect of northern Stradbroke island was called Moondjan, the term for its distinctive word for 'no'.[13] Food[edit] The Quandamooka people
Quandamooka people
used several local food sources, including many from the ocean. The collection of these resources was often segregated by gender. Canoes were used to fish in Moreton Bay
Moreton Bay
for Mullet, and to hunt Dugongs and Sea Turtles. They were also used to travel to the mainland to hunt.[11] Hunting and fishing were male specialisations. Dugongs were highly prized catch, because of their multiple uses. The meat was roasted and eaten, while medicinal oil was also obtained from the animals. The men used several different techniques to catch fish. These included netting them from canoes using nets made of vines or bark, spearing them, and trapping them.[11] The collection of other sources of food was done by women. These included shellfish, fern roots, Pandanus
Pandanus
trees, insect larvae, berries, lily bulbs, honey, and small game. The fern roots were roasted and pounded into flour, while the fleshy part of Pandanus trees were used to make a drink. The game animals consumed by the Quandamooka included lizards, snakes, waterbirds, and marsupials.[11] Art and tools[edit] The Quandamooka people
Quandamooka people
made several tools and weapons from materials found locally. These included boomerangs and shields, as well as dilly bags made from woven reeds. These tools were frequently decorated with patterns, which were either burned or painted. Tools and weapons were also occasionally traded with other nearby tribes.[11] Native title[edit] On 4 July 2011, the Quandamooka people
Quandamooka people
were granted Native title to a 568-square-kilometre (219 sq mi) plot of land, following a 16-year legal battle. The title that was granted covered most of North Stradbroke Island, many smaller islands, and the adjoining parts of Moreton Bay. The title was the first granted to indigenous people in South Queensland.[14][15] Prominent people[edit] Oodgeroo Noonuccal[edit] Oodgeroo Noonuccal
Oodgeroo Noonuccal
(born Kath Walker, 1920-1993) was one of the most nationally prominent members of the Quandamooka people. She served as a wireless operator in the Australian Women's Army Service, and later became a poet.[16] She was also a political activist, campaigning for Aboriginal rights.[17] Oodgeroo was best known for her poetry, and was hailed as the first Aboriginal Australian
Aboriginal Australian
to publish a book of verse.[18] Leeanne Enoch[edit] Leeanne Enoch, a Quandamooka of Nunukul-Nughi descent, is the Labor party member for the district of Algester in the Queensland
Queensland
assembly since 2015. She is the first indigenous woman to be elected to the Parliament of Queensland.[19][20] Lisa Bellear[edit] Lisa Bellear (2 May 1961 in Melbourne, Victoria – 5 July 2006 in Melbourne) was an Indigenous Australian poet, photographer, activist, spokeswoman, dramatist, comedian and broadcaster. Bellear was a broadcaster at the community radio station 3CR in Melbourne where she presented the show 'Not Another Koori Show' for over 20 years.[21] Bob Bellear[edit] Bob Bellear also known as Robert William "Bob" Bellear (17 June 1944 — 15 March 2005) was an Australian social activist, lawyer and judge. Robert was the first Aboriginal Australian
Aboriginal Australian
judge. His grandmother was an Aboriginal Australian
Aboriginal Australian
woman from Minjerribah, married to a Vanuatu
Vanuatu
man blackbirded Jack Corowa.[21][22] Megan Cope[edit] Megan Cope is a contemporary Indigenous Australian artist. Cope is a member of the Brisbane based Indigenous Art Collective ProppaNOW and was the winner of the Western Australian Indigenous Art Award 2015 for her video satire of Australian stereotypes over indigenous inclusion The Blaktism.[23][24] Notes[edit]

^ The Goenpul's contemporary descendants prefer the ethnonym Dandrubin Gorenpul.[2] ^ Dutton, in 1983, 4 years before Hughes' book, writes of 20 convicts and 14 soldiers, plus an assortment of help and family.[10]

Citations[edit]

^ Fox 2011, p. 106. ^ Ross et al. 2016, p. 4. ^ a b O'Faircheallaigh 2015, p. 125. ^ Connors 2015, p. 30. ^ Ponosov 1974. ^ Diamond 2012, p. 1. ^ Dutton 1983, p. 93. ^ Dutton 1983, pp. 94–95. ^ Hughes 2010, pp. 441–442. ^ a b Dutton 1983, p. 96. ^ a b c d e f wynnummanly.com. ^ Ivanitz 2000, p. 83. ^ Dixon 2002, p. xxxiv. ^ Qsnts.com.au. ^ Quandamooka. ^ Collins 1994, p. 1. ^ Collins 1994, pp. 2–3. ^ Fox 2011, p. 109. ^ Robertson 2015. ^ Green 2015. ^ a b Brown 2006. ^ Manning 2005. ^ Northover 2014. ^ Rainforth 2015.

Sources[edit]

Brown, Jen Jewel (24 July 2006). "An inspiring, dynamic warrior woman". The Sydney Morning Herald.  Collins, John (1994). "Obituary: Oodgeroo of the Tribe Noonuccal". Aboriginal History. 18 (1-2): 1–4.  Connors, Libby (2015). Warrior: A legendary leader's dramatic life and violent death on the colonial frontier. Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1-760-11048-2.  Diamond, Marion (July 2012). Stradbroke: A Brief History (pdf). Fryer Folios. pp. 1–4.  Dixon, Robert M. W. (2002). Australian Languages: Their Nature and Development. Volume 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-47378-1.  Dutton, Tom (1983). "The origin and spread of Aboriginal Pidgin English in Queensland
Queensland
and: A Prelimionary Account" (PDF). Aboriginal History. Cambridge University Press. 7 (1-2): 90–122.  Fox, Karen (2011). Maori and Aboriginal Women in the Public Eye. ANU E Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-1-921-86262-5.  Green, Antony (2 February 2015). "Algester". Australian Broadcasting Corporation.  Hughes, Robert (2010) [First published 1987]. The Fatal Shore. Random House. pp. 440–450. ISBN 978-1-407-05407-0.  Ivanitz, Michele (2000) [First published 1987]. "Local Government and Native Title Process Agreements in Australia and Canada: Ethical practice and shifting contexts". In Bishop, Patrick; Preston, Noel. Local Government, Public Enterprise and Ethics. Federation Press. pp. 79–101. ISBN 978-1-862-87135-9.  "Local Indigenous Peoples". wynnummanly.com. Retrieved 23 March 2015.  Manning, Peter (17 March 2005). "From the depths to the heights". The Sydney Morning Herald.  Northover, Kylie (29 April 2014). "Artist Megan Cope takes a fresh look at the question of identity". The Sydney Morning Herald.  O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran (2015). Negotiations in the Indigenous World: Aboriginal Peoples and the Extractive Industry in Australia and Canada. Routledge. p. 125. ISBN 978-1-317-51153-3.  Ponosov, Vladimir Vasil'evich (1974). Results of an archaeological survey of the Southern region of Moreton Bay
Moreton Bay
and of Moreton Island (1963-1964) (pdf). University of Queensland.  "QSNTS - Quandamooka People". Qsnts.com.au. Retrieved 23 March 2015.  "Quandamooka". Redland.qld.gov.au. Retrieved 23 March 2015.  Rainforth, Dylasn (15 July 2015). "WA Artist Megan Cope takes a fresh look at the question of identity". The Sydney Morning Herald.  Robertson, Joshua (1 February 2015). "Leeanne Enoch's election in Queensland
Queensland
'opens door' for Indigenous politicians". The Guardian.  Ross, Anne; Sherman, Kathleen Pickering; Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Delcore, Henry D; Sherman, Richard (2016). Indigenous Peoples and the Collaborative Stewardship of Nature: Knowledge Binds and Institutional Conflicts (PDF). Routledge. ISBN 978-1-315-42659-4. 

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