Keying (21 March 1787 – 29 June 1858), also known by his Chinese
name Qiying and his
Manchu name Kiyeng, was a
Manchu statesman during
Qing dynasty of China. An imperial clansman of the house of Aisin
Gioro, he began his career in the Imperial Clan Court. He conducted
several peace treaties with Western powers, beginning with the Treaty
of Nanking, which ended the
First Opium War
First Opium War with Britain in 1842.
Keying was sent to negotiate again in 1858 to settle the Arrow War
with Britain and France, but the settlement was repudiated by the
Daoguang Emperor and he was forced to commit suicide. He was well
regarded in the Western world[not in citation given] and well received
in Hong Kong.
1 Early career
2 Opium Wars
Keying was born on 21 March 1787. A descendant of Nurhaci's ninth
son Babutai, Keying was a member of the imperial house of Aisin Gioro,
and belonged to the
Manchu Plain Blue Banner in the Eight Banners. He
held several prominent posts in the Qing government and was demoted
several times because of corruption in office, but managed to regain
his position as a leading official in the Qing court.
In 1842, the
Daoguang Emperor entrusted Keying to conclude a peace
treaty with the Britain following the First Opium War, and he was
chiefly responsible for negotiating and signing the Treaty of Nanking.
The following year, he signed the
Treaty of the Bogue to supplement
the Treaty of Nanking. He also concluded the
Treaty of Wanghia
Treaty of Wanghia (1844)
with the United States, the
Treaty of Whampoa (1844) with France, and
Treaty of Canton (1847) with Sweden-Norway. This is the first
group of what the Chinese later called the unequal treaties.
In 1858, the
Xianfeng Emperor ordered Keying to negotiate a peace
treaty with Britain and France to conclude the Second Opium War.
During the negotiations, the British interpreters Horatio Nelson Lay
Thomas Francis Wade
Thomas Francis Wade sought to expose Keying's duplicity by
producing documents the British had captured in Guangzhou, in which
Keying expressed his contempt for the British. Humiliated, Keying
promptly left the negotiations in Tianjin for
Beijing and he was later
arrested for having left his post in contravention of imperial order.
He was sentenced to death by the Imperial Clan Court, but was allowed
to commit suicide instead.
Keying, the first Chinese ship to sail to Britain and America.
Keying and Marine House, became part of the
Hong Kong Hotel
Hong Kong Hotel in
^ Fang Chao-ying (1943). "Ch'i-ying (Kiying)". In Hummel, Arthur
William. Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period (1644-1912). Volume 1.
Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 131–134.
^ Curiosities of Modern Travel: A Year-book of Adventure (1847).
London: David Bogue. p. 69.
^ Gao Zhonghua (2005). Sushun yu Xianfeng zhengju. Jinan: Qilu shushe.
p. 165, n. 1.
^ "Our History". The Hongkong and Shanghai Hotels, Limited.
Fairbank, John King (1939). "The
Manchu Appeasement Policy of 1843".
Journal of the American Oriental Society 59 (4): 469–484.
The Indian mail, Issue 1.
Viceroy of Liangjiang
Viceroy of Liangguang