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Qingdao
Qingdao
([tɕʰíŋtàu]; also spelled Tsingtao) is a city in eastern Shandong
Shandong
Province on the east coast of China. It is the largest city in its province. Administered at the sub-provincial level,[1] Qingdao
Qingdao
has jurisdiction over six districts and four county-level cities. As of 2014[update] Qingdao
Qingdao
had a population of 9,046,200 with an urban population of 6,188,100.[2] Lying across the Shandong
Shandong
Peninsula and looking out to the Yellow Sea, it borders Yantai
Yantai
to the northeast, Weifang
Weifang
to the west and Rizhao
Rizhao
to the southwest. Qingdao
Qingdao
is a major seaport, naval base, and industrial centre. The world's longest sea bridge, the Jiaozhou Bay
Jiaozhou Bay
Bridge, links the main urban area of Qingdao
Qingdao
with Huangdao
Huangdao
district, straddling the Jiaozhou Bay sea areas.[3] It is also the site of the Tsingtao Brewery, the second largest brewery in China.[4] In 2017, Qingdao
Qingdao
ranks 38th in the Global Financial Centres Index published by the Z/Yen Group and Qatar Financial Centre
Qatar Financial Centre
Authority, the other Chinese cities on the list being Hong Kong, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Beijing
Beijing
and Dalian.[5] In 2007, Qingdao
Qingdao
was named as among China's top ten cities by the Chinese Cities Brand Value Report, which was released at the 2007 Beijing
Beijing
Summit of China
China
Cities Forum.[6] In 2009, Qingdao
Qingdao
was named China's most livable city by the Chinese Institute of City Competitiveness.[7][8]

Contents

1 Other names 2 History

2.1 Ancient times 2.2 German colonial period and Japanese occupations 2.3 Qingdao
Qingdao
city planning and development

2.3.1 1891–1914 2.3.2 1914–1922 2.3.3 1922–1938 2.3.4 1938–1945

2.4 Post–World War II

3 Administrative divisions 4 Geography

4.1 Climate 4.2 Demographics

5 Economy

5.1 Industrial zones

6 Transport

6.1 Road 6.2 Marine 6.3 Aviation 6.4 Intercity rail 6.5 Public transport 6.6 Subway

7 Military 8 Culture

8.1 Architecture 8.2 Notable people 8.3 Movies shot in Qingdao 8.4 Language 8.5 Cuisine 8.6 Festivals

9 Media 10 Tourism

10.1 Western Shinan district 10.2 Eastern Shinan district 10.3 Laoshan district (崂山区) 10.4 Other districts of Qingdao

11 Education

11.1 Post-secondary educational institutions 11.2 International schools 11.3 Secondary schools

12 Sports

12.1 Stadiums 12.2 2008 Olympic Summer Games 12.3 Football 12.4 Basketball 12.5 Badminton 12.6 Arena Football 12.7 Motorsport 12.8 Surfing

13 See also 14 References 15 Notes 16 External links

Other names[edit]

Jiāo'ào: (胶澳): former name during the Qing dynasty. Qindao: (琴岛, lit. "Stringed Instrument Isle"): additional modern name for the area, refers according to locals to the shape of the coastline. Tsingtao: Postal romanization Tsingtau: German name during their concession period (1898-1914), written in German romanization of Chinese (Lessing-Othmer). Jiaozhou: a historical name which refers to the Jiaozhou Bay. Kiaochow, Kiauchau, Kiautschou: romanizations of Jiaozhou.

History[edit] Ancient times[edit] Human settlement in the area dates back 6,000 years. The Dongyi nationality, one of the important origins of the Chinese nation, lived here and created the Dawenkou, Longshan and Dongyeshi cultures. In the Eastern Zhou Dynasty
Eastern Zhou Dynasty
(770 B.C. – 256 B.C.), the town of Jimo
Jimo
was established, which was then the second largest one in the Shandong region. The area in which Qingdao
Qingdao
is located today was named Jiao'ao (胶澳) when it was administered by the Qing Dynasty on 14 June 1891. German colonial period and Japanese occupations[edit]

Sketch map of Tsingtao, circa 1906

Main gate of former Chinese munitions depot, taken over by the Imperial German Navy, Kiautschou Bay, Shandong
Shandong
peninsula, 1898

Further information: Kiautschou Bay concession In 1891, the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
Imperial Chinese government decided to make coastal Tsingtao (Jiao'ao) a defense base against naval attack and began to improve Qingdao's existing fortifications. Imperial German naval officials observed and reported on this Chinese activity during a formal survey of Jiaozhou Bay
Jiaozhou Bay
in May 1897. Subsequently, German troops seized and occupied the fortification.[9] The unmodernized and ineffective Qing Empire was forced to concede the area to Germany
Germany
the following year, and the Kiautschou Bay concession, as it became known, existed from 1898 to 1914 (Li 2005, p. 81). With an area of 552 square kilometres (136,000 acres; 213 sq mi), it was located in the imperial province of Shandong
Shandong
(alternately romanized as Shantung or Shan-tung) on the southern coast of the Shandong
Shandong
Peninsula in northern China. Jiaozhou was romanized as Kiaochow, Kiauchau or Kiao-Chau in English and Kiautschou in German. Qingdao
Qingdao
was its administrative center. "The so-called Marktstrasse (Market street) was nothing more than the old main street of the Chinese village of Tsingtao, and the buildings lining it were the former homes of fishermen and farmers. Having sold their property, they resettled their homes and fields in the villages further east."[10] Upon gaining control of the area, the Germans outfitted the impoverished fishing village of "Tsingtao" (Qingdao) with wide streets, solid housing areas, government buildings, electrification throughout, a sewer system and a safe drinking water supply, a rarity in large parts of Asia
Asia
at that time and later.[11] The area had the highest school density and the highest per capita student enrollment in all of China, with primary, secondary and vocational schools funded by the Imperial German treasury and Protestant and Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
missions.[11] Commercial interests established the Germania Brewery in 1903, which later became the world-famous Tsingtao Brewery.[12] German cultural and commercial influences extended to other areas of Shandong Province, including the establishment of diverse commercial enterprises. Identified by the German authorities as a strategically important port, Qingdao
Qingdao
was administered by the Imperial Department of the Navy (Reichsmarineamt) rather than the Imperial Colonial Office (Reichskolonialamt). The growing Imperial German Navy based their Far East Squadron there, allowing the warships to conduct operations throughout the western Pacific. Beginning January 1898, the marines of III. Seebataillon
Seebataillon
were based at Tsingtao. Construction of the Jiaoji Railway began on September 23, 1899, and was completed in 1904.[13]

Japanese military currency Siege of Tsingtao 10 sen (1914)

Before the outbreak of World War I
World War I
(1914-1918), ships of the German naval forces under Admiral Count von Spee were located at central Pacific colonies on routine missions. The fleet then rendezvoused in the Marianas Islands
Marianas Islands
to plan a transit back to Germany
Germany
rather than be trapped in the Pacific by more powerful and numerous Allied fleets (British and Japanese).[14] After a minor British naval attack on the German colony on Shandong
Shandong
in 1914, Japanese Empire
Japanese Empire
troops occupied the city and the surrounding province during the Siege of Tsingtao
Siege of Tsingtao
after Japan's declaration of war on Germany
Germany
in accordance with the Anglo-Japanese Alliance.[15] China protested Japan's violation of her neutrality but did and was not able to interfere in the military operations.[16] The decision of the Paris Peace Conference and the Versailles Treaty
Versailles Treaty
negotiations not to restore Chinese rule over the previous foreign concessions in Qingdao
Qingdao
after the Great War triggered the May Fourth Movement
May Fourth Movement
(May 4, 1919) of anti-imperialism, nationalism and cultural identity in China.[17]

Map of Qingdao
Qingdao
in 1912

The city reverted to Chinese rule in December 1922, under control of the Republic of China
China
(R.O.C.) established 1912 after the Chinese Revolution the year before. However, Japan maintained its economic dominance of the railway and the province as a whole.[18] The city became a direct-controlled municipality of the ROC Government in July 1929. Japan re-occupied Qingdao
Qingdao
in 1938, a year after its expansion of the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
(1937-1945), (a precursor to World War II, 1939-1945) with its plans of territorial expansion into China's coast. Nationalist (Kuomintang) ROC forces returned after the Japanese surrender in September 1945. On June 2, 1949, shortly before the founding of the communist People’s Republic of China
China
on October 1, 1949 the city was taken by Chairman Mao Zedong and his troops. Qingdao
Qingdao
city planning and development[edit] 1891–1914[edit] The development of Tsingtao urban space during Germany-occupied period (1891–1914) originated from the port area. Large scale urban construction began in 1898 with the relocation of Chinese dwellers along the coast.[19] With the completion of such series of projects as wharves, Tsingtao- Jinan
Jinan
Railway Line,[20] Tsingtao Railway Station and locomotive works, a city was starting to take shape. The area had the highest schools density and highest per capita student enrollment in all of China, with primary, secondary and vocational schools funded by the Berlin treasury and Protestant and Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
missions.[21] In the year of 1910, the Germans drew up for the second time the city planning of Tsingtao (Warner 2001, p. 33). As a result, the former urban area was extended for four times highlighted by the emphasis on the development of commerce and trade. Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925), leader of the Chinese Revolution of 1911 and subsequent first president of the Republic of China, visited the Tsingtau area and stated in 1912, "I am impressed. The city is a true model for China's future."[22] 1914–1922[edit] The development of Tsingtao urban space during the first Japan-occupation period (1914–1922). In 1914, Tsingtao was taken over by Japanese and served as a base for the exploitation of natural resources of Shandong
Shandong
and northern China. With the development of industry and commerce, a "New City District" was established to furnish the Japanese colonists with commercial sections and living quarters, which suggested a striking contrast to the shabby houses in the local Chinese zones(Li 2007, p. 133). In the meantime, a number of schools, hospitals and public buildings were constructed, followed by urban streets and intercity highways as well. The urban spatial layout continued to expand northward along the eastern bay area. 1922–1938[edit] The development of Tsingtao urban space during the ROC-ruled period (1922–1938). This period saw the substantial progress of the urban development of Tsingtao. The government engaged itself in mass construction that gave birth to villa districts at the beach and bank groups in CBD. Plenty of public buildings and facilities for the purpose of entertainment and sports were completed. By the year of 1937, the urban population numbered 385,000(Lu 2001, p. 327). Tsingtao consequently distinguished itself as a prominent holiday resort and summer retreat. 1938–1945[edit] The development of Tsingtao urban space during the second Japan-occupied period (1938–1945). Japan staged a comeback to Tsingtao in 1938 and started to strive for the construction of the Greater Tsingtao in the following June. Accordingly, they worked out the City Planning of the Greater Tsingtao and the City Planning of the Mother Town (Tsingtao City Proper), even though they had not had the opportunity to realize them respectively. The period in question did not witness much urban progress except for the logical construction of No. 6 Wharf, some Japanese residences and a small number of roads and streets(Lu 2001, p. 339). Post–World War II[edit] After World War II
World War II
the KMT allowed Qingdao
Qingdao
to serve as the headquarters of the Western Pacific Fleet of the US Navy
US Navy
in 1945. On 2 June 1949, the CCP-led Red Army entered Qingdao
Qingdao
and the city and province have been under PRC control since that time. Since the 1984 inauguration of China's open-door policy to foreign trade and investment, western Qingdao
Qingdao
developed quickly as a port city. It is now the headquarters of the Chinese navy's northern fleet. An early example of the open-door policy occurred on 5 November 1984, when three United States Naval vessels visited Qingdao. This was the first US port call in more than 37 years to China. USS Rentz, USS Reeves, and USS Oldendorf and their crews were officially hosted by the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy
People's Liberation Army Navy
(PLAN). Northern Qingdao, particularly Shibei, Licang, and Chengyang districts, are now major manufacturing centers. The city has recently experienced a strong growth period, with a new central business district created to the east of the older business district. Outside of the center of the city, there is a large industrial zone, which includes chemical processing, rubber and heavy manufacturing, in addition to a growing high-tech area. Numerous local and national service companies, rather than manufacturers, are based in the city's southern district; this, as well as local wind patterns, allows Qingdao
Qingdao
to enjoy clean, clear air year round. Administrative divisions[edit] The sub-provincial city of Qingdao
Qingdao
has 7 districts (区 qu) and 3 county-level cities (市 shi):

Subdivision Chinese (Simplified) Pinyin
Pinyin
Romanization Admin. Code[23] Land Area (km²) Urbanization Rate (%) Permanent Resident Population ('000s, 2010) Population Density (1/km²)

Shinan Shibei Licang Laoshan Chengyang Huangdao Jiaozhou Jimo Pingdu Laixi

Districts

Shinan District
Shinan District
(city seat) 市南区 Shìnán Qū 370202 30.01 100 544.8 18153.95

Shibei District 市北区 Shìběi Qū 370203 63.18 100 1020.7 16155.43

Huangdao
Huangdao
District 黄岛区 Huángdǎo Qū 370211 2220.10 80 1392.6 627.27

Laoshan District 崂山区 Láoshān Qū 370212 389.34 80 379.5 974.73

Licang District 李沧区 Lǐcāng Qū 370213 95.52 100 512.4 5364.32

Chengyang District 城阳区 Chéngyáng Qū 370214 553.20 80 737.2 1332.61

Jimo
Jimo
District 即墨区 Jímò Qū 370282 1727 58.1 1177.2 681.64

County-level cities

Jiaozhou 胶州市 Jiāozhōu Shì 370281 1210 68.0 843.1 696.78

Pingdu 平度市 Píngdù Shì 370283 3166 52.8 1357.4 428.74

Laixi 莱西市 Láixī Shì 370285 1522 58.1 750.2 492.90

Geographically, there are four districts (Shinan, Shibei, Licang and Laoshan) constituting a peninsula on the east coast of the Jiaozhou Bay as the core urban area, one (Chengyang) on the north coast and one (Huangdao) on the west coast of the Yellow Sea. Geography[edit]

Qingdao

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    11     3 −3

    12     5 −2

    21     9 2

    35     15 8

    55     20 13

    84     24 18

    142     27 22

    151     28 23

    63     25 19

    48     20 13

    28     12 6

    12     6 −1

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

Source: Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Observatory[24]

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    0.4     37 26

    0.5     40 29

    0.8     48 36

    1.4     59 46

    2.2     69 56

    3.3     75 64

    5.6     81 72

    5.9     83 73

    2.5     78 66

    1.9     68 56

    1.1     54 43

    0.5     42 31

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

Qingdao
Qingdao
is located on the south facing coast of the Shandong
Shandong
Peninsula (German: Schantung Halbinsel). It borders three prefecture-level cities, namely Yantai
Yantai
to the northeast, Weifang
Weifang
to the west, and Rizhao
Rizhao
to the southwest. The city's total jurisdiction area occupies 10,654 square kilometres (4,114 sq mi), and stretches in latitude from 35° 35' to 37° 09' N and in longitude from 119° 30' to 121° 00' E. The populated sections of the city are relatively flat while mountains spur up within city limits and nearby. The highest elevation in the city is 1,133 metres (3,717 ft) above sea level. Of the total area of Qingdao, 15.5% is highland, while the foothill, plain and lowland areas constitute 25.1%, 37.8% and 21.7%. The city has a 730.64 kilometres (454.00 mi) coastline. Five significant rivers that flow for more than 50 kilometres (31 mi) can be found in the region. Climate[edit] Qingdao
Qingdao
has a temperate, four-season, monsoon-influenced[25] climate that lies in the transition between the humid subtropical (Köppen Cwa) and humid continental (Köppen Dwa) regimes, but favouring the former. Winter is cool to cold and windy, but generally dry, with a January average of −0.5 °C (31.1 °F). Summer is generally hot and humid, but very hot days are rare, with an August average of 25.3 °C (77.5 °F). Due to its proximity to the coast and being on a peninsula, it experiences a one-month delayed spring compared to most inland areas of China,[25] and the annual diurnal temperature variation is only 6.3 °C (11.3 °F). Conversely, autumn is milder than inland areas in Shandong. The water temperature peaks at about 25 °C (77 °F) in late August, with swimming possible two months on either side. The annual mean temperature is 12.6 °C (54.7 °F). Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −15.5 °C (4 °F) on 16 January 1958 to 38.9 °C (102 °F) on 15 July 2002.[26] During the summer months, the beaches of Qingdao
Qingdao
are afflicted by massive algal blooms. The decomposing algae release large amounts of hydrogen sulfide gas, which gives off the odour of rotten eggs. The blooms of sea lettuce, which are partially caused by seaweed farming in Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Province, led local officials to declare a "large-scale algae disaster" in 2013.[27]

Climate data for Qingdao

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 12.9 (55.2) 19.6 (67.3) 21.5 (70.7) 25.2 (77.4) 34.2 (93.6) 34.4 (93.9) 37.4 (99.3) 34.3 (93.7) 33.2 (91.8) 28.4 (83.1) 22.1 (71.8) 16.2 (61.2) 37.4 (99.3)

Average high °C (°F) 2.8 (37) 4.6 (40.3) 9.0 (48.2) 15.0 (59) 20.3 (68.5) 23.7 (74.7) 27.1 (80.8) 28.4 (83.1) 25.3 (77.5) 19.8 (67.6) 12.3 (54.1) 5.7 (42.3) 16.2 (61.1)

Daily mean °C (°F) −0.5 (31.1) 0.9 (33.6) 5.1 (41.2) 10.9 (51.6) 16.2 (61.2) 20.3 (68.5) 24.2 (75.6) 25.3 (77.5) 21.7 (71.1) 16.2 (61.2) 8.9 (48) 2.4 (36.3) 12.6 (54.7)

Average low °C (°F) −3.3 (26.1) −1.9 (28.6) 2.3 (36.1) 7.9 (46.2) 13.2 (55.8) 17.8 (64) 22.2 (72) 23.0 (73.4) 18.9 (66) 13.1 (55.6) 5.9 (42.6) −0.5 (31.1) 9.9 (49.8)

Record low °C (°F) −14.3 (6.3) −12.1 (10.2) −6.2 (20.8) −1.6 (29.1) 6.1 (43) 12.0 (53.6) 13.6 (56.5) 16.3 (61.3) 10.1 (50.2) 1.9 (35.4) −7.2 (19) −11.3 (11.7) −14.3 (6.3)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 11.3 (0.445) 12.1 (0.476) 21.4 (0.843) 34.6 (1.362) 54.9 (2.161) 84.0 (3.307) 142.1 (5.594) 151.1 (5.949) 62.7 (2.469) 48.2 (1.898) 27.9 (1.098) 11.8 (0.465) 662.1 (26.067)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 3.1 3.7 4.7 6.7 7.5 9.4 12.4 10.2 6.5 6.1 4.7 3.4 78.4

Mean monthly sunshine hours 186.0 180.8 220.1 222.0 244.9 219.0 182.9 223.2 219.0 220.1 189.0 182.9 2,489.9

Percent possible sunshine 60 59 60 56 56 50 41 53 59 63 61 61 56.6

Source: China
China
Weather (1971–2000),[28] Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Observatory (sun only, 1961–1990)[24]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1913[29] 58,000 —    

1953 916,846 +1480.8%

1964 1,383,433 +50.9%

1982 4,227,594 +205.6%

1990 6,663,989 +57.6%

2000 7,494,194 +12.5%

2010 8,715,100 +16.3%

Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.

By the end of 2006, Qingdao
Qingdao
was estimated to be the home of about 8 million inhabitants, of which around 3 million reside in the Qingdao urban area. Another estimated 5 million live in other cities under Qingdao's jurisdiction. The annual birth rate is calculated around 76,507, with a birth rate of 10.15 per year per thousand, and a death rate of 6.32, both calculated on an annual basis. Living standards are among the highest of leading Chinese cities due to the strong export economy and relatively high family wages. Qingdao
Qingdao
is home to 38 Chinese ethnic minorities, which account for 0.14% of the city's total population. There is a large Korean community in Qingdao. By 2009, there are approximately 100,000 Koreans working, studying and living in Qingdao, which makes Qingdao
Qingdao
the second in terms of Korean population in China, following Beijing
Beijing
which has about 200,000 Koreans.[30] Economy[edit]

Qingdao
Qingdao
based Tsingtao beer. It's China's second largest domestic and the largest export brand.

Qingdao
Qingdao
TV Tower

An important region in Eastern China, Shandong
Shandong
Province has seen substantial change in its economic landscape in recent years. Much of this development has been concentrated in Qingdao.[31] Qingdao
Qingdao
has seen rapid development. With an annual growth rate of 18.9 percent in 2006, the city's GDP
GDP
reached 42.3 billion, ranking first in Shandong Province and tenth out of China's top 20 cities.[31] GDP
GDP
per capita comprised ¥52,895 (US$7,616) in 2008. The GDP
GDP
has grown steadily at an average pace of 16% annually. In 2006, Qingdao
Qingdao
was ranked one of six "golden cities" by the World Bank, out of 120 Chinese cities assessed on factors including investment climate and government effectiveness.[31] Internationally, Qingdao
Qingdao
is perhaps best known for its Tsingtao Brewery, founded by a German-British joint venture in 1903 that produces Tsingtao beer, the best-known Chinese export beer. It is also home to Haier, a large white goods manufacturer, and Hisense, a major electronics company. In 2002 guitar manufacturers Epiphone
Epiphone
opened a factory in Qingdao.[32] In 1984 the Chinese government named a district of Qingdao
Qingdao
a Special Economic and Technology Development Zone (SETDZ). Along with this district, the entire city had gone through amazing development of secondary and tertiary industries. As an important trading port in the province, Qingdao
Qingdao
flourishes with foreign investment and international trade. South Korea
South Korea
and Japan in particular made extensive investment in the city. Approximately 80,000 South Korean citizens reside there. Construction proceeds at a relatively Template:Weasal-inline fast pace in Qingdao. In terms of primary industry, Qingdao
Qingdao
has an estimated 50,000 acres (200 km2) of arable land. Qingdao
Qingdao
has a zigzagging pattern coastline, and thus possesses an invaluable stock of fish, shrimp, and other sea resources. Qingdao
Qingdao
is also home to a variety of mineral resources. Up to thirty different kinds have been mined.[citation needed] Qingdao's wind power electricity generation performs at among the highest levels in the region.[33] Industrial zones[edit]

Qingdao
Qingdao
Special
Special
Economic & Technological Development Area Qingdao
Qingdao
Free Trade Zone Qingdao
Qingdao
High-tech Industrial Zone Qingdao University
Qingdao University
Industrial Zone

Transport[edit] Road[edit] There are a total of 1,145 km (711 mi) of roads in the Qingdao
Qingdao
area, with nearly 500 km (310 mi) of expressways. These National Trunk Highway System (NTHS) Expressways begin or pass through in Qingdao.[34] Expressways that begin in Qingdao
Qingdao
are in Bold:

G15 Shenhai Expressway
Shenhai Expressway
(Shenyang, Liaoning-Haikou, Hainan) G18 Rongwu Expressway (Rongcheng, Shandong-Wuhai, Inner Mongolia) G20 Qingyin Expressway (Qingdao-Yinchuan, Ningxia)

Spur Route: G2011 Qingxin Expressway (Qingdao-Xinhe, Pingdu, Shandong)

G22 Qinglan Expressway (Qingdao-Lanzhou, Gansu)

These provincial expressways begin in or pass through Qingdao. Expressways that begin in Qingdao
Qingdao
are in Bold:

S16 Rongwei Expressway (Rongcheng-Weifang) S19 Longqing Expressway (Longkou-Qingdao) S21 Xinwei Expressway (Xinhe-Weifang) S24 Weiqing Expressway (Weihai-Qingdao)

Other than Expressways, there are also National Highways that pass through or begin in Qingdao. National Highways that begin in Qingdao are in bold:

G204 (Yantai-Shanghai) G206 (Yantai-Shantou) G308 (Qingdao-Shijiazhuang) G309 (Rongcheng-Lanzhou)

On June 30, 2011, the longest bridge over water opened in Qingdao. The bridge, Haiwan Bridge, is 26.4 miles (42.5 km) long and connects Qingdao
Qingdao
to an offshore island, Huangdao. It would easily cross the English Channel and is almost three miles (4.8 km) longer than the previous record-holder, the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway in the American state of Louisiana. Haiwan Bridge is supported by more than 5,000 pillars and costs about 10 billion yuan which is about 1.5 billion dollars. The bridge was designed by the Shandong
Shandong
Gausu Group and the construction lasted for four years. Haiwan Bridge cut the commute between the city of Qingdao
Qingdao
and the sprawling suburb of Huangdao
Huangdao
by 30 minutes. At least 10,000 workers toiled in two teams around the clock to build the bridge, which was constructed from opposite ends.[35] On the same day, the Jiaozhou Bay
Jiaozhou Bay
Tunnel opened.The tunnel brought much convenience to people by supporting public buses and making transport between the two areas more convenient. Marine[edit] Also see Port of Qingdao Qingdao
Qingdao
(official name: Qingdao
Qingdao
port international co. ltd.) hosts one of the world's busiest seaports. Cooperative relations have been established with 450 ports in 130 countries worldwide. In 2003, the annual cargo handling capacity exceeded 100 million tons for the first time. The number of containers reached 3.41 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) of cargoes.[36] By 2011, the port had become the world’s sixth-busiest by Total Cargo Volume, having handled 372 million tonnes of cargo in that year. As of 2016, it was the 8th in the world in terms of TEUs (Twenty Foot Equivalent Units).[37] The Orient Ferry connects Qingdao
Qingdao
with Shimonoseki, Japan. There are two ferry lines connecting Qingdao
Qingdao
with South Korea. The New Golden Bridge II operates between Qingdao
Qingdao
and Incheon, and the Blue Sea Ferry operates between Qingdao
Qingdao
and Gunsan.[38] Qingdao
Qingdao
port also includes a number of large adjacent ports including Dongjiakou.[39] Aviation[edit] The Qingdao
Qingdao
Liuting International Airport, 23 km (14 mi) away from city centre, is served by 13 domestic and international airlines, operating 94 routes, 12 of which are international and regional. In 2011, Qingdao Liuting International Airport
Qingdao Liuting International Airport
was the 16th busiest airport in the People's Republic of China
China
with 11,716,361 passengers. A new civil aviation airport with much larger capacities will be built in Jiaozhou District.[40] Intercity rail[edit]

Qingdao
Qingdao
railway station

Qingdao's railway development was picked up during the late 1990s. It is at the beginning of the Jiaoji Railway. Qingdao's city proper has some major railway stations, Qingdao
Qingdao
Station, Sifang Station,[41] Cangkou Station, Great- Seaport
Seaport
Station, etc. D and G series High speed trains travel on the Jiaoji High Speed Railway and reach speeds of 200 km/h (120 mph) on the Jinan- Qingdao
Qingdao
Section.[42] Services go to Beijing, Shanghai, Hefei, Jinan
Jinan
and Tianjin.[43] Domestic rail lines connect Qingdao
Qingdao
with many cities in China including Beijing, Lanzhou, Chengdu, Xi'an, Zhengzhou, Jinan
Jinan
and Jining. Public transport[edit] Qingdao's public traffic owns 5283 large and medium-sized buses, CNG buses as of 2012[update].There are also 136 trolleybuses as of 2012[update]. All of the buses and trolleybuses can be accessed using the Qingdao
Qingdao
Public Traffic IC Card
IC Card
(Qin dao Card 琴岛卡), which uses radio frequencies so the card does not have to physically touch the scanner. Non air-conditioned busses cost 1 yuan, The volume of road passenger transport approaches 0.8 billion per year.[citation needed] The Public Transport Brand of 'Ri-Xin Bus (日新巴士)' is also known in China. There are a number of taxi companies in Qingdao
Qingdao
including Yiqing Company, Zhongqing Company, Jiaoyun Company and, Huaqing Company. Subway[edit] Main article: Qingdao
Qingdao
Metro After getting the approval from the State Council, the government announced on 18 August 2009 that Qingdao
Qingdao
is ready to spend more than 29 billion yuan ($4.2 billion) before 2016 on its subway construction. Construction of 54.7 km (34.0 mi) of subway line will be completed before 2016 with a total investment of 29.2 billion yuan ($4.3 billion). Metro Line 3 is the first line in function and opened on 16 December 2015. In the long term, the city plans to build eight subway lines in downtown and some suburban districts, which account for 231.5 km (143.8 mi) in future.[44] Military[edit] Qingdao
Qingdao
is headquarters of the North Sea Fleet
North Sea Fleet
of the People's Liberation Army Navy. Culture[edit] Architecture[edit]

Qingdao
Qingdao
retains many buildings with a German architectural style

There is a large number of German-style buildings in Qingdao
Qingdao
city centre, remarkable considering the German colonial period only lasted 16 years (1898–1914). The unique combination of German and Chinese architecture in the city centre, combined with German demographic roots and a large Korean expatriate population, gives Qingdao
Qingdao
a distinct atmosphere. An old saying described Qingdao
Qingdao
as a city of "red tiles green trees, blue sky and blue sea." This saying indeed gives a picture of birdview of Qingdao. A larger number of areas in former foreign styles are well preserved. Although the new city area is under large-scale reconstruction, the old city area (especially the western part of Shinan District) still retains many traditional buildings.

St. Michael's Cathedral

Skyscrapers in Qingdao

Notable people[edit]

Ma Jian (马建) Xiao Hong
Xiao Hong
(萧红) Xiao Jun (萧军) Duanmu Hongliang (端木蕻良) Sun Li (孙犁) Li Zhaoxing (李肇星) Zhang Ruimin
Zhang Ruimin
(张瑞敏) Victoria Song
Victoria Song
(宋茜, f(x)) Huang Zitao
Huang Zitao
(黄子韬, musician,actor) Huang Bo (黄勃) Zhang Jike
Zhang Jike
(张继科)

Other notable people include:

Gao Fenghan
Gao Fenghan
(高凤翰) Toshiro Mifune
Toshiro Mifune
(was born in Qingdao) Li Cunxin (李存信) Huang Xiaoming (黄晓明) Chen Hao (陈好) Xia Yu (夏雨) Fan Bingbing
Fan Bingbing
(范冰冰,was born in Qingdao) Hao Haidong (郝海东) Wang Dong (王栋, Chinese Footballer) Zhang Juanjuan
Zhang Juanjuan
(张娟娟,archer)

Movies shot in Qingdao[edit]

A Better Tomorrow 2018
A Better Tomorrow 2018
(英雄本色2018)2016 The Great Wall (长城)2016 Underdog Fight (硬汉)2008 Underdog Fight II (硬汉 II)2013 Ocean Heaven
Ocean Heaven
(海洋天堂)2010 Beauty Remains (美人依旧)2005

Language[edit] During the city's colonial days, German was the official language and rigorously taught and promoted. Since the demise of Germany's colonial empire during World War I, the German language
German language
is virtually dead here and left little impact on the local languages. A local accent known as Qingdao dialect (青岛话, pinyin qingdao hua) distinguishes the residents of the city from those of the surrounding Shandong
Shandong
province. Due to the efforts by the city government to promote standard Mandarin, most educated people can speak standard Mandarin in addition to their native dialect. With reform policies and English teaching, some young citizens have been taught English and many can converse with English-speaking foreigners. Business and traffic signs in English are becoming more and more common. Cuisine[edit] Seafood is a typical delicacy of the coastal city, divided into two categories: "Great Seafood" including sea cucumbers, abalones, shark's fin, prawns, crabs, conch, and some big fish, and "Little Seafood" comprising squid, shrimps, octopus, oysters, razor clams, clams, periwinkles, yellow croakers, etc. The distinctive cuisine of the area is Lu Cai, the Shandong
Shandong
regional style. Festivals[edit]

Festival in Qingdao
Qingdao
in 1913

Notable festivals include:

Qingdao International Horticultural Exposition 2014
Qingdao International Horticultural Exposition 2014
is the biggest international fair that has been held in the history of the city. Qingdao
Qingdao
International Beer Festival(青岛国际啤酒节) in August/September, held annually since 1991

Media[edit]

Tsingtauer Neueste Nachrichten

Qingdao
Qingdao
previously had a large German community and a German garrison, so three German newspapers operated in Qingdao.[45] German papers included Deutsch-Asiatische Warte (T: 泰東古今鑑, S: 泰东古今鉴, P: Tàidōng Gǔjīn Jiàn;[46] weekly newspaper published until 1906, included Die Welt des Ostens, Altes und Neues aus Asiens drei Kaiserreichen, a cultural supplement),[45] the Tsingtauer Neueste Nachrichten
Tsingtauer Neueste Nachrichten
and the Kiautschou Post (a daily paper published from 1908 to 1912, referring to the Kiautschou (Jiaozhou) Bay concession). German publishing in Qingdao
Qingdao
ended after World War I and the beginning of the Japanese administration.[46] A 1912 publication of the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce said that the Tageblatt für Nordchina of Tianjin
Tianjin
was read in Qingdao, and that major newspapers from Shanghai
Shanghai
were also read in Qingdao.[47] Tourism[edit] Qingdao
Qingdao
attracts many tourists due to its seaside setting and temperate weather. Parks, beaches, sculptures and unique German and modern architecture line the shore. The central tourist information, the Qingdao
Qingdao
Information Centre for International Visitors, is located on Middle Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Road (香港中路). Qingdao's major attractions include: Western Shinan district[edit]

Zhan Qiao
Zhan Qiao
(Pier, 栈桥) Little Qingdao
Qingdao
Isle (小青岛) Tian Hou Temple (天后宫), Qingdao
Qingdao
Folk Museum Ba Da Guan
Ba Da Guan
(Eight Great Passes, 八大关), the older area of town with some surviving German and Japanese architecture. Lu Xun
Lu Xun
Park, named after Lu Xun
Lu Xun
(鲁迅), modern Chinese writer and critic, who lived and taught in the 1930s. Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Park, named after the style name 'Zhongshan' of Sun Yat-sen (孙文,字中山), a famous modern Chinese politician. Xiao Yu Shan
Xiao Yu Shan
(Little Fish Hill, 小鱼山) The twin-spired St. Michael's Cathedral (Kathedrale St. Michael) (天主教堂), one piece of the famous Neo-romanesque
Neo-romanesque
architecture in Qingdao, designed by German architect Alfred Fräbel, completed in 1934. Qingdao Aquarium
Qingdao Aquarium
(青岛水族馆) Jiaozhou Governor's Hall
Jiaozhou Governor's Hall
(提督府), office building of former German governors (Gouverneurspalast) and former municipal government Xinhao Hill (信号山)

Photographs of Historic Euro-Asian Area

Hua Shi Lou in the Eight Great Passes 

Former site of the headquarters of the German Administration 

The protestant Church (Evangelische Kirche) (基督教堂) 

The pier on the seafront 

A view of Qingdao 

Eastern Shinan district[edit]

May Fourth Square
May Fourth Square
(Mai vierten Platz), Coastal plaza with the Wind of May sculpture Tsingtao Brewery
Tsingtao Brewery
(Tsingtao-Brauerei), founded by Germans and the most exported beer from China. Zhanshan Temple (Dschanschan Tempel), Qingdao's oldest Buddhist temple.

Laoshan district (崂山区)[edit]

Lao Shan (Mount Lao, Lauschan, 崂山), 40 km (25 mi) east of Qingdao, the most famous Taoist mountain with Taoist retreat – Great Purity Palace (太清宫).

Other districts of Qingdao[edit]

Jiaozhou Governor's Hall
Jiaozhou Governor's Hall
(Gouverneurspalast), former seat of the present and previous two governments.

Education[edit] Post-secondary educational institutions[edit]

Old Main Building of Qingdao University
Qingdao University
of Science and Technology

Qingdao
Qingdao
is home to a large number of higher education institutions. Ocean University of China, formerly called Ocean University of Qingdao, is the most important university of maritime sciences in China. In addition, the Qingdao
Qingdao
University, the Qingdao University
Qingdao University
of Science and Technology as well as the Qingdao
Qingdao
Technological University have also been integral parts of higher education in Qingdao
Qingdao
for decades. Other institutions include:

China
China
University of Petroleum, completed its relocation from Dongying to Qingdao
Qingdao
in 2012 Shandong
Shandong
University of Science and Technology, main campus is based in Qingdao
Qingdao
since 2003 Qingdao
Qingdao
Agricultural University, main campus is based in Qingdao
Qingdao
since 2007 Qingdao
Qingdao
Technical College Qingdao
Qingdao
Binhai University, located at Huangdao.

Shandong
Shandong
University was located in Qingdao
Qingdao
from 1909 to 1936. A new branch campus of the university is under construction in Aoshanwei Town, Jimo. International schools[edit]

Korean International School of Qingdao Malvern College Qingdao Pegasus California School, Qingdao Qingdao
Qingdao
MTI International School Qingdao
Qingdao
Amerasia International School Qingdao
Qingdao
No.1 International School Qingdao
Qingdao
Oxford International College Yew Chung International School of Qingdao

Secondary schools[edit]

Qingdao
Qingdao
No. 2 High School Qingdao
Qingdao
No. 58 School Qingdao
Qingdao
No. 9 High School Qingdao
Qingdao
No. 1 High School

Sports[edit] Qingdao
Qingdao
has long been a hub of professional sports in The People's Republic of China. Stadiums[edit]

Guoxin Gymnasium ( Qingdao
Qingdao
city sports center) Yizhong Sports Center Qingdao
Qingdao
Tiantai Stadium Hongcheng Stadium

2008 Olympic Summer Games[edit] Along with Beijing's hosting of the 2008 Summer Olympics, Qingdao
Qingdao
was the host city for the Olympic Sailing competitions which took place along the shoreline by the city. These events were hosted at the Qingdao International Sailing Centre and held in Fushan Bay, near the city's central business district. A hotel and an international broadcasting centre were built. Football[edit] Qingdao
Qingdao
is recognized as one of the "football cities" in China, due to dozens of preeminent players it trained like Qu Bo, Zheng Long, Yu Dabao and Hao Junmin
Hao Junmin
.However, due to lack of money of the sponsors of football clubs in Qingdao, its football potential has reduced. Qingdao Jonoon F.C.
Qingdao Jonoon F.C.
(previously named Qingdao
Qingdao
Hainiu Football Club) was founded in 1993. It is one of the founding members of the second-division of Chinese professional football league. They got the championship in their first season in 1994 and were promoted to the Chinese Jia-A League. In 1995, they finished 11th (out of a total 12 teams) and were relegated from the top league. Only one year later, after finishing as runner-up in the second-division, they returned to the top league. They have been part of Chinese Super League
Chinese Super League
from its inauguration in 2004.In 2013, they were relegated to the CHINA LEAGUE. Qingdao Hainiu F.C.
Qingdao Hainiu F.C.
was established on 29 January 2013. In their first season in the Chinese Football Association Division Two League, they finished the first in league and got to the China
China
League One. Up to June 13, 2016, they had been on the first and had a great chance to get into the Super League after the season. Fans in China
China
called them "Chinese Leicester City". Basketball[edit] Qingdao DoubleStar Eagles
Qingdao DoubleStar Eagles
is a Chinese professional basketball team which plays in the North Division of the Chinese Basketball Association. Badminton[edit] Qingdao
Qingdao
Renzhou Badminton Club is a Chinese badminton club which plays in the China
China
Badminton Super League. Arena Football[edit] Qingdao Clipper
Qingdao Clipper
is a professional arena football team which is a member of the China
China
Arena Football League(CAFL). Motorsport[edit] The IZOD IndyCar Series
IZOD IndyCar Series
signed a contract with the Qingdao
Qingdao
city council to hold an IndyCar
IndyCar
race in Qingdao
Qingdao
in 2012. The race was supposed to take place on a 6.23 km (3.87 mi) street circuit[48] but it was cancelled.[49] Surfing[edit] Qingdao
Qingdao
is one of the few cities in northern China
China
where surfing is possible. The best surfing season is during the typhoon season (June–October). The south oriented beaches of Qingdao
Qingdao
are the most appropriate to receive swells. Shinan and Laoshan districts are reported to have the best wave and wind orientation. See also[edit]

China
China
portal

List of twin towns and sister cities in China

References[edit]

Gottschall, Terrell D. By Order of the Kaiser: Otto von Diederichs and the Rise of the Imperial German Navy 1865–1902. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. 2003. ISBN 1-55750-309-5 Schultz-Naumann, Joachim. Unter Kaisers Flagge: Deutschlands Schutzgebiete im Pazifik und in China
China
einst und heute [Under the Kaiser’s Flag, Germany’s Protectorates in the Pacific and in China then and today]. Munich: Universitas Verlag. 1985. Miscellaneous series, Issues 7–11. United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 1912. Walravens, Hartmut. "German Influence on the Press in China". In: Newspapers in International Librarianship: Papers Presented by the Newspaper Section at IFLA General Conferences. Walter de Gruyter, January 1, 2003. ISBN 3110962799, ISBN 9783110962796.

Also available at ( () the website of the Queens Library
Queens Library
– This version does not include the footnotes visible in the Walter de Gruyter version. Also available in Walravens, Hartmut and Edmund King. Newspapers in international librarianship: papers presented by the newspapers section at IFLA General Conferences. K.G. Saur, 2003. ISBN 3598218370, 9783598218378.

Notes[edit]

^ "中央机构编制委员会印发《关于副省级市若干问题的意见》的通知. 中编发[1995]5号". 豆丁网. 1995-02-19. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-28.  ^ "3-4各市人口数和总户数(2014年)-tjsql.com". www.tjsql.com. Retrieved 2016-03-06.  ^ A bridge too far? China
China
unveils world's longest sea bridge which is five miles FURTHER than the Dover-Calais crossing Mail Online. Dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved on 2011-08-28. ^ " China
China
Beer" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-06-13.  ^ "The Global Financial Centres Index 19". Long Finance. March 2016.  ^ "China's Top 10 Most Livable Cities". hnloudi.gov.cn. Hunan
Hunan
Loudi Official Government. 28 March 2012. Archived from the original on 10 April 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2014.  ^ "List of 10 Most Livable Cities in China
China
Issued". 2009-07-09. Retrieved 2010-12-18.  ^ 蔺丽瑶 (2011-07-27). "Top 10 livable cities in China
China
2011". China.org.cn. Retrieved 2012-09-10.  ^ Gottschall, Terrell (2003). By Order of the Kaiser, Otto von Diederichs and the Rise of the Imperial German Navy 1865–1902. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. p. 146. ISBN 978-1-55750-309-1.  ^ Matzat, Wilhelm (May 2003). "Landmann Gottfried 1860–1926 Uhrmacher, Optiker, Bierbrauer" [Gottfried Landmann, 1860–1926: Watchmaker, Optician, Beer Brewer]. tsingtau.org (in German). Wilhelm Matzat. Retrieved 2010-06-09.  ^ a b Schultz-Naumann, Joachim (1985). Unter Kaisers Flagge: Deutschlands Schutzgebiete im Pazifik und in China
China
einst und heute [Under the Kaiser's Flag: Germany's protected areas in the Pacific and in China
China
then and now] (in German). Universitas. p. 183. ISBN 978-3-8004-1094-1.  ^ Matzat, Wilhelm (May 2003). "Germania Brauerei und ihre Angestellten 1903–1914" [Germania Brewery and its Employees]. tsingtau.org (in German). Wilhelm Matzat. Retrieved June 9, 2010.  ^ 斯, 李. "1904年06月01日 胶济铁路通车". www.todayonhistory.com. Retrieved 1 September 2014.  ^ see German East Asia
Asia
Squadron, Battle of Coronel
Battle of Coronel
and Battle of the Falkland Islands for fleet engagements ^ Duffy, Michael (22 August 2009). "Primary Documents – Count Okuma on the Japanese Capture of Tsingtao, 15 August 1914". firstworldwar.com. Retrieved 28 July 2014.  ^ "Germans lose possessions in China". The Independent. Nov 16, 1914. Retrieved July 24, 2012.  ^ A. Whitney Griswold, The Far Eastern Policy of the United States (1938) pp 239–68 ^ Griswold, The Far Eastern Policy of the United States (1938) pp 326–28 ^ Toyokichi Iyenaga (Oct 26, 1914). "What is Kiaochou worth?". The Independent. Retrieved July 24, 2012.  ^ Schultz-Naumann, p. 182 ^ Schultz-Naumann, Joachim (1985). Unter Kaisers Flagge: Deutschlands Schutzgebiete im Pazifik und in China
China
einst und heute (in German). Universitas. p. 183. ISBN 978-3-8004-1094-1.  ^ Schultz-Naumann, p. 184 ^ "2016年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码:青岛市" (in Simplified Chinese). 中华人民共和国国家统计局 National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2018. 统计用区划代码 名称 370201000000 市辖区 370202000000 市南区 370203000000 市北区 370211000000 黄岛区 370212000000 崂山区 370213000000 李沧区 370214000000 城阳区 370281000000 胶州市 370282000000 即墨市 370283000000 平度市 370285000000 莱西市 CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) ^ a b "Climatological Normals of Qingdao". Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Observatory. Retrieved 2010-04-10.  ^ a b 自然地理 [Geography] (in Chinese). Qingdao: Shinan District Information Office.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 March 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2013.  ^ Jacobs, Andrew (July 5, 2013). "Huge Algae Bloom Afflicts Coastal Chinese City". The New York Times.  ^ 青岛城市介绍 (in Chinese). Weather.com.cn. June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-01.  ^ Annette S. Biener: Das deutsche Pachtgebiet Tsingtau in der Provinz Schantung, 1897–1914. Institutioneller Wandel durch Kolonialisierung (Studien und Quellen zur Geschichte Schantungs und Tsingtaus. Bd. 6). Matzat, Bonn 2001, ISBN 3-924603-05-7. ^ "韩国旅客位居北京入境外国人之首". 2009-10-08. Retrieved 2009-12-01.  ^ a b c " Qingdao
Qingdao
Shinan District
Shinan District
Investment Environment Study 2007", Report, KPMG Huazhen, 2007, retrieved 2010-06-10 [permanent dead link] ^ "Gibson Qingdao
Qingdao
Factory – All Epiphone... All The Time!". Epiphone.com. Retrieved 24 February 2012.  ^ Gardiner, Ginger. "High Wind in China". www.compositesworld.com. Retrieved 2017-05-27.  ^ 中国公路信息服务网-公路地图 (in Chinese). 中国公路信息服务网. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2013.  ^ Eimer, David (8 January 2011). " China
China
builds world's longest bridge". London: The Telegraph. Retrieved 2013-03-23.  ^ Qingdao
Qingdao
port sees upsurge in cargo handling capacity[permanent dead link]. People's Daily. Retrieved on 2012-11-12. ^ "Ports & World Trade". www.aapa-ports.org.  ^ Ferries Korea-China. Seat61.com. Retrieved on 2012-11-12. ^ "About Dongjiakou port". http://www.qingdao-port.com/. Qingdao
Qingdao
Port International Co. Ltd. Retrieved 31 October 2017.  External link in website= (help) ^ "New Qingdao
Qingdao
Airport Location Confirmed". World Civil Aviation Net. 29 September 2013. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013.  ^ Until August 2008, travelers not from Qingdao
Qingdao
are often confused as railway tickets to Qingdao
Qingdao
are listed as destined for "Sifang". These trains are headed to Qingdao's Sifang district. The destination's name will revert to "Qingdao" once renovations to the larger Qingdao Railway Station is complete. ^ 杨传忠 (2012-10-17). 济青高铁建设近年无望 济青1小时生活圈得等等. 齐鲁晚报 (in Chinese). 济南铁路局胶济客专公司一位负责人说,胶济客专的客运正线长362.5公里,设计速度最高250公里/小时,现在行车时速为200公里.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ 列车时刻 (in Chinese). 青岛火车站. Archived from the original on 8 January 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2013.  ^ "$4.3 billion budget to boost Qingdao
Qingdao
subway construction". 2008-08-19.  ^ a b Walravens, p. 90. ^ a b Walravens, p. 91. ^ United States Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, p. 188. "Tageblatt für Nord China, a German paper published in Tientsin, and the leading papers published in Shanghai
Shanghai
are also largely read in Tsingtau." ^ IndyCar
IndyCar
(10 November 2011). "INDYCAR: Series Confirms China
China
Race". SPEED Channel. Fox Sports. Archived from the original on 13 November 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2011.  ^ " IndyCar
IndyCar
scheduled August race in China
China
has been canceled". Washington Posts. Archived from the original on 2012-06-14. Retrieved 2012-06-16. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Qingdao.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Qingdao.

Qingdao
Qingdao
Government website (in Chinese)

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(JJJ) Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
(PRD) / Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area Yangtze River Delta
Yangtze River Delta
(YRD)

Central Plain (Zhongyuan) Chengyu Cross-Strait Western Coast Guanzhong Mid-Southern Liaoning Shandong
Shandong
Peninsula Yangtze River Mid-Reaches (Yangtze River Valley)

Major Cities

National Central Cities

Beijinga Chongqinga Guangzhoub2 Shanghaia2 Tianjina2

Special
Special
Administrative Regions

Hong Kong Macau

Regional Central Cities

Chengdub Nanjingb Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb

Sub-provincial cities

Changchunb Chengdub Dalianc2 Guangzhoub2 Hangzhoub Harbinb Jinanb Nanjingb Ningboc2 Qingdaoc2 Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb Xiamenc1

Provincial capitals (Prefecture-level)

Changsha Fuzhou2 Guiyang Haikou Hefei Kunming Lanzhou Nanchang Shijiazhuang Taiyuan Xining Zhengzhou Taibei5

Autonomous regional capitals

Hohhot Lhasa Nanning Ürümqi Yinchuan

Comparatively large cities

Anshan Baotou Benxi Datong Fushun Handan Huainan Jilin Luoyang Suzhou Tangshan Qiqihar Wuxi Xuzhou Zibo

Prefecture-level cities
Prefecture-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Shijiazhuang* Tangshan* Qinhuangdao2 Handan* Xingtai Baoding Zhangjiakou Chengde Cangzhou Langfang Hengshui

Shanxi

Taiyuan* Datong* Yangquan Changzhi Jincheng Shuozhou Jinzhong Yuncheng Xinzhou Linfen Lüliang

Inner Mongolia

Hohhot* Baotou* Wuhai Chifeng Tongliao Ordos Hulunbuir Bayannur Ulanqab

Liaoning

Shenyang* Dalian* Anshan* Fushun* Benxi* Dandong Jinzhou Yingkou Fuxin Liaoyang Panjin Tieling Chaoyang Huludao

Jilin

Changchun* Jilin Siping Liaoyuan Tonghua Baishan Songyuan Baicheng

Heilongjiang

Harbin* Qiqihar* Jixi Hegang Shuangyashan Daqing Yīchun Jiamusi Qitaihe Mudanjiang Heihe Suihua

Jiangsu

Nanjing* Wuxi* Xuzhou* Changzhou Suzhou* Nantong Lianyungang2 Huai'an Yancheng Yangzhou Zhenjiang Tàizhou Suqian

Zhejiang

Hangzhou* Ningbo* Wenzhou2 Jiaxing Huzhou Shaoxing Jinhua Quzhou Zhoushan Tāizhou Lìshui

Anhui

Hefei* Wuhu Bengbu Huainan* Ma'anshan Huaibei Tongling Anqing Huangshan Chuzhou Fùyang Sùzhou Lu'an Bozhou Chizhou Xuancheng

Fujian

Fúzhou* Xiamen* Putian Sanming Quanzhou Zhangzhou Nanping Longyan Ningde

Jiangxi

Nanchang* Jingdezhen Píngxiang Jiujiang Xinyu Yingtan Ganzhou Jí'ān Yíchun Fǔzhou Shangrao

Shandong

Jinan* Qingdao* Zibo* Zaozhuang Dongying Yantai2 Weifang Jĭning Tai'an Weihai Rizhao Laiwu Linyi Dezhou Liaocheng Binzhou Heze

Henan

Zhengzhou* Kaifeng Luoyang* Pingdingshan Anyang Hebi Xinxiang Jiaozuo Puyang Xuchang Luohe Sanmenxia Nanyang Shangqiu Xinyang Zhoukou Zhumadian

Hubei

Wuhan* Huangshi Shiyan Yichang Xiangyang Ezhou Jingmen Xiaogan Jinzhou Huanggang Xianning Suizhou

Hunan

Changsha* Zhuzhou Xiangtan Hengyang Shaoyang Yueyang Changde Zhangjiajie Yiyang Chenzhou Yongzhou Huaihua Loudi

Guangdong

Guangzhou* Shaoguan Shenzhen* Zhuhai1 Shantou1 Foshan Jiangmen Zhanjiang2 Maoming Zhaoqing Huizhou Meizhou Shanwei Heyuan Yangjiang Qingyuan Dongguan Zhongshan Chaozhou Jieyang Yunfu

Guangxi

Nanning* Liuzhou Guilin Wuzhou Beihai2 Fangchenggang Qinzhou Guigang Yùlin Baise Hezhou Hechi Laibin Chongzuo

Hainan1

Haikou* Sanya Sansha4 Danzhou

Sichuan

Chengdu* Zigong Panzhihua Luzhou Deyang Mianyang Guangyuan Suining Neijiang Leshan Nanchong Meishan Yibin Guang'an Dazhou Ya'an Bazhong Ziyang

Guizhou

Guiyang* Liupanshui Zunyi Anshun Bijie Tongren

Yunnan

Kunming* Qujing Yuxi Baoshan Zhaotong Lìjiang Pu'er Lincang

Tibet

Lhasa* Shigatse Chamdo Nyingchi Shannan

Shaanxi

Xi'an* Tongchuan Baoji Xianyang Weinan Yan'an Hanzhong Yúlin Ankang Shangluo

Gansu

Lanzhou* Jiayuguan Jinchang Baiyin Tianshui Wuwei Zhangye Pingliang Jiuquan Qingyang Dingxi Longnan

Qinghai

Xining* Haidong

Ningxia

Yinchuan* Shizuishan Wuzhong Guyuan Zhongwei

Xinjiang

Ürümqi* Karamay Turpan Hami

Taiwan5

(none)

Other cities (partly shown below)

Prefecture-level capitals (County-level)

(Inner Mongolia: Ulanhot Xilinhot) Jiagedaqi3, Heilongjiang Enshi, Hubei Jishou, Hunan (Sichuan:Xichang Kangding Barkam) (Guizhou: Xingyi Kaili Duyun) (Yunnan: Chuxiong Mengzi Wenshan Jinghong Dali Mangshi Shangri-La Lushui) (Gansu: Linxia Hezuo) (Qinghai: Yushu Delingha) (Xinjiang: Changji Bole Korla Yining Artux Aksu Kashgar1 Hotan Tacheng Altay)

Province-governed cities (Sub-prefecture-level)

Jiyuan, Henan (Hubei: Xiantao Qiánjiang Tianmen Shennongjia) (Hainan1: Wuzhishan Qionghai Wenchang Wanning Dongfang) ( Xinjiang
Xinjiang
- XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi Aral Tumxuk Wujiaqu Beitun Tiemenguan Shuanghe Kokdala Kunyu)

Former Prefecture-level cities

Chaohu, Anhui Yumen,Gansu Dongchuan, Yunnan Shashi, Hubei (Sichuan: Fuling Wanxian) (Jilin: Meihekou Gongzhuling)

Sub-prefecture-level cities (Prefecture-governed)

Qian'an, Hebei Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia Erenhot, Inner Mongolia Golmud, Qinghai

County-level cities
County-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Xinji Jinzhou Xinle Zunhua Qian'an* Wu'an Nangong Shahe Zhuozhou Dingzhou Anguo Gaobeidian Botou Renqiu Huanghua Hejian Bazhou Sanhe Shenzhou

Shanxi

Gujiao Lucheng Gaoping Jiexiu Yongji Hejin Yuanping Houma Huozhou Xiaoyi Fenyang

Inner Mongolia

Holingol Manzhouli* Yakeshi Zhalantun Ergun Genhe Fengzhen Ulanhot* Arxan Erenhot* Xilinhot*

Liaoning

Xinmin Wafangdian Zhuanghe Haicheng Donggang Fengcheng Linghai Beizhen Gaizhou Dashiqiao Dengta Diaobingshan Kaiyuan Beipiao Lingyuan Xingcheng

Jilin

Yushu Dehui Jiaohe Huadian Shulan Panshi Gongzhuling Shuangliao Meihekou Ji'an Linjiang Fuyu Taonan Da'an Yanji Tumen Dunhua Hunchun Longjing Helong

Heilongjiang

Shangzhi Wuchang Nehe Hulin Mishan Tieli Tongjiang Fujin Fuyuan Suifenhe Hailin Ning'an Muling Dongning Bei'an Wudalianchi Anda Zhaodong Hailun

Jiangsu

Jiangyin Yixing Xinyi Pizhou Liyang Changshu Zhangjiagang Kunshan Taicang Qidong Rugao Haimen Dongtai Yizheng Gaoyou Danyang Yangzhong Jurong Jingjiang Taixing Xinghua

Zhejiang

Jiande Lin'an Yuyao Cixi Fenghua Rui'an Yueqing Haining Pinghu Tongxiang Zhuji Shengzhou Lanxi Yiwu Dongyang Yongkang Jiangshan Wenling Linhai Longquan

Anhui

Chaohu Jieshou Tongcheng Tianchang Mingguang Ningguo

Fujian

Fuqing Changle Yong'an Shishi Jinjiang Nan'an Longhai Shaowu Wuyishan Jian'ou Zhangping Fu'an Fuding

Jiangxi

Leping Ruichang Gongqingcheng Lushan Guixi Ruijin Jinggangshan Fengcheng Zhangshu Gao'an Dexing

Shandong

Zhangqiu Jiaozhou Jimo Pingdu Laixi Tengzhou Longkou Laiyang Laizhou Penglai Zhaoyuan Qixia Haiyang Qingzhou Zhucheng Shouguang Anqiu Gaomi Changyi Qufu Zoucheng Xintai Feicheng Rongcheng Rushan Laoling Yucheng Linqing

Henan

Gongyi Xingyang Xinmi Xinzheng Dengfeng Yanshi Wugang Ruzhou Linzhou Weihui Huixian Qinyang Mengzhou Yuzhou Changge Yima Lingbao Dengzhou Yongcheng Xiangcheng Jiyuan*

Hubei

Daye Danjiangkou Yidu Dangyang Zhijiang Laohekou Zaoyang Yicheng Zhongxiang Yingcheng Anlu Hanchuan Shishou Honghu Songzi Macheng Wuxue Chibi Guangshui Enshi* Lichuan Xiantao* Qianjiang* Tianmen*

Hunan

Liuyang Liling Xiangxiang Shaoshan Leiyang Changning Wugang Miluo Linxiang Jinshi Yuanjiang Zixing Hongjiang Lengshuijiang Lianyuan Jishou*

Guangdong

Lechang Nanxiong Taishan Kaiping Heshan Enping Lianjiang Leizhou Wuchuan Gaozhou Huazhou Xinyi Sihui Xingning Lufeng Yangchun Yingde Lianzhou Puning Luoding

Guangxi

Cenxi Dongxing Guiping Beiliu Jingxi Yizhou Heshan Pingxiang

Hainan

Wuzhishan* Qionghai* Wenchang* Wanning* Dongfang*

Sichuan

Dujiangyan Pengzhou Qionglai Chongzhou Jianyang Guanghan Shifang Mianzhu Jiangyou Emeishan Langzhong Huaying Wanyuan Barkam* Kangding* Xichang*

Guizhou

Qingzhen Chishui Renhuai Xingyi* Kaili* Duyun* Fuquan

Yunnan

Anning Xuanwei Tengchong Chuxiong* Mengzi* Gejiu Kaiyuan Mile Wenshan* Jinghong* Dali* Ruili Mangshi* Lushui* Shangri-La*

Tibet

(none)

Shaanxi

Xingping Hancheng Huayin

Gansu

Yumen Dunhuang Linxia* Hezuo*

Qinghai

Yushu* Golmud* Delingha*

Ningxia

Lingwu Qingtongxia

Xinjiang

Changji* Fukang Bole* Alashankou Korla* Aksu* Artux* Kashgar* Hotan* Yining* Kuytun Korgas Tacheng* Wusu Altay* Shihezi* Aral* Tumxuk* Wujiaqu* Beitun* Tiemenguan* Shuanghe* Kokdala* Kunyu*

Taiwan5

(none)

Notes

* Indicates this city has already occurred above. aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities. 3Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
as part of it. 4Only administers islands and waters in South China
China
Sea and have no urban core comparable to typical cities in China. 5The claimed province of Taiwan no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of China
China
instead. All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by province.

v t e

Economic Development Zones of China

Special
Special
Economic Zones

Shenzhen Zhuhai Shantou Xiamen Kashgar Hainan
Hainan
Province

New open development zones

Dalian Qingdao Qinhuangdao Lianyungang Pudong Yantai Zhanjiang Ningbo Wenzhou Nantong Fuzhou Guangzhou Beihai Shuyang

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in China Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2010)

Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.

Shanghai

Beijing 1 Shanghai Shanghai 20,217,700 11 Foshan Guangdong 6,771,900

Chongqing

Guangzhou

2 Beijing Beijing 16,858,700 12 Nanjing Jiangsu 6,238,200

3 Chongqing Chongqing 12,389,500 13 Shenyang Liaoning 5,890,700

4 Guangzhou Guangdong 10,641,400 14 Hangzhou Zhejiang 5,849,500

5 Shenzhen Guangdong 10,358,400 15 Xi'an Shaanxi 5,399,300

6 Tianjin Tianjin 10,007,700 16 Harbin Heilongjiang 5,178,000

7 Wuhan Hubei 7,541,500 17 Dalian Liaoning 4,222,400

8 Dongguan Guangdong 7,271,300 18 Suzhou Jiangsu 4,083,900

9 Chengdu Sichuan 7,112,000 19 Qingdao Shandong 3,990,900

10 Hong Kong Hong Kong 7,055,071 20 Zhengzhou Henan 3,677,000

v t e

Former German colonies and protectorates

Colonies

Africa

East Africa

Kionga Triangle Wituland

South-West Africa West Africa

Kamerun

Neukamerun

Togoland

Pacific

New Guinea Samoa

Concessions

China

Kiautschou

Tsingtao

Tientsin

Unrecognised

Antarctica

New Swabia
New Swabia
(claimed by Nazi Germany)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 295275460 GND: 4061118-8 BNF:

.