HOME
The Info List - Qianlong Emperor


--- Advertisement ---



The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
(25 September 1711 – 7 February 1799) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing
Qing
dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China
China
proper. Born Hongli, the fourth son of the Yongzheng Emperor, he reigned officially from 11 October 1735 to 8 February 1796.1 On 8 February, he abdicated in favour of his son, the Jiaqing Emperor
Jiaqing Emperor
– a filial act in order not to reign longer than his grandfather, the illustrious Kangxi Emperor.[1] Despite his retirement, however, he retained ultimate power as the Emperor Emeritus (or Retired Emperor) until his death in 1799; he thus was the longest-reigning de facto ruler in the history of China, and dying at the age of 87, the longest-living. As a capable and cultured ruler inheriting a thriving empire, during his long reign the Qing
Qing
Empire reached its most splendid and prosperous era, boasting a large population and economy. As a military leader, he led military campaigns expanding the dynastic territory to the largest extent by conquering and sometimes destroying Central Asian kingdoms. This turned around in his late years: the Qing
Qing
empire began to decline with corruption and wastefulness in his court and a stagnating civil society. A British valet who accompanied his diplomat master to the Qing
Qing
court in 1793 described the emperor:

The Emperor is about five feet ten inches in height, and of a slender but elegant form; his complexion is comparatively fair, though his eyes are dark; his nose is rather aquiline, and the whole of his countenance presents a perfect regularity of feature, which, by no means, announce the great age he is said to have attained; his person is attracting, and his deportment accompanied by an affability, which, without lessening the dignity of the prince, evinces the amiable character of the man. His dress consisted of a loose robe of yellow silk, a cap of black velvet with a red ball on the top, and adorned with a peacock's feather, which is the peculiar distinction of mandarins of the first class. He wore silk boots embroidered with gold, and a sash of blue girded his waist.[2]

Contents

1 Early years 2 Accession to the throne 3 Frontier wars 4 Cultural achievements

4.1 Burning of books and modification of texts 4.2 Literary works 4.3 Languages 4.4 Tibetan Buddhism 4.5 Palaces

4.5.1 European styles 4.5.2 Other architecture

4.6 Descendants of the Ming
Ming
dynasty's imperial family 4.7 Banner system 4.8 Anti-gun measures 4.9 Chinese nobility

5 Chinese political identity and frontier policy 6 Han settlement 7 Later years

7.1 Macartney Embassy 7.2 Titsingh Embassy

8 Abdication 9 Legends 10 Family

10.1 Spouses

10.1.1 Empresses 10.1.2 Imperial Noble Consorts 10.1.3 Noble Consorts 10.1.4 Consorts 10.1.5 Imperial Concubines

10.2 Issue

10.2.1 Sons 10.2.2 Daughters 10.2.3 Adopted Daughters

11 Ancestry 12 See also 13 Notes

13.1 Notes 13.2 References

14 Further reading 15 Works by the Qianlong Emperor

Early years[edit] Hongli was adored both by his grandfather, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
and his father, the Yongzheng Emperor. Some historians[who?] argue that the main reason why the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
appointed the Yongzheng Emperor
Yongzheng Emperor
as his successor was because Hongli was his favourite grandson. He felt that Hongli's mannerisms were very similar to his own. As a teenager, Hongli was capable in martial arts and possessed literary ability. After his father's enthronement in 1722, Hongli was made a qinwang (first-rank prince) under the title "Prince Bao of the First Rank" (和硕宝亲王; 和碩寶親王; héshuò Bǎo qīnwáng). Like many of his uncles, Hongli entered into a battle of succession with his elder half-brother Hongshi, who had the support of a large faction of the officials in the imperial court, as well as Yinsi, Prince Lian. For many years, the Yongzheng Emperor
Yongzheng Emperor
did not designate any of his sons as the crown prince, but many officials speculated that he favoured Hongli. Hongli went on inspection trips to the south, and was known to be an able negotiator and enforcer. He was also appointed as the chief regent on occasions when his father was away from the capital. Accession to the throne[edit] Hongli's accession to the throne was already foreseen before he was officially proclaimed emperor before the assembled imperial court upon the death of the Yongzheng Emperor. The young Hongli was the favourite grandson of the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
and the favourite son of the Yongzheng Emperor; the Yongzheng Emperor
Yongzheng Emperor
had entrusted a number of important ritual tasks to Hongli while the latter was still a prince, and included him in important court discussions of military strategy. In the hope of preventing a succession struggle from occurring, the Yongzheng Emperor
Yongzheng Emperor
wrote the name of his chosen successor on a piece of paper and placed it in a sealed box secured behind the tablet over the throne in the Palace of Heavenly Purity
Palace of Heavenly Purity
(Qianqing Palace). The name in the box was to be revealed to other members of the imperial family in the presence of all senior ministers only upon the death of the emperor. When the Yongzheng Emperor
Yongzheng Emperor
died suddenly in 1735, the will was taken out and read before the entire Qing
Qing
imperial court, after which Hongli became the new emperor. Hongli adopted the era name "Qianlong", which means "Lasting Eminence". Frontier wars[edit] See also: Ten Great Campaigns
Ten Great Campaigns
and Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in Inner Asia

Figurine of the three year old Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
having a bath. Artefact in Yonghe Temple, Beijing.

Military attire of the Qianlong Emperor, Musée de l'Armée, Paris

The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
was a successful military leader. Immediately after ascending the throne, he sent armies to suppress the Miao rebellion. His later campaigns greatly expanded the territory controlled by the Qing
Qing
Empire. This was made possible not only by Qing military might, but also by the disunity and declining strength of the Inner Asian peoples. Under the Qianlong Emperor's reign, the Dzungar Khanate
Dzungar Khanate
was incorporated into the Qing
Qing
Empire's rule and renamed Xinjiang, while to the west, Ili was conquered and garrisoned. The incorporation of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
into the Qing
Qing
Empire resulted from the final defeat and destruction of the Dzungars (or Zunghars), a coalition of Western Mongol
Mongol
tribes. The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
then ordered the Dzungar genocide. According to the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
scholar Wei Yuan, 40% of the 600,000 Dzungars were killed by smallpox, 20% fled to the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
or Kazakh tribes, and 30% were killed by the Qing
Qing
army,[3][4] in what Michael Edmund Clarke described as "the complete destruction of not only the Zunghar state but of the Zunghars as a people."[5] Historian Peter Perdue has argued that the decimation of the Dzungars was the result of an explicit policy of massacre launched by the Qianlong Emperor.[4] The Dzungar genocide
Dzungar genocide
has been compared to the Qing
Qing
extermination of the Jinchuan Tibetan people in 1776, which also occurred during the Qianlong Emperor's reign.[6] When victorious troops returned to Beijing, a celebratory hymn was sung in their honour. A Manchu
Manchu
version of the hymn was recorded by the Jesuit
Jesuit
Amoit and sent to Paris.[7] The Qing
Qing
Empire hired Zhao Yi
Zhao Yi
and Jiang Yongzhi at the Military Archives Office, in their capacity as members of the Hanlin Academy, to compile works on the Dzungar campaign, such as Strategy for the pacification of the Dzungars (Pingding Zhunge'er fanglue).[8] Poems glorifying the Qing
Qing
conquest and genocide of the Dzungar Mongols were written by Zhao,[9][10] who wrote the Yanpu zaji in "brush-notes" style, where military expenditures of the Qianlong Emperor's reign were recorded.[11] The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
was praised as being the source of "eighteenth-century peace and prosperity" by Zhao Yi.[12] Khalkha Mongol
Mongol
rebels under Prince Chingünjav
Chingünjav
had plotted with the Dzungar leader Amursana
Amursana
and led a rebellion against the Qing
Qing
Empire around the same time as the Dzungars. The Qing
Qing
army crushed the rebellion and executed Chingünjav
Chingünjav
and his entire family. Throughout this period there were continued Mongol
Mongol
interventions in Tibet and a reciprocal spread of Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
in Mongolia. After the Lhasa riot of 1750, the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
sent armies into Tibet and firmly established the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
as the ruler of Tibet, with a Qing
Qing
resident and garrison to preserve Qing
Qing
presence.[13] Further afield, military campaigns against Nepalese and Gurkhas forced these peoples to submit and send tribute.

A soldier from the Qianlong era, by William Alexander, 1793

The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
sought to conquer Burma to the south, but the Sino-Burmese War ended in complete failure. He initially believed that it would be an easy victory against a barbarian tribe, and sent only the Green Standard Army based in Yunnan, which borders Burma. The Qing invasion came as the majority of Burmese forces were deployed in their latest invasion of the Siamese Ayutthaya Kingdom. Nonetheless, battle-hardened Burmese troops defeated the first two invasions of 1765–66 and 1766–67 at the border. The regional conflict now escalated to a major war that involved military manoeuvres nationwide in both countries. The third invasion (1767–1768) led by the elite Manchu
Manchu
Bannermen nearly succeeded, penetrating deep into central Burma within a few days' march from the capital, Ava.[14] However, the Manchu
Manchu
Bannermen of northern China
China
could not cope with "unfamiliar tropical terrains and lethal endemic diseases", and were driven back with heavy losses. After the close-call, King Hsinbyushin
Hsinbyushin
redeployed his armies from Siam to the Chinese front. The fourth and largest invasion got bogged down at the frontier. With the Qing
Qing
forces completely encircled, a truce was reached between the field commanders of the two sides in December 1769. The Qing
Qing
forces kept a heavy military lineup in the border areas of Yunnan
Yunnan
for about one decade in an attempt to wage another war while imposing a ban on inter-border trade for two decades. When Burma and China
China
resumed a diplomatic relationship in 1790, the Qing
Qing
government unilaterally viewed the act as Burmese submission, and claimed victory.[15] The circumstances in Vietnam were not successful either. In 1787, Lê Chiêu Thống, the last ruler of the Vietnamese Lê dynasty, fled from Vietnam and formally requested to be restored to his throne in Thanglong (present-day Hanoi). The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
agreed and sent a large army into Vietnam to remove the Tây Sơn (peasant rebels who had captured all of Vietnam). The capital, Thanglong, was conquered in 1788, but a few months later the Qing
Qing
army was defeated and the invasion turned into a debacle due to the surprise attack during Tết (Vietnamese New Year) by Nguyễn Huệ, the second and most capable of the three Tây Sơn brothers. The Qing
Qing
Empire gave formal protection to Lê Chiêu Thống
Lê Chiêu Thống
and his famil, and would not intervene in Vietnam for another 90 years. Despite setbacks in the south, overall the Qianlong Emperor's military expansion nearly doubled the area of the already vast Qing
Qing
Empire, and brought into the fold many non-Han-Chinese peoples – such as Uyghurs, Kazakhs, Kyrgyzs, Evenks
Evenks
and Mongols – who were potentially hostile. It was also a very expensive enterprise; the funds in the Imperial Treasury were almost all put into military expeditions.[16] Though the wars were successful, they were not overwhelmingly so. The Qing
Qing
army declined noticeably and had a difficult time facing some enemies: the campaign against the Jinchuan hill peoples took 2–3 years – at first the Qing
Qing
army were mauled, though Yue Zhongqi (a descendant of Yue Fei) later took control of the situation. The battle with the Dzungars was closely fought, and caused heavy losses on both sides. At the end of the frontier wars, the Qing
Qing
army had started to weaken significantly. In addition to a more lenient military system, warlords became satisfied with their lifestyles. Since most of the warring had already taken place, warlords no longer saw any reason to train their armies, resulting in a rapid military decline by the end of the Qianlong Emperor's reign. This was the main reason for the Qing military's failure to suppress the White Lotus Rebellion, which started towards the end of the Qianlong Emperor's reign and extended into the reign of the Jiaqing Emperor. Cultural achievements[edit]

The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
in his study, painting by Giuseppe Castiglione, 18th century

The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
Viewing Paintings

Festive robe with dragons, clouds, waves and mountains

The Qianlong Emperor, like his predecessors, took his cultural role seriously. First of all, he worked to preserve the Manchu
Manchu
heritage, which he saw as the basis of the moral character of the Manchus and thus of the dynasty's power. He ordered the compilation of Manchu language genealogies, histories, and ritual handbooks and in 1747 secretly ordered the compilation of the Shamanic Code, published later in the Siku Quanshu. He further solidified the dynasty's cultural and religious claims in Central Asia
Central Asia
by ordering a replica of the Potala Palace, the Tibetan temple, to be built on the grounds of the imperial summer palace in Chengde.[17] In order to present himself to Tibetans and Mongols in Buddhist rather than in Confucian terms, he commissioned a thangka, or sacred painting, depicting him as Manjusri, the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
of Wisdom.[18] The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
was a major patron and important "preserver and restorer" of Confucian culture. He had an insatiable appetite for collecting, and acquired much of China's "great private collections" by any means necessary, and "reintegrated their treasures into the imperial collection."[19] The Qianlong Emperor, more than any other Manchu
Manchu
emperor, lavished the imperial collection with his attention and effort:

The imperial collection had its origins in the first century BC, and had gone through many vicissitudes of fire, civil wars and foreign invasions in the centuries that followed. But it was Qianlong who lavished the greatest attention on it, certainly of any of the Manchu rulers... One of the many roles played by Qianlong, with his customary diligence, was that of the emperor as collector and curator. ...how carefully Qianlong followed the art market in rare paintings and antiquities, using a team of cultural advisers, from elderly Chinese literati to newly fledged Manchu
Manchu
connoisseurs. These men would help the emperor spot which great private collections might be coming up for sale, either because the fortunes of some previously rich merchant family were unraveling or because the precious objects acquired by Manchu
Manchu
or Chinese grandees during the chaos of the conquest period were no longer valued by those families' surviving heirs. Sometimes, too, Qianlong would pressure or even force wealthy courtiers into yielding up choice art objects: he did this by pointing out failings in their work, which might be excused if they made a certain "gift", or, in a couple of celebrated cases, by persuading the current owners that only the secure walls of the forbidden City and its guardians could save some precious painting from theft or from fire.[20]

The Qianlong Emperor's massive art collection became an intimate part of his life; he took landscape paintings with him on his travels in order to compare them with the actual landscapes, or to hang them in special rooms in palaces where he lodged, to inscribe them on every visit there.[19] "He also regularly added poetic inscriptions to the paintings of the imperial collection, following the example of the emperors of the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
and the literati painters of the Ming dynasty. They were a mark of distinction for the work, and a visible sign of his rightful role as emperor. Most particular to the Qianlong Emperor is another type of inscription, revealing a unique practice of dealing with works of art that he seems to have developed for himself. On certain fixed occasions over a long period he contemplated a number of paintings or works of calligraphy which possessed special meaning for him, inscribing each regularly with mostly private notes on the circumstances of enjoying them, using them almost as a diary."[19] "Most of the several thousand jade items in the imperial collection date from his reign. The (Qianlong) Emperor was also particularly interested in collecting ancient bronzes, bronze mirrors and seals,"[19] in addition to pottery, ceramics and applied arts such as enameling, metal work and lacquer work, which flourished during his reign; a substantial part of his collection is in the Percival David Foundation in London. The Victoria and Albert Museum
Victoria and Albert Museum
and British Museum also have collections of art from the Qianlong era. "The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
was a passionate poet and essayist. In his collected writings, which were published in a tenfold series between 1749 and 1800, over 40,000 poems and 1,300 prose texts are listed, making him one of the most prolific writers of all time. There is a long tradition of poems of this sort in praise of particular objects ('yongwu shi), and the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
used it in order to link his name both physically and intellectually with ancient artistic tradition."[19] One of the Qianlong Emperor's grandest projects was to "assemble a team of China's finest scholars for the purpose of assembling, editing, and printing the largest collection ever made of Chinese philosophy, history, and literature."[20] Known as the Four Treasuries Project (or Siku Quanshu), it was published in 36,000 volumes, containing about 3450 complete works and employing as many as 15,000 copyists. It preserved numerous books, but was also intended as a way to ferret out and suppress political opponents, requiring the "careful examination of private libraries to assemble a list of around eleven thousand works from the past, of which about a third were chosen for publication. The works not included were either summarised or – in a good many cases – scheduled for destruction."[20] Burning of books and modification of texts[edit] Main article: Literary inquisition
Literary inquisition
§  Qing
Qing
dynasty Some 2,300 works were listed for total suppression and another 350 for partial suppression. The aim was to destroy the writings that were anti- Qing
Qing
or rebellious, that insulted previous "barbarian" dynasties, or that dealt with frontier or defence problems.[21] The full editing of the Siku Quanshu
Siku Quanshu
was completed in about ten years; during these ten years, 3100 titles (or works), about 150,000 copies of books were either burnt or banned. Of those volumes that had been categorised into the Siku Quanshu, many were subjected to deletion and modification. Books published during the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
suffered the greatest damage.[22] The authority would judge any single character or any single sentence's neutrality; if the authority had decided these words, or sentence, were derogatory or cynical towards the rulers, then persecution would begin.[23] In the Qianlong Emperor's time, there were 53 cases of literary inquisition, resulting in the victims executed by beheading or slow slicing (lingchi), or having their corpses mutilated (if they were already dead). Literary works[edit] In 1743, after his first visit to Mukden (present-day Shenyang, Liaoning), the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
used Chinese to write his "Ode to Mukden," (Shengjing fu/Mukden-i fujurun bithe), a fu in classical style, as a poem of praise to Mukden, at that point a general term for what was later called Manchuria, describing its beauties and historical values. He describes the mountains and wildlife, using them to justify his belief that the dynasty would endure. A Manchu translation was then made. In 1748, he ordered a jubilee printing in both Chinese and Manchu, using some genuine pre-Qin forms, but Manchu styles which had to be invented and which could not be read.[24] Languages[edit] In his childhood, the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
was tutored in Manchu, Chinese and Mongolian,[25] arranged to be tutored in Tibetan, and spoke Chagatai (Turki or Modern Uyghur) and Tangut. However, he was even more concerned than his predecessors to preserve and promote the Manchu language
Manchu language
among his followers, as he proclaimed that "the keystone for Manchus is language." He commissioned new Manchu dictionaries, and directed the preparation of the Pentaglot Dictionary which gave equivalents for Manchu
Manchu
terms in Mongolian, Tibetan and Turkic, and had the Buddhist canon translated into Manchu, which was considered the "national language". He directed the elimination of loanwords taken from Chinese and replaced them with calque translations which were put into new Manchu
Manchu
dictionaries. Manchu translations of Chinese works during his reign were direct translations contrasted with Manchu
Manchu
books translated during the Kangxi Emperor's reign which were transliterations in Manchu
Manchu
script of the Chinese characters.[26] The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
commissioned the Yuding Xiyu Tongwen Zhi (欽定西域同文志; "Imperial Western Regions Thesaurus") which was a thesaurus of geographic names in Xinjiang
Xinjiang
in Oirat Mongol, Manchu, Chinese, Tibetan, and Turki (Modern Uyghur). Tibetan Buddhism[edit]

Engraving of the Qianlong Emperor

The long association of the Manchu
Manchu
rulership with the Bodhisattva Manjusri
Manjusri
and his own interest in Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
gave credence to the Qianlong Emperor's patronage of Tibetan Buddhist art and patronage of translations of the Buddhist canon.[27] The accounts in court records and Tibetan language sources affirm his personal commitment. He quickly learned to read the Tibetan language and studied Buddhist texts assiduously. His beliefs are reflected in the Tibetan Buddhist imagery of his tomb, perhaps the most personal and private expression of an emperor's life. He supported the Yellow Church (the Tibetan Buddhist Gelukpa
Gelukpa
sect) to "maintain peace among the Mongols" since the Mongols were followers of the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
and Panchen Lama
Panchen Lama
of the Yellow Church, and the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
had this explanation placed in the Yonghe Temple
Yonghe Temple
in Beijing
Beijing
on a stele entitled "Lama Shuo" (on Lamas) in 1792, and he also said it was "merely in pursuance of Our policy of extending Our affection to the weak." which led him to patronize the Yellow Church.[28] Mark Elliott concludes that these actions delivered political benefits but "meshed seamlessly with his personal faith."[27] This explanation of supporting the "Yellow Hats" Tibetan Buddhists for practical reasons was used to deflect Han criticism of this policy by the Qianlong Emperor, who had the "Lama Shuo" stele engraved in Tibetan, Mongol, Manchu
Manchu
and Chinese, which said: "By patronising the Yellow Church we maintain peace among the Mongols. This being an important task we cannot but protect this (religion). (In doing so) we do not show any bias, nor do we wish to adulate the Tibetan priests as (was done during the) Yuan dynasty."[29][30] The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
turned the Palace of Harmony (Yonghe Palace) into a Tibetan Buddhist temple for Mongols in 1744 and had an edict inscribed on a stele to commemorate it in Tibetan, Mongolian, Chinese, and Manchu, with most likely the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
having first wrote the Chinese version before the Manchu.[31] Persecution of Christians by his father became even worse during his reign. [32] Palaces[edit]

Consorts and children of the Qianlong Emperor

Consorts of the Qianlong Emperor

The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
watching a wrestling match

The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
was an aggressive builder. In the hills northwest of Beijing, he expanded the villa known as the "Garden of Perfect Brightness" (Yuanmingyuan) (now known as the Old Summer Palace) that was built by his father. He eventually added two new villas, the "Garden of Eternal Spring" and the "Elegant Spring Garden". In time, the Old Summer Palace
Old Summer Palace
would encompass 860 acres (350 hectares), five times larger than the Forbidden City. To celebrate the 60th birthday of his mother, Empress Dowager Chongqing, the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
ordered a lake at the "Garden of Clear Ripples" (Qingyiyuan) (now known as the Summer Palace) dredged, named it Kunming Lake, and renovated a villa on the eastern shore of the lake.[33] The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
also expanded the imperial summer palace in Rehe Province, beyond the Great Wall. [34] Rehe eventually became effectively a third capital and it was at Rehe that the Qianlong Emperor held court with various Mongol
Mongol
nobles. The emperor also spent time at the Mulan
Mulan
hunting grounds north of Rehe, where he held the imperial hunt each year. European styles[edit] For the Old Summer Palace, the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
commissioned the Italian Jesuit
Jesuit
Giuseppe Castiglione for the construction of the Xiyang Lou, or Western-style mansion, to satisfy his taste for exotic buildings and objects. He also commissioned the French Jesuit
Jesuit
Michel Benoist, to design a series of timed waterworks and fountains complete with underground machinery and pipes, for the amusement of the imperial family. The French Jesuit
Jesuit
Jean Denis Attiret
Jean Denis Attiret
also became a painter for the emperor.[35] Jean-Damascène Sallusti was also a court painter. He co-designed, with Castiglione and Ignatius Sichelbart, the Battle Copper Prints.[36][37] Other architecture[edit] During the Qianlong Emperor's reign, the Emin Minaret
Emin Minaret
was built in Turpan
Turpan
to commemorate Emin Khoja, a Uyghur leader from Turfan
Turfan
who submitted to the Qing
Qing
Empire as a vassal in order to obtain assistance from the Qing
Qing
to fight the Zunghars. Descendants of the Ming
Ming
dynasty's imperial family[edit] In 1725, the Yongzheng Emperor
Yongzheng Emperor
bestowed a hereditary marquis title on a descendant of Zhu Zhilian, a descendant of the imperial family of the Ming
Ming
dynasty. Zhu was also paid by the Qing
Qing
government to perform rituals at the Ming
Ming
tombs and induct the Chinese Plain White Banner into the Eight Banners. Zhu was posthumously awarded the title "Marquis of Extended Grace" in 1750, and the title was passed on for 12 generations in his family until the end of the Qing
Qing
dynasty. Banner system[edit] Main article: Eight Banners

The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
in Ceremonial Armour on Horseback, by Italian Jesuit
Jesuit
Giuseppe Castiglione (known as Lang Shining in Chinese) (1688–1766).

The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
instituted a policy of "Manchu-fying" the Eight Banner system, which was the basic military and social organisation of the dynasty. In the early Qing
Qing
era, Nurhaci
Nurhaci
and Huangtaiji
Huangtaiji
categorised Manchu
Manchu
and Han ethnic identity within the Eight Banners
Eight Banners
based on culture, lifestyle and language, instead of ancestry or genealogy. Han Bannermen were an important part of the Banner System. The Qianlong Emperor changed this definition to one of descent, and demobilised many Han Bannermen and urged Manchu
Manchu
Bannermen to protect their cultural heritage, language and martial skills. The emperor redefined the identity of Han Bannermen by saying that they were to be regarded as of having the same culture and being of the same ancestral extraction as Han civilians[38] Conversely, he emphasised the martial side of Manchu
Manchu
culture and reinstituted the practice of the annual imperial hunt as begun by his grandfather, leading contingents from the Manchu
Manchu
and Mongol
Mongol
banners to the Mulan
Mulan
hunting grounds each autumn to test and improve their skills.[39] The Qianlong Emperor's view of the Han Bannermen also differed from that of his grandfather in deciding that loyalty in itself was most important quality. He sponsored biographies which depicted Chinese Bannermen who defected from the Ming
Ming
to the Qing
Qing
as traitors and glorifing Ming
Ming
loyalists.[40] Some of the Qianlong Emperor's inclusions and omissions on the list of traitors were political in nature. Some of these actions were including Li Yongfang (out of his dislike for Li Yongfang's descendant, Li Shiyao) and excluding Ma Mingpei (out of concern for his son Ma Xiongzhen's image).[41] The identification and interchangeability between "Manchu" and "Banner people" (Qiren) began in the 17th century. Banner people were differentiated from civilians (Chinese: minren, Manchu: irgen, or Chinese: Hanren, Manchu :Nikan) and the term Bannermen was becoming identical with "Manchu" in the general perception. The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
referred to all Bannermen as Manchu, and Qing
Qing
laws did not say "Manchu" but "Bannermen".[42] Anti-gun measures[edit] The Solons
Solons
were ordered by the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
to stop using rifles and instead practice traditional archery. The emperor issued an edict for silver taels to be issued for guns turned over to the government:[43] Chinese nobility[edit] The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
granted the title of Wujing Boshi (五经博士; 五經博士; Wǔjīng Bóshì) to the descendants of Zhang Zai, Fu Sheng (scholar), and Yan Hui.[44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55] The Manchu
Manchu
prince Abatai's daughter was married to the Han Chinese general Li Yongfang (李永芳).[56][57] The offspring of Li received the "Third Class Viscount" (三等子爵; sān děng zǐjué) title.[58] Li Yongfang was the great great great grandfather of Li Shiyao (李侍堯) who, during the Qianlong Emperor's reign, was involved in graft and embezzlement, demoted of his noble title and sentenced to death, however his life was spared and he regained his title after assisting in the Taiwan campaign.[59][60] Chinese political identity and frontier policy[edit] The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
and his predecessors, since the Shunzhi Emperor, had identified China
China
and the Qing
Qing
Empire as the same, and in treaties and diplomatic papers the Qing
Qing
Empire called itself "China".[61] The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
rejected earlier ideas that only Han could be subjects of China
China
and only Han land could be considered as part of China, so he redefined China
China
as multiethnic, saying in 1755 that "there exists a view of China
China
(zhongxia), according to which non-Han people cannot become China's subjects and their land cannot be integrated into the territory of China. This does not represent our dynasty's understanding of China, but is instead that of the earlier Han, Tang, Song, and Ming
Ming
dynasties."[62] The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
rejected the views of Han officials who said Xinjiang
Xinjiang
was not part of China
China
and that he should not conquer it, putting forth the view that China
China
was multiethnic and did not just refer to Han.[63] The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
compared his achievements with that of the Han and Tang ventures into Central Asia.[64] Han settlement[edit] Han Chinese
Han Chinese
farmers were resettled from north China
China
by the Qing government in the area along the Liao River
Liao River
in order to restore the land to cultivation.[65] Wasteland was reclaimed by Han squatters in addition to other Han people who rented land from Manchu landlords.[66] Despite officially prohibiting Han settlement on the Manchu
Manchu
and Mongol
Mongol
lands, by the 18th century the Qing
Qing
government decided to settle Han refugees from northern China
China
who were suffering from famine, floods, and drought into Manchuria
Manchuria
and Inner Mongolia. Due to this, Han people farmed 500,000 hectares in Manchuria
Manchuria
and tens of thousands of hectares in Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
by the 1780s.[67] The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
allowed Han peasants suffering from drought to move into Manchuria
Manchuria
despite him issuing edicts in favor of banning them from 1740-76.[68] Han tenant farmers rented or even claimed title to land from the "imperial estates" and Manchu
Manchu
Bannerlands in the area.[69] Besides moving into the Liao area in southern Manchuria, the path linking Jinzhou, Fengtian, Tieling, Changchun, Hulun, and Ningguta
Ningguta
was settled by Han people during the Qianlong Emperor's reign, and Han people were the majority in urban areas of Manchuria
Manchuria
by 1800.[70] To increase the Imperial Treasury's revenue, the Qing government sold lands along the Sungari
Sungari
which were previously exclusively for Manchus to Han Chinese
Han Chinese
at the beginning of the Daoguang Emperor's reign, and Han people filled up most of Manchuria's towns by the 1840s, according to Abbé Huc.[71] Later years[edit]

The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
in his old age

In his later years, the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
became spoiled with power and glory, disillusioned and complacent in his reign, and started placing his trust in corrupt officials such as Yu Minzhong
Yu Minzhong
and Heshen. As Heshen
Heshen
was the highest ranked minister and most favoured by the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
at the time, the day-to-day governance of the country was left in his hands, while the emperor himself indulged in the arts, luxuries and literature. When Heshen
Heshen
was executed by the Jiaqing Emperor, the Qing
Qing
government discovered that Heshen's personal fortune exceeded that of the Qing
Qing
Empire's depleted treasury, amounting to 900 million silver taels, the total of 12 years of Treasury surplus of the Qing
Qing
imperial court.[72] The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
began his reign with about 33.95 million silver taels in Treasury surplus.[citation needed] At the peak of his reign, around 1775, even with further tax cuts, the treasury surplus still reached 73.9 million silver taels, a record unmatched by his predecessors, the Kangxi and Yongzheng emperors, both of whom had implemented remarkable tax cut policies.[citation needed] However, due to numerous factors such as long term embezzlement and corruption by officials, frequent expeditions to the south, huge palace constructions, many war and rebellion campaigns as well as his own extravagant lifestyle, all of these cost the treasury a total of 150.2 million silver taels.[citation needed] This, coupled with his senior age and the lack of political reforms, ushered the beginning of the gradual decline and eventual demise of the Qing
Qing
Empire, casting a shadow over his glorious and brilliant political life.[73] Macartney Embassy[edit] Main article: Macartney Embassy See also: All under heaven, Hua-Yi distinction, and Kowtow

Lord Macartney's embassy, 1793

The French Jesuit
Jesuit
Joseph-Marie Amiot
Joseph-Marie Amiot
(1718–1793) was the official translator of Western languages for the Qianlong Emperor.

Illustration depicting the last European delegation to be received at the Qianlong Emperor's court in 1795 – Isaac Titsingh
Isaac Titsingh
(seated European with hat, far left) and A.E. van Braam Houckgeest (seated European without hat)

During the mid-18th century, European powers began to pressure for increases in the already burgeoning foreign trade and for outposts on the China
China
coast, demands which the aging Qianlong emperor resisted. In 1793 King George III
George III
sent a large-scale delegation to present their requests directly to the emperor in Beijing, headed by George Macartney, one of the country's most seasoned diplomats. Historians both in China
China
and abroad long presented the failure of the mission to achieve its goals as a symbol of China's refusal to change and inability to modernize. They explain the refusal first on the fact that interaction with foreign kingdoms was limited to neighbouring tributary states. Furthermore, the worldviews on the two sides were incompatible, China
China
holding entrenched beliefs that China
China
was the "central kingdom". However, after the publication in the 1990s of a fuller range of archival documents concerning the visit, these claims have been challenged. Some assert that China's present day autonomy and successful modernization put the Qianlong Emperor's actions in a new light.[citation needed] One historian summed the newly revised view by characterizing the emperor and his court as "clearly clever and competent political operators".[citation needed] They acted within the formal claims of Qing
Qing
claims to universal rule, but also simply reacted prudently by placating the British with unspecified promises in order to avoid military conflicts and loss of trade.[74] Macartney was granted an audience with the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
on two days, the second of which coincided with the emperor's 82nd birthday. There is continued debate about the nature of the audience and what level of ceremonials were performed. Macartney wrote that he resisted demands that the British trade ambassadors kneel and perform the kowtow and debate continues as to what exactly occurred, differing opinions recorded by Qing
Qing
courtiers and British delegates.[75] Qianlong gave Macartney a letter for the British king[76] stating the reasons that he would not grant Macartney's requests:

Yesterday your Ambassador petitioned my Ministers to memorialise me regarding your trade with China, but his proposal is not consistent with our dynastic usage and cannot be entertained. Hitherto, all European nations, including your own country's barbarian merchants, have carried on their trade with our Celestial Empire at Canton. Such has been the procedure for many years, although our Celestial Empire possesses all things in prolific abundance and lacks no product within its own borders.

Your request for a small island near Chusan, where your merchants may reside and goods be warehoused, arises from your desire to develop trade... Consider, moreover, that England is not the only barbarian land which wishes to establish... trade with our Empire: supposing that other nations were all to imitate your evil example and beseech me to present them each and all with a site for trading purposes, how could I possibly comply? This also is a flagrant infringement of the usage of my Empire and cannot possibly be entertained.

Hitherto, the barbarian merchants of Europe have had a definite locality assigned to them at Aomen for residence and trade, and have been forbidden to encroach an inch beyond the limits assigned to that locality.... If these restrictions were withdrawn, friction would inevitably occur between the Chinese and your barbarian subjects...

Regarding your nation's worship of the Lord of Heaven, it is the same religion as that of other European nations. Ever since the beginning of history, sage Emperors and wise rulers have bestowed on China
China
a moral system and inculcated a code, which from time immemorial has been religiously observed by the myriads of my subjects. There has been no hankering after heterodox doctrines. Even the European (missionary) officials in my capital are forbidden to hold intercourse with Chinese subjects...[76]

The letter was preserved in archives but was largely unknown to the public until 1914.[77] Macartney's conclusions in his memoirs were widely disseminated:

The Empire of China
China
is an old, crazy, first-rate Man of War, which a fortunate succession of able and vigilant officers have contrived to keep afloat for these hundred and fifty years past, and to overawe their neighbours merely by her bulk and appearance. But whenever an insufficient man happens to have the command on deck, adieu to the discipline and safety of the ship. She may, perhaps, not sink outright; she may drift some time as a wreck, and will then be dashed to pieces on the shore; but she can never be rebuilt on the old bottom.[78]

Emperor Qianlong's skepticism toward the British Empire would later prove prophetic.[citation needed] After Great Britain began importing Chinese tea, the balance of trade no longer favored Britain,[citation needed] and the empire came up with a strategy to force China
China
to become a market for a good that British traders could sell.[citation needed] British traders would be responsible for bringing large quantities of opium to southern China, causing a national addiction crisis and resulting in two wars. Titsingh Embassy[edit] A Dutch embassy arrived at the Qianlong Emperor's court in 1795, which would turn out to be the last time any European appeared before the Qing
Qing
imperial court within the context of traditional Chinese imperial foreign relations.[79] Representing Dutch and Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
interests, Isaac Titsingh traveled to Beijing
Beijing
in 1794–95 for celebrations of the 60th anniversary of the Qianlong Emperor's reign.[80] The Titsingh delegation also included the Dutch-American Andreas Everardus van Braam Houckgeest,[81] whose detailed description of this embassy to the Qing
Qing
court was soon after published in the United States and Europe. Titsingh's French translator, Chrétien-Louis-Joseph de Guignes, published his own account of the Titsingh mission in 1808. Voyage a Pékin, Manille et l'Ile de France provided an alternate perspective and a useful counterpoint to other reports that were then circulating. Titsingh himself died before he could publish his version of events. In contrast to Macartney, Isaac Titsingh, the Dutch and VOC emissary in 1795 did not refuse to kowtow. In the year following Mccartney's rebuff, Titsingh and his colleagues were much feted by the Chinese because of what was construed as seemly compliance with conventional court etiquette.[82] Abdication[edit] In October 1795, the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
officially announced that in the spring of the following year he would voluntarily abdicate his throne and pass the throne to his son. It was said that the Qianlong Emperor had made a promise during the year of his ascension not to rule longer than his grandfather, the Kangxi Emperor, who had reigned for 61 years. The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
anticipated moving out of the Hall of Mental Cultivation (Yangxindian) in the Forbidden City. The hall had been conventionally dedicated for the exclusive use of the reigning sovereign, and in 1771 the emperor ordered the beginning of construction on what was ostensibly intended as his retirement residence in another part of the Forbidden City: a lavish, two-acre walled retreat called the " Palace of Tranquil Longevity
Palace of Tranquil Longevity
(Ningshou Palace)",[20] which is today more commonly known as the "Qianlong Garden".[83] The complex, completed in 1776, is currently undergoing a ten-year restoration led by the Palace Museum in Beijing
Beijing
and the World Monuments Fund (WMF). The first of the restored apartments, the Qianlong Emperor's Juanqinzhai, or "Studio of Exhaustion From Diligent Service," began an exhibition tour of the United States in 2010.[83] The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
relinquished the throne at the age of 85, in the 60th year of his reign, to his son, the Jiaqing Emperor, in 1795. For the next four years, he held the title " Taishang Huang (or Retired Emperor)" (太上皇) even though he continued to hold on to power and the Jiaqing Emperor
Jiaqing Emperor
ruled only in name. He never moved into his retirement suites in the Qianlong Garden.[1] He died in 1799.[73][84] Legends[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

A legend, popularised in fiction, says that the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
was the son of Chen Shiguan (陳世倌), a Han Chinese
Han Chinese
official from Haining County, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Province. In his choice of heir to the throne, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
required not only that the heir be able to govern the empire well but that the heir's son be of no less calibre, thus ensuring the Manchus' everlasting reign over China. The son of Yinzhen, the Kangxi Emperor's fourth son, was a weakling so Yinzhen surreptitiously arranged for his daughter to be exchanged for Chen Shiguan's son, who became the favourite grandson of the Kangxi Emperor. Yinzhen succeeded his father and became the Yongzheng Emperor, while his "son", Hongli, succeeded him in turn as the Qianlong Emperor. During his reign, the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
went on inspection tours to southern China
China
and stayed in Chen Shiguan's house in Haining, where he wrote calligraphy. He also frequently issued imperial edicts to waive off taxes from Haining County. However, there are major problems with this story. First, the Yongzheng Emperor's eldest surviving son, Hongshi, was only seven when Hongli was born, far too young to make the drastic choice of replacing a child of imperial birth with an outsider (and risking disgrace if not death). Second, the Yongzheng Emperor
Yongzheng Emperor
had three other princes who survived to adulthood and had the potential to ascend the throne. Indeed, since Hongshi was the son forced to commit suicide, it would have been far more logical for him to be the adopted son, if any of them were. Stories about the Qianlong Emperor's six inspection tours to southern China
China
in disguise as a commoner have been a popular topic for many generations. In total, he visited southern China
China
six times – the same number of times as his grandfather, the Kangxi Emperor. Family[edit] Spouses[edit] See also: Ranks of imperial consorts in China
China
§ Qing Empresses[edit]

Title Name Born Died Father Mother Issue Notes

Empress Xiaoxian Chun 孝贤纯皇后 Lady Fuca 富察氏 28 Mar 1712 11 Mar 1748 Lirongbao, supervisor of Chahar 察哈尔总管李荣保 unknown 1. daughter 2. Crown Prince Duanhui 3. Princess Hejing of the First Rank 7. Prince Zhe of the First Rank Married Gaozong and became primary consort (嫡福晋) in 1727 Became Empress in 1737

Empress 皇后 Lady Hoifa–Nara 辉发那拉氏 11 Mar 1718 14 Jul 1766 Narbu, zuoling 佐领讷尔布 unknown 12. Prince of the Third Rank 5. daughter 13. Yongjing Started out as secondary consort (侧福晋) Became Consort Xian (娴妃) in 1737 Promoted to Noble Consort Xian (娴贵妃) in 1745 Promoted to Imperial Noble Consort (皇贵妃) in 1748 Became Empress in 1750

Empress Xiaoyi Chun 孝仪纯皇后 Lady Weigiya 魏佳氏 23 Oct 1727 28 Feb 1775 Wei Qingtai, third class Duke of Cheng'en 三等承恩公魏清泰 Lady Yanggiya 杨佳氏 7. Princess Hejing of the First Rank 14. Yonglu 9. Princess Heke of the Second Rank 15. Renzong 16. son 17. Prince Xi of Qing
Qing
of the First Rank Became Noble Lady (贵人) and promoted to Imperial Concubine Ling (令嫔) in 1645 Promoted to Consort Ling (令妃) in 1749 Promoted to Noble Consort Ling (令贵妃) in 1759 Promoted to Imperial Noble Consort (皇贵妃) in 1765 Posthumously honoured as Imperial Noble Consort Lingyi (令懿皇贵妃) in 1775 Posthumously honoured in 1795

Imperial Noble Consorts[edit]

Title Name Born Died Father Issue Notes

Imperial Noble Consort Huixian 慧贤皇贵妃 Lady Gaogiya 高佳氏 unknown 25 Feb 1745 Gao Bin, grand academician 大学士高斌 none Bondservant Became secondary consort (侧福晋) Became Noble Consort in 1737 Promoted to Imperial Noble Consort in 1745

Imperial Noble Consort Zhemin 哲悯皇贵妃 Lady Fuca 富察氏 c.1710 20 Aug 1735 Wengguotu, zuoling 佐领翁果图 1. Prince An of Ding of the First Rank 2. daughter Started out as ordinary consort (格格) in 1725 Posthumously honoured as Consort Zhe in 1736 Posthumously honoured in 1745

Imperial Noble Consort Shujia 淑嘉皇贵妃 Lady Jingiya 金佳氏 1713 1755 Sanbao of Joseon
Joseon
Jin clan 上驷院卿金三宝 4. Prince Duan of Lü of the First Rank 8. Prince Shen of Yi of the First Rank 9. son 11. Prince Zhe of Cheng of the First Rank Bondservant Became ordinary consort (格格) Became Noble Lady (贵人) in 1735 Promoted to Imperial Concubine Jia (嘉嫔) in 1737 Promoted to Consort Jia in 1741 Promoted to Noble Consort Jia in 1749 Posthumously honoured in 1755

Imperial Noble Consort Chunhui 纯惠皇贵妃 Lady Su 苏氏 1713 1760 Su Zhaonan 苏召南 3. Prince Xun of the Second Rank 6. Prince Zhuang
Prince Zhuang
of Zhi of the First Rank 4. Princess Hejia of the Second Rank Started out as ordinary consort (格格) Became Imperial Concubine Chun (纯嫔) in 1735 Promoted to Consort Chun in 1737 Promoted to Noble Consort Chun in 1745 Promoted to Imperial Noble Consort in 1760

Imperial Noble Consort Qinggong 庆恭皇贵妃 Lady Lu 陆氏 1724 1774 Lu Shilong 陆士隆 none Became Noble Lady (贵人) in 1740 Promoted to Imperial Concubine Qing
Qing
(庆嫔) in 1751 Promoted to Consort Qing
Qing
in 1759 Promoted to Noble Consort Qing
Qing
in 1768 Posthumously honoured as Imperial Noble Consort Qinggong
Imperial Noble Consort Qinggong
in 1799 Adoptive mother of Renzong

Noble Consorts[edit]

Title Name Born Died Father Issue Notes

Noble Consort Xin 忻贵妃 Lady Daigiya 戴佳氏 c.1737 1764 Nasutu, viceroy of Liangguang 两广总督那苏图 6. daughter 8. daughter Became Imperial Concubine Xin (忻嫔) in 1753 Promoted to Consort Xin in 1763 Posthumously honoured in 1765

Noble Consort Yu 愉贵妃 Lady Keliyete 珂里叶特氏 15 Jun 1714 9 Jul 1792 E'erjitu, yuanwailang 员外郎额尔吉图 5. Prince Chun of Rong of the First Rank Started out as ordinary consort (格格) Became First Class Female Attendant Hai (海常在) in 1735 Promoted to Noble Lady Hai (海贵人) in 1736 Promoted to Imperial Concubine Yu (愉嫔) in 1741 Promoted to Consort Yu in 1745 Posthumously honoured in 1793

Noble Consort Ying 颖贵妃 Lady Barin 巴林氏 1731 1800 Nachin, qingche duwei 都统兼轻车都尉纳亲 none Started out as Noble Lady Ying (颖贵人) in 1748 Promoted to Imperial Concubine Ying (颖嫔) in 1751 Promoted to Consort Ying in 1759 Promoted to Noble Consort Ying
Noble Consort Ying
in 1798 Adoptive mother of Prince Xi of Qing
Qing
of the First Rank

Noble Consort Xun 循贵妃 Lady Irgen–Gioro 伊尔根觉罗氏 1758 1797 Guilin, viceroy 总督桂林 none Started out as Imperial Concubine Xun (循嫔) in 1776 Promoted to Consort Xun in 1794 Posthumously honoured in 1799

Noble Consort Wan 婉贵妃 Lady Chen 陈氏 1716 10 Mar 1807 Chen Tingzhang 陈廷章 none Started out as ordinary consort (格格) Became First Class Female Attendant (常在) in 1735 Promoted to Noble Lady (贵人) in 1737 Promoted to Imperial Concubine Wan (婉嫔) in 1749 Promoted to Consort Wan in 1794 Promoted in 1801

Consorts[edit]

Title Name Born Died Father Mother Issue Notes

Consort Shu 舒妃 Lady Yehe–Nara 叶赫那拉氏 1728 1777 Nalan Yongshou, shilang 侍郎纳兰•永绶 Lady Guan 关氏 10. son Started out as Noble Lady (贵人) and promoted to Imperial Concubine Shu (舒嫔) in 1741 Promoted in 1749

Consort Yu 豫妃 Lady Borjigit 博尔济吉特氏 1730 1774 Saisanggendun 塞桑根敦 unknown none Started out as Noble Lady Duo (多贵人) in 1758 Promoted to Imperial Concubine (豫嫔) in 1759 Promoted in 1763

Consort Rong 容妃 Fatime of Uyghur Xojam clan 和卓•法蒂玛 11 Oct 1734 24 May 1788 Elixojam 艾力和卓木 unknown none Started out as Noble Lady He (和贵人) in 1760 Promoted to Imperial Concubine Rong (容嫔) in 1763 Promoted in 1768

Consort Dun 惇妃 Lady Wang 汪氏 27 Mar 1746 6 Mar 1806 Sige, magistrate of Yixing 宜兴都统四格 unknown 10. Princess Hexiao of the First Rank Started out as First Class Female Attendant Yong (永常在) in 1764 Promoted to Noble Lady Yong (永贵人) then Imperial Concubine Dun (惇嫔) in 1770 Promoted to Consort Dun
Consort Dun
in 1774 Demoted to Imperial Concubine Dun in 1778 Restored in 1780

Consort Fang 芳妃 Lady Chen 陈氏 unknown 1801 Chen Tinglun 陈廷纶 unknown none Became First Class Female Attendant Ming
Ming
(明常在) in 1766 Promoted to Noble Lady Ming
Ming
(明贵人) in 1775 Promoted to Imperial Concubine Fang (芳嫔) in 1794 Promoted in 1798

Consort Jin 晋妃 Lady Fuca 富察氏 c.1740s 1822 Dekejing'e, managerial official 主事德克精额 unknown none Started out as Second Class Female Attendant (答应) in 1763 Promoted to Noble Lady Jin (晋贵人) in 1799 Promoted in 1820

Imperial Concubines[edit]

Title Name Born Died Father Issue Notes

Imperial Concubine Yi 仪嫔 Lady Huang 黄氏 unknown 1736 unknown none Started out as ordinary consort (格格) Became Noble Lady Yi (仪贵人) in 1735 Posthumously honoured in 1736

Imperial Concubine Yi 怡嫔 Lady Bo 柏氏 unknown 1757 Bo Shicai 柏士彩 none Started as Noble Lady Yi (怡贵人) Promoted in 1742

Imperial Concubine Shen 慎嫔 Lady Bai'ergesi 拜尔葛斯氏 unknown 1765 Demuqiseyinchake 德穆齐塞音察克 none Started out as Noble Lady Yi (伊贵人) in 1759 Promoted in 1762

Imperial Concubine Xun 恂嫔 Lady Huoshuote 霍硕特氏 unknown 1761 unknown none Started out as First Class Female Attendant Guo (郭常在) Promoted to Noble Lady Guo (郭贵人) Posthumously honoured in 1762

Imperial Concubine Cheng 诚嫔 Lady Niohuru 钮祜禄氏 unknown 1784 Mukedeng, second class imperial guard 二等侍卫兼佐领穆克登 none Started out as Noble Lady Lan (兰贵人) in 1757 Promoted to Imperial Concubine Cheng in 1779 Drowned to death

Imperial Concubine Gong 恭嫔 Lady Lin 林氏 unknown 1805 Foyin, baitang'a 拜唐阿佛音 none Started out as First Class Female Attendant (常在) in 1748 Promoted to Noble Lady (贵人) in 1751 Promoted in 1794

Issue[edit] Sons[edit]

# Title Name Born Died Mother Notes

1 Prince An of Ding of the First Rank 定安亲王 Yonghuang 永璜 5 Jul 1728 21 Apr 1750 Imperial Noble Consort Zhemin Posthumously honoured as Prince An of Ding of the First Rank in 1750

2 Crown Prince Duanhui 端慧太子 Yonglian 永琏 9 Aug 1730 23 Nov 1738 Empress Xiaoxian Chun Died young Posthumously honoured in 1738

3 Prince Xun of the Second Rank 循郡王 Yongzhang 永璋 15 Jul 1735 26 Aug 1760 Imperial Noble Consort Chunhui Posthumously honoured as Prince Xun of the Second Rank in 1760

4 Prince Duan of Lü of the First Rank 履端亲王 Yongcheng 永珹 21 Feb 1739 5 Apr 1777 Imperial Noble Consort Shujia Inherited Yuntao's Prince of Lü peerage as Prince of the Second Rank (郡王) in 1763 Posthumously honoured in 1799

5 Prince Chun of Rong of the First Rank 荣纯亲王 Yongqi 永琪 23 Mar 1741 16 Apr 1766 Noble Consort Yu Granted the title Prince Rong of the First Rank in 1765

6 Prince Zhuang
Prince Zhuang
of Zhi of the First Rank 质庄亲王 Yongrong 永瑢 28 Jan 1744 13 Jun 1790 Imperial Noble Consort Chunhui Inherited Yunxi's Prince of Shen peerage as Prince of the Third Rank (贝勒) in 1759 Promoted to Prince Zhi of the Second Rank (质郡王) in 1772 Promoted to Prince Zhi of the First Rank in 1789

7 Prince Zhe of the First Rank 哲亲王 Yongcong 永琮 27 May 1746 29 Jan 1748 Empress Xiaoxian Chun Died in infancy Posthumously honoured as Daomin (悼敏) in 1748 Posthumously honoured in 1799

8 Prince Shen of Yi of the First Rank 仪慎亲王 Yongxuan 永璇 31 Aug 1746 1 Sep 1832 Imperial Noble Consort Shujia Granted the title Prince Yi of the Second Rank (仪郡王) in 1779 Promoted to Prince Yi of the First Rank in 1799

9

2 Aug 1748 11 Jun 1749 Died in infancy

10

12 Jun 1751 7 Jul 1753 Consort Shu Died young

11 Prince Zhe of Cheng of the First Rank 成哲亲王 Yongxing 永瑆 22 Mar 1752 10 May 1823 Imperial Noble Consort Shujia Granted the title Prince Cheng of the First Rank in 1789

12 Prince of the Third Rank 贝勒 Yongqi 永璂 7 Jun 1752 17 Mar 1776 Empress Hoifa–Nara Posthumously honoured in 1776

13

Yongjing 永璟 2 Jan 1756 7 Sep 1757 Died in infancy

14

Yonglu 永璐 31 Aug 1757 3 May 1760 Empress Xiaoyi Chun Died young

15 Renzong 仁宗 Yongyan 永琰, 颙琰 13 Nov 1760 2 Sep 1820 Granted the title Prince Jia of the First Rank (嘉亲王) in 1789 Became Emperor (皇帝) in 1796

16

13 Jan 1763 6 May 1765 Died young

17 Prince Xi of Qing
Qing
of the First Rank 庆僖亲王 Yonglin 永璘 17 Jun 1766 25 Apr 1820 Granted the title Prince of the Third Rank (贝勒) in 1789 Promoted to Prince Hui of the Second Rank (惠郡王) in 1799 Title changed to Prince Qing
Qing
of the Second Rank (庆郡王) Promoted to Prince Qing
Qing
of the First Rank in 1820 Originator of the "iron-cap" Prince of Qing
Qing
peerage

Daughters[edit]

# Title Name Born Died Mother Spouses Issue Notes

1

unknown 3 Nov 1728 14 Feb 1730 Empress Xiaoxian Chun none none Died in infancy

2

unknown 1731 1731 Imperial Noble Consort Zhemin none none Died in infancy

3 Princess Hejing of the First Rank 固伦和敬公主 unknown 28 Jun 1731 15 Aug 1792 Empress Xiaoxian Chun 1747: Sebutengbalezhu'er, Duke of the Second Rank of Khorchin (科尔沁辅国公色布腾巴勒珠尔) Borjigit Elezhetemu'er–E'erkebabai (博尔济吉特•鄂勒哲特穆尔额尔克巴拜)

4 Princess Hejia of the Second Rank 和硕和嘉公主 unknown 24 Dec 1745 29 Oct 1767 Imperial Noble Consort Chunhui 1760: Fuca Fulungga (富察•福隆安)

Granted the title Princess Hejia of the Second Rank in 1760

5

unknown 23 Jul 1753 1 Jun 1755 Empress Hoifa–Nara none none Died in infancy

6

unknown 24 Aug 1755 27 Sep 1758 Noble Consort Xin none none Died young

7 Princess Hejing of the First Rank 固伦和静公主 unknown 10 Aug 1756 9 Feb 1775 Empress Xiaoyi Chun 1770: Borjigit Lawangdorji (博尔济吉特•拉旺多尔济)

Granted the title Princess Hejing of the First Rank in 1770

8

unknown 16 Jan 1758 17 Jun 1767 Noble Consort Xin none none Died young

9 Princess Heke of the Second Rank 和硕和恪公主 unknown 17 Aug 1758 14 Dec 1780 Empress Xiaoyi Chun 1772: Uya Jalantai (乌雅•札兰泰) Lady Uya (乌雅氏) Granted the title Princess Heke of the Second Rank in 1771

10 Princess Hexiao of the First Rank 固伦和孝公主 unknown 2 Feb 1775 13 Oct 1823 Consort Dun 1789: Niohuru Fengšen–Yendehe (钮祜禄•丰绅殷德) Niohuru (钮祜禄) Granted the title Princess Hexiao of the First Rank in 1786

Adopted Daughters[edit]

# Title Name Born Died Father Mother Spouses Issue Notes

1 Princess Hewan of the Second Rank 和硕和婉公主 unknown 24 July 1734 2 May 1760 Hongzhou, Prince Gong of He of the First Rank, eldest daughter of 和恭亲王弘昼 Lady Ujara, Primary Consort 嫡福晋乌札库氏 1750: Deleke of Baarin 巴林德勒克

Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Qianlong Emperor

Hong–Taiji of Aisin–Gioro clan, Taizong 太宗爱新觉罗•皇太极 1592–1643

9th son: Fulin of Aisin–Gioro clan, Shizu 世祖爱新觉罗•福临 1638–1661

Wife: Bumbutai of Borjigit clan, Empress Xiaozhuang Wen 孝庄文皇后博尔济吉特•布木布泰 1613–1688

3rd son: Aisin–Gioro Xuanye, Shengzu 圣祖爱新觉罗•玄烨 1654–1722

Tong Tulai, First Class Duke 一等公佟图赖 1606–1658

Concubine: Lady Tunggiya, Empress Xiaokang Zhang 孝康章皇后佟佳氏 1638–1663

Lady Gioro 觉罗氏

4th son: Aisin–Gioro Yinzhen, Shizong 世宗爱新觉罗•胤禛 1678–1735

Uya Esen 乌雅•额森

Uya Weiwu, first class Duke 一等公乌雅•威武

Concubine: Lady Uya, Empress Xiaogong Ren 孝恭仁皇后乌雅氏 1660–1723

Lady Saiheri 塞和里氏

4th son: Aisin–Gioro Hongli, Gaozong 高宗爱新觉罗•弘历 1711–1799

Niohuru Eiteng, first class Duke of Cheng'en 一等承恩公钮祜禄•额亦腾

Niohuru Wulu, first class Duke of Cheng'en 一等承恩公钮祜禄•吴禄

Lady Long 龙氏

Niohuru Lingzhu, first class Duke of Cheng'en 一等承恩公钮祜禄•凌柱

Lady Qiao 乔氏

Concubine: Lady Niohuru, Empress Xiaosheng Xian 孝圣宪皇后钮祜禄氏 1693–1777

Peng Wugong 彭武功

Lady Peng 彭氏

See also[edit]

China
China
portal History portal Biography portal

Chinese emperors family tree (late) Jean Joseph Marie Amiot Giuseppe Castiglione Manwen Laodang Canton System Xi Yang Lou Long Corridor Putuo Zongcheng Temple Qianlong Dynasty

Notes[edit] ^1 The Qianlong era name, however, started only on 12 February 1736, the first day of that lunar year. 8 February 1796 was the last day of the lunar year known in Chinese as the 60th year of Qianlong. Notes[edit]

^ a b Jacobs, Andrew. "Dusting Off a Serene Jewel Box," New York Times. 31 December 2008. ^ Æneas Anderson, A Narrative of the British Embassy to China, in the Years 1792, 1793, and 1794; Containing the Various Circumstances of the Embassy, with Accounts of Customs and Manners of the Chinese (London: J. Debrett, 1795) p. 262. ^ Wei Yuan, 聖武記 Military history of the Qing
Qing
Dynasty, vol.4. “計數十萬戶中,先痘死者十之四,繼竄入俄羅斯哈薩克者十之二,卒殲於大兵者十之三。” ^ a b Perdue 2005, p. 287. ^ Clarke 2004, p. 37. ^ Theobald, Ulrich (2013). War Finance and Logistics in Late Imperial China: A Study of the Second Jinchuan Campaign (1771–1776). BRILL. p. 21. ISBN 9004255672. Retrieved 22 April 2014.  ^ " Manchu
Manchu
hymn chanted at the occasion of the victory over the Jinchuan Rebels". Manchu
Manchu
Studies Group. 2012-12-18. Retrieved 2013-02-19.  ^ Man-Cheong, Iona (2004). Class of 1761. Stanford University Press. p. 180. ISBN 0804767130. Retrieved 24 April 2014.  ^ Schmidt, J. D. (2013). Harmony Garden: The Life, Literary Criticism, and Poetry of Yuan Mei (1716-1798). Routledge. p. 444. ISBN 1136862250. Retrieved 24 April 2014.  ^ Schmidt, Jerry D. (2013). The Poet Zheng Zhen (1806-1864) and the Rise of Chinese Modernity. BRILL. p. 394. ISBN 9004252290. Retrieved 24 April 2014.  ^ Theobald, Ulrich (2013). War Finance and Logistics in Late Imperial China: A Study of the Second Jinchuan Campaign (1771–1776). BRILL. p. 32. ISBN 9004255672. Retrieved 24 April 2014.  ^ Chang, Michael G. (2007). A Court on Horseback: Imperial Touring & the Construction of Qing
Qing
Rule, 1680-1785. Volume 287 of Harvard East Asian monographs (illustrated ed.). Harvard University Asia Center. p. 435. ISBN 0674024540. Retrieved 24 April 2014.  ^ Dabringhaus, Sabine (2011). "Staatsmann, Feldherr und Dichter". Damals
Damals
(in German). Vol. 43 no. 1. pp. 16–24.  ^ Hall, pp. 27–29 ^ Dai, p.145 ^ Schirokauer, Conrad & Clark, Donald N. Modern East Asia: A Brief History, 2nd ed. pp. 35. Houghton Mifflin Company. Boston & New York. 2008 ISBN 978-0-618-92070-9. ^ Jonathan D. Spence. The Search for Modern China. (New York: Norton, 3rd, 2013 ISBN 9780393934519), p. 98. ^ Freer Sackler Archived 16 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c d e Holzworth, Gerald (12 November 2005). "China: the Three Emperors 1662–1795". The Royal Academy of Arts. [permanent dead link] ^ a b c d Spence, Jonathan (Winter 2003–2004). "Portrait of an Emperor, Qianlong: Ruler, Connoisseur, Scholar" (PDF). ICON Magazine / WMF. World Monuments Fund. pp. 24–30. Retrieved 12 July 2011  ^ Alexander Woodside, "The Ch’ien-Lung Reign," in Peterson, Willard J. (December 2002). The Cambridge History of China. Cambridge University Press. p. 290. ISBN 978-0-521-24334-6.  ^ Guy (1987), p. 167. ^ Guy (1987), p. 166. ^ Elliott (2000), p. 615-617. ^ Elliott (2009), p. 5. ^ Elliott (2009), p. 57. ^ a b Elliott (2009), p. 145. ^ Elisabeth Benard, "The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
and Tibetan Buddhism," in Dunnell & Elliott & Foret & Millward 2004, pp. 123-4. ^ Lopez 1999, p. 20. ^ Berger 2003, p. 35. ^ Berger 2003, p. 34. ^ Jocelyn M. N. Marinescu (2008). Defending Christianity in China: The Jesuit
Jesuit
Defense of Christianity in the "Lettres Edifiantes Et Curieuses" & "Ruijianlu" in Relation to the Yongzheng Proscription of 1724. ProQuest. pp. 29, 33, 136, 240, 265. ISBN 978-0-549-59712-4. ^ Rawski, Evelyn The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing
Qing
Imperial Institutions (University of California Press, 1998) pgs. 23 & 24 ^ Greenwood, Kevin (2013), Yonghegong: Imperial Universalism And The Art And Architecture Of Beijing's "Lama Temple"  ^ 藏品/绘画/王致诚乾隆射箭图屏 Archived 25 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Le Bas, Jacques-Philippe (1770). "A Victory Banquet Given by the Emperor for the Distinguished Officers and Soldiers". World Digital Library (in French). Xinjiang, China.  ^ Jacques Gernet (31 May 1996). A History of Chinese Civilization. Cambridge University Press. p. 522. ISBN 978-0-521-49781-7. Retrieved 28 May 2013.  ^ Crossley 1999, pp. 55-56. ^ Elliott (2001), pp. 184-186. ^ Crossley 1999, pp. 291-292. ^ Crossley 1999, p. 293. ^ Elliott 2001, p. 133. ^ Gun Control, Qing
Qing
Style Manchu
Manchu
Studies Group ^ 孔氏宗亲网-孔子后裔的网上家园-清朝对圣门各贤裔的封赠 Archived 6 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Qin ding da Qing
Qing
hui dian (Jiaqing chao)0. 1818. pp. 1084–.  ^ 不詳 (21 August 2015). 新清史. 朔雪寒. pp. –. GGKEY:ZFQWEX019E4.  ^ 曝書亭集 : 卷三十三 - 中國哲學書電子化計劃 ^ 什么是 五经博士 意思详解 - 淘大白 ^ 王士禎 (3 September 2014). 池北偶談. 朔雪寒. pp. –. GGKEY:ESB6TEXXDCT.  ^ 徐錫麟; 錢泳 (10 September 2014). 熙朝新語. 朔雪寒. pp. –. GGKEY:J62ZFNAA1NF.  ^ 【从世袭翰林院五经博士到奉祀官】_三民儒家_新浪博客 ^ H.S. Brunnert; V.V. Hagelstrom (15 April 2013). Present Day Political Organization of China. Routledge. pp. 493–494. ISBN 978-1-135-79795-9.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 April 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016.  ^ Present day political organization of China ^ H.S. Brunnert; V.V. Hagelstrom (15 April 2013). Present Day Political Organization of China. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-79794-2.  ^ 李永芳将军的简介 李永芳的后代-历史趣闻网 ^ 曹德全:首个投降后金的明将李永芳 — 抚顺七千年(wap版) Archived 7 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Evelyn S. Rawski (15 November 1998). The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing
Qing
Imperial Institutions. University of California Press. pp. 72–. ISBN 978-0-520-92679-0.  ^ LI SHIH-YAO FANG CHAO-YING Dartmouth College ^ 达匿 ^ Zhao 2006, p. 7. ^ Zhao 2006, p. 4. ^ Zhao 2006, pp. 11-12. ^ Millward 1998, p. 25. ^ Reardon-Anderson 2000, p. 504. ^ Reardon-Anderson 2000, p. 505. ^ Reardon-Anderson 2000, p. 506. ^ Scharping 1998, p. 18. ^ Reardon-Anderson 2000, p. 507. ^ Reardon-Anderson 2000, p. 508. ^ Reardon-Anderson 2000, p. 509. ^ "Qianlong(in Chinese text)". hudong.com. Retrieved 24 October 2008.  ^ a b Palace Museum: Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
(乾隆皇帝) Archived 24 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Harrison, Henrietta (2017). "The Qianlong Emperor's Letter to George III and the Early Twentieth Century Origins of Ideas About Traditional China's Foreign Relations". American Historical Review. 122 (3): 697–700. doi:10.1093/ahr/122.3.680.  ^ For a conventional European perspective of the audience question, see Alain Peyrefitte, The Immobile Empire, translated by Jon Rotschild (New York: Knopf: Distributed by Random House, 1992.) For a critique, see James L. Hevia, Cherishing Men from Afar: Qing Guest Ritual and the Macartney Embassy
Macartney Embassy
of 1793.(Durham: Duke University Press, 1995). For a discussion on Hevia's book, see exchange between Hevia and Joseph W. Esherick in Modern China
China
24, no. 2 (1998). ^ a b "Qinglong's Letter to King George". academics.wellesley.edu. translated by Edmond Backhouse and J. O. P. Bland, in Annals and Memoirs of the Court of Peking (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1914), pp. 322-331. Retrieved 2017-01-28.  ^ Harrison (2017), p. 690. ^ Robbins, Helen H. (1908). "Our First Ambassador to China: An Account of the Life of George, Earl of Macartney, with Extracts from His Letters, and the Narrative of His Experiences in China, as Told by Himself, 1737-1806". London: John Murray. p. 386. Retrieved 25 October 2008.  ^ O'Neil, Patricia O. (1995). Missed Opportunities: Late 18th century Chinese Relations with England and the Netherlands. [PhD dissertation, University of Washington] ^ Duyvendak, J.J.L. (1937). 'The Last Dutch Embassy to the Chinese Court (1794–1795).' T'oung Pao 33:1–137. ^ van Braam Houckgeest, Andreas Everardus. (1797). Voyage de l'ambassade de la Compagnie des Indes Orientales hollandaises vers l'empereur de la Chine, dans les années 1794 et 1795; see also 1798 English translation: An authentic account of the embassy of the Dutch East-India company, to the court of the emperor of China, in the years 1974 and 1795, Vol. I. ^ van Braam, An authentic account..., Vol. I (1798 English edition) pp. 283–288. ^ a b World Monuments Fund. "Juanqizhai in the Qianlong Garden". World Monuments Fund. Retrieved 16 July 2011.  ^ Palace Museum: Jiaqing Emperor
Jiaqing Emperor
(嘉庆皇帝) Archived 22 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine.

References[edit]

Æneas Anderson, A Narrative of the British Embassy to China, in the Years 1792, 1793, and 1794; Containing the Various Circumstances of the Embassy, with Accounts of Customs and Manners of the Chinese (London: J. Debrett, 1795) Berger, Patricia Ann (2003). Empire of Emptiness: Buddhist Art and Political Authority in Qing
Qing
China
China
(illustrated ed.). University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0824825632. Retrieved 10 March 2014.  Clarke, Michael Edmund (2004). "In the Eye of Power: China
China
and Xinjiang
Xinjiang
from the Qing
Qing
Conquest to the 'New Great Game' for Central Asia 1759–2004" (PDF). Griffith University, Brisbane: Doctoral thesis, Dept. of International Business & Asian Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 February 2011.  Crossley, Pamela Kyle (1999). A Translucent Mirror: History and Identity in Qing
Qing
Imperial Ideology. University of California Press. ISBN 0520928849. Retrieved 10 March 2014.  Dunnell, Ruth W.; Elliott, Mark C.; Foret, Philippe; Millward, James A (2004). New Qing
Qing
Imperial History: The Making of Inner Asian Empire at Qing
Qing
Chengde. Routledge. ISBN 1134362226. Retrieved 10 March 2014.  Elliott, Mark C. (2000), "The Limits of Tartary: Manchuria
Manchuria
in Imperial and National Geographies" (PDF), Journal of Asian Studies, 59: 603–646, JSTOR 2658945  —— (2001). The Manchu
Manchu
Way: The Eight Banners
Eight Banners
and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804746842. Retrieved 10 March 2014.  —— (2009). Emperor Qianlong: Son of Heaven, Man of the World. New York: Pearson Longman. ISBN 9780321084446.  de Guignes, Chrétien-Louis-Joseph (1808). Voyage a Pékin, Manille et l'Ile de France. Paris. Guy, R. Kent (October 1987). The Emperor's Four Treasures. Harvard University Press. p. 167. ISBN 978-0-674-25115-1.  Hall, D.G.E. (1960). Burma (3rd edition ed.). Hutchinson University Library. ISBN 978-1-4067-3503-1. Liu, Tao Tao; Faure, David (1996). Unity and Diversity: Local Cultures and Identities in China. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 9622094023. Retrieved 10 March 2014.  Lopez, Donald S. (1999). Prisoners of Shangri-La: Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
and the West (reprint, revised ed.). University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226493113. Retrieved 10 March 2014.  Millward, James A. (1998). Beyond the Pass: Economy, Ethnicity, and Empire in Qing
Qing
Central Asia, 1759-1864 (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804729336. Retrieved 10 March 2014.  Millward, James A. (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231139241. Retrieved 10 March 2014.  Newby, L. J. (2005). The Empire And the Khanate: A Political History of Qing
Qing
Relations With Khoqand C.1760-1860. Volume 16 of Brill's Inner Asian Library (illustrated ed.). BRILL. ISBN 9004145508. Retrieved 10 March 2014.  Rawski, Evelyn S. (1998). The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions. University of California Press. ISBN 052092679X. Retrieved 10 March 2014.  Perdue, Peter C. (2005). China
China
Marches West: The Qing
Qing
Conquest of Central Eurasia. Cambridge, Mass.; London, England: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.  Reardon-Anderson, James (Oct 2000). "Land Use and Society in Manchuria and Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
during the Qing
Qing
Dynasty". Environmental History. Forest History Society and American Society for Environmental History. 5 (No. 4): 503–530. JSTOR 3985584.  Robbins, Helen Henrietta Macartney (1908). Our First Ambassador to China: An Account of the Life of George, Earl of Macartney with Extracts from His Letters, and the Narrative of His Experiences in China, as Told by Himself, 1737–1806, from Hitherto Unpublished Correspondence and Documents. London : John Murray. [digitized by University of Hong Kong
University of Hong Kong
Libraries, Digital Initiatives, " China
China
Through Western Eyes." Scharping, Thomas (1998). "Minorities, Majorities and National Expansion: The History and Politics of Population Development in Manchuria
Manchuria
1610-1993" (PDF). Cologne China
China
Studies Online – Working Papers on Chinese Politics, Economy and Society (Kölner China-Studien Online – Arbeitspapiere zu Politik, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft Chinas). Modern China
China
Studies, Chair for Politics, Economy and Society of Modern China, at the University of Cologne (1). Retrieved 14 August 2014.  van Braam Houckgeest, Andreas Everardus. (1797). Voyage de l'ambassade de la Compagnie des Indes Orientales hollandaises vers l'empereur de la Chine, dans les années 1794 et 1795. Philadelphia: M.L.E. Moreau de Saint-Méry. Van Braam Houckgeest, Andreas Everardus. (1798). An authentic account of the embassy of the Dutch East-India company, to the court of the emperor of China, in the years 1974 and 1795, Vol. I. London : R. Phillips. [digitized by University of Hong Kong
University of Hong Kong
Libraries, Digital Initiatives, " China
China
Through Western Eyes." Woodside, Alexander. "The Ch’ien-Lung Reign," in Peterson, Willard J. (December 2002). The Cambridge History of China. Cambridge University Press. pp. 230–309. ISBN 978-0-521-24334-6.  Zhao, Gang (January 2006). "Reinventing China
China
Imperial Qing
Qing
Ideology and the Rise of Modern Chinese National Identity in the Early Twentieth Century". 32 (Number 1). Sage Publications. doi:10.1177/0097700405282349. JSTOR 20062627. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2014-03-25. Retrieved 17 April 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

Chang, Michael (2007). A court on horseback: imperial touring & the construction of Qing
Qing
rule, 1680–1785. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center. Ho Chuimei, Bennet Bronson. Splendors of China's Forbidden City: The Glorious Reign of Emperor Qianlong. (London: Merrell, in association with The Field Museum, Chicago, 2004). ISBN 1858942039. Kahn, Harold L. Monarchy in the Emperor's Eyes: Image and Reality in the Ch'ien-Lung Reign. (Cambridge, Mass.,: Harvard University Press, Harvard East Asian Series, 59, 1971). ISBN 0674582306. Kuhn, Philip A. Soulstealers: The Chinese Sorcery Scare of 1768. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990). ISBN 0674821513 (alk. paper). James A. Millward, Ruth W. Dunnell, Mark C. Elliot and Philippe Foret. ed., New Qing
Qing
Imperial History: The Making of Inner Asian Empire at Qing
Qing
Chengde. (London; New York: Routledge, 2004). ISBN 0415320062. Nancy Berliner, "The Emperor's Private Paradise: Treasures from the Forbidden City" (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 2010) ISBN 978-0-87577-221-9.

Works by the Qianlong Emperor[edit]

Ch'ien Lung (emperor of China.) (1810). The conquest of the Miao-tse, an imperial poem ... entitled A choral song of harmony for the first part of the Spring [tr.] by S. Weston, from the Chinese. Translated by Stephen Weston. LONDON: Printed & Sold by C. & R. Baldwin, New Bridge Street, Black Friars. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Qianlong Emperor.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Qianlong Emperor

Qianlong Emperor House of Aisin-Gioro Born: 25 September 1711 Died: 7 February 1799

Regnal titles

Preceded by The Yongzheng Emperor Emperor of China 1735–1796 Succeeded by The Jiaqing Emperor

v t e

Emperors of the Qing
Qing
dynasty

Taizu Taizong Dorgon
Dorgon
(Prince Regent) Shunzhi Kangxi Yongzheng Qianlong Jiaqing Daoguang Xianfeng Tongzhi Guangxu Xuantong

Xia → Shang → Zhou → Qin → Han → 3 Kingdoms → Jìn / 16 Kingdoms → S. Dynasties / N. Dynasties → Sui → Tang → 5 Dynasties & 10 Kingdoms → Liao / Song / W. Xia / Jīn → Yuan → Ming
Ming
Qing
Qing
→ ROC / PRC

v t e

Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
qinwangs (first-rank princes)

Absorbed into the Crown

Prince Yong Prince Bao Prince Jia Prince Zhi

Non-downgrading peerages ("iron-cap" princes)

Prince Li ** Prince Xun ** Prince Kang Prince Rui Prince Yu Prince Zheng (Prince Jian) Prince Su
Prince Su
(Prince Xian) Prince Chengze (Prince Zhuang) Prince Shuncheng Prince Yi Prince Gong Prince Chun Prince Qing

Demoted but non-downgrading peerages

Prince Cheng

Downgrading peerages

Prince Jingjin Prince Ying (穎) Prince Ying (英) Prince Duanzhong Prince An Prince Xiang Prince Yu Prince Gong Prince Chun (純) Prince Li Prince Heng Prince Chun (淳) Prince Lian Prince Lü Prince Guo Prince Xian Prince He Prince Ding Prince Rong Prince Zhi Prince Yi Prince Cheng Prince Dun Prince Rui Prince Hui

Posthumous titles

Prince Rong Prince Duan Prince Huai Prince Zhe

v t e

Thonburi Period (1767–1782)

Monarchs Individuals Key events

Thonburi Dynasty Kings

Taksin

Royalty

Prince Chui, the Prince Inthra Phithak (Front Palace) Prince Noi

Siamese

Phraya Phichai Chao Phraya Chakri Maha Sura Singhanat Anurak Devesh

Foreigners

Qianlong Emperor Francis Light Maha Thiha Thura

Key events

Five separate states Burmese–Siamese War (1775–76) Invasion of Lao Kingdoms Invasion of Cambodia Rattanakosin Kingdom
Rattanakosin Kingdom
(1782–1932)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 44314689 LCCN: n83047720 ISNI: 0000 0001 0857 0110 GND: 119080648 SELIBR: 331708 SUDOC: 028525264 BNF: cb120344066 (data) BIBSYS: 97005104 NDL: 00623

.