Qian (surname)
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Qian (;
Shanghainese Shanghainese, also known as the Shanghai language, Shanghai dialect, or Hu language, is a Wu Chinese Wu (Chinese character: , , Mandarin: ) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related Sinitic languages spoken primarily i ...
: ), also spelt Chin, Chien, Tsien, or Zee in
Wu Chinese Wu (Chinese character: , , Mandarin: ) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related Sinitic languages spoken primarily in Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four ...
, is a common
Chinese family name Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on 2013-04-2 ...
. The name literally means "
money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner, 174x174px Money is any item or verif ...

money
". Qian is listed at the second place in the
Song Dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kuan ...
text ''
Hundred Family Surnames The ''Hundred Family Surnames'' (), commonly known as ''Bai Jia Xing'', also translated as ''Hundreds of Chinese Surnames'', is a classic Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republ ...
'', in the line 趙錢孫李 ( Zhao, Qian, Sun (surname), Sun, Li (surname 李), Li). As the royal surname of the kingdom of Wuyue, Qian was regarded as second only to Zhao, the imperial surname of the Song. As of 2008, Qian is the 96th most common surname in China, shared by 2.2 million people, with the province with the most people sharing the name being Jiangsu, an area formerly within the Wuyue kingdom.


Origins

According to the Song dynasty book, ''Tongzhi (encyclopedia), Tongzhi'', the Qian surname is descended from Zhuanxu, one of the legendary Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors, Five Emperors, via Pengzu, the founder of the Peng kingdom in modern-day Jiangsu during the Shang dynasty. A Zhou dynasty official, Fu, was a descendant of Pengzu and served in the royal Treasury, the ''Qianfu'' ("Money Office"). His descendants adopted the surname "Qian", literally "money", from his title. Being descendants of the Peng kingdom, the Qian family originally congregated around Pizhou, Xiapi, in modern-day Jiangsu. The surname spread from there, now has its highest concentration of it in the Jiangnan region. During the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907-960), Qian Liu and his descendants ruled the independent kingdom of Wuyue in south-eastern China. Qian Liu had many sons, who were posted to different parts of his kingdom, greatly increasing the density of the Qian surname within the former territory of Wuyue. This area comprises today's Zhejiang, Shanghai, southern Jiangsu and northern Fujian. After Wuyue submitted to the
Song Dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kuan ...
in 978, the last king moved to Kaifeng, Bianjing, the Song capital in modern-day Henan. The Qian family was thereafter prominent at the Song court, with Qian Chu's son, Qian Weiyan, serving as a prominent Chancellor of China, Chancellor. During this period, the Qian family also spread to northern China.


Notable people


Pre-modern

* (1686–1774), Qing dynasty minister * Empress Qian (?–1468), wife of the Zhengtong Emperor of Ming * Qian Qi (錢起) (710–782), Tang dynasty poet * The royal family of Wuyue, especially: ** Qian Chu (錢俶) (929–988), last king ** Qian Liu (錢鏐) (852–932), founder * Qian Qianyi (钱谦益) (1582–1664), Ming dynasty official and author * (1791–1863), Qing dynasty bibliophile, official * Qian Weiyan (钱惟演) (962–1034), Song Chancellor, Duke * (1783–1850), Qing dynasty official, geographer * (1824–1902), Qing dynasty official, Grand Councillor


Modern

* Ch'ien Mu (錢穆) (1895–1990), historian * Qian Baojun (钱宝钧) (1907–1996), polymer chemist and educator, co-founder of Donghua University * Chin Kar-lok (錢嘉樂) (born 1965), actor and action choreographer * Fredrick Chien (錢復) (born 1935), Republic of China politician, diplomat * Qian Changzhao (1899–1988), industrialist and politician * Qian Liren (錢李仁) (born 1924), People's Republic of China politician, diplomat * Qian Nairong (born 1945), linguist * Nancy Qian, Qian Nancy (钱楠筠) (born 1978), economist, Northwestern University Professor * Qian Qichen (钱其琛) (1928–2017), Foreign Minister of the People's Republic of China * Qian Sanqiang (钱三强) (1913–1992), nuclear physicist * Chien Shih-Liang (錢思亮) (1908–1983), chemist and educator * Qian Weichang (錢偉長) (1913–2010), physicist and mathematician * (born 1966), Tibetologist and Indologist, Fudan University professor * Qian Xiuling (錢秀玲; 1912–2008), Chinese emigrant to Belgium who helped save hundreds of Belgians from execution by the Nazi * Qian Xuantong (錢玄同) (1887–1939), linguist * Qian Xuesen (Tsien Hsue-shen) (錢學森) (1911–2009), rocket scientist and physicist * (1903–1973), People's Republic of China politician * Qian Ying (Kuomintang politician), Qian Ying, Taiwanese politician * Qian Yunlu (钱运录) (born 1944), People's Republic of China politician * Qian Zhengying (钱正英) (born 1923), hydrologist, People's Republic of China politician * (1900–1994), Minister of Light Industry and Minister of Textile Industry * Qian Zhijun (钱志君) (born 1987), actor and subject of the "Little Fatty" internet meme * (born 1960), former President of China National Nuclear Corporation * Qian Zhongshu (錢鍾書) (1910–1998), scholar and writer * Qian Zhuangfei (1895–1935), Chinese intelligence agent * Robert Tienwen Chien (錢天問) (1931-1983), American Computer Scientist, University of Illinois Professor, Director of Coordinated Science Laboratory * Ronny Chieng (錢信伊), Malaysian Chinese standup comedian and actor * Roger Y. Tsien (錢永健) (1952-2016), biologist, 2008 Nobel Prize winner * Shu Chien (錢煦) (born 1931), biological scientist and engineer * Tsien Tsuen-hsuin (錢存訓) (1909−2015), sinologist, University of Chicago professor * Qian Min (钱敏) (1927–2019), mathematical physicist, winner of the 11th Hua Luogeng Prize in Mathematics * Joe Z. Tsien (钱卓) (born 1962), Neuroscientist and geneticist, the pioneer of Cre/lox neurogenetics and the creator of smart mouse Doogie. He is also known for his Theory of Connectivity regarding the basic logic of brain computation and the origin of intelligence. * Chang-Kan Chien (1904-1940) Engineer, builder of Hangzhou bridge, bridges on the Burma Road during WWII. Was killed by Japanese fighter planes during the war. *Qian Kun (钱锟) (born 1996) Singer, member of South Korean group NCT (band) , NCT and its Chinese sub-unit WayV (威神V)


Meanings of ''Qian'' (钱/錢)

* A type of farm tool, especially an iron spade. * Ancient Chinese coinage, especially copper coins. * Cost, expense, fee, etc., derived from its meaning related to Chinese coinage. * Meaning of property, derived from its meaning related to Chinese coinage. * Small round objects similar to a coin, derived from its meaning related to Chinese coinage. * Mace (unit), Mace, a traditional mass unit of Chinese units of measurement, equaling to one tenth of one tael. * A surname.汉典:钱的解释
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See also

* Special:PrefixIndex/Qian, All Wikipedia pages beginning with Qian


References

{{Reflist Chinese-language surnames Individual Chinese surnames