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''QS World University Rankings'' is an annual publication of
university rankings College and university rankings are rankings of institutions in higher education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education, also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary educa ...
by
Quacquarelli SymondsQuacquarelli Symonds (QS) is a British company specialising in the analysis of higher education institutions around the world. The company was founded in 1990 by Nunzio Quacquarelli. History On 5 October 2017, QS Quacquarelli Symonds acquired Hobso ...
(QS). The QS system comprises three parts: the global overall ranking, the subject rankings, which name the world's top universities for the study of 51 different subjects and five composite faculty areas, as well as five independent regional tables, namely Asia, Latin America, Emerging Europe and Central Asia, the Arab Region, and
BRICS BRICS is the acronym An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguist ...

BRICS
. The QS ranking receives approval from the International Ranking Expert Group (IREG), and is viewed as one of the three most-widely read university rankings in the world, along with ''
Academic Ranking of World Universities The ''Academic Ranking of World Universities'' (''ARWU''), also known as the Shanghai Ranking, is one of the annual publications of world university rankings. The league table was originally compiled and issued by Shanghai Jiao Tong University ...

Academic Ranking of World Universities
'' and ''
Times Higher Education World University Rankings ''Times Higher Education World University Rankings'' is an annual publication of university rankings by ''Times Higher Education'' (THE) magazine. The publisher had collaborated with Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) to publish the joint '' THE-QS Wo ...
''. According to
Alexa Internet Alexa Internet, Inc. is an American web traffic Web traffic is the amount of data sent and received by visitors to a website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a co ...
, it is the most widely viewed university ranking worldwide. However, it has been criticized for its overreliance on subjective indicators and reputation surveys, which tend to fluctuate over the years. Concern also exists regarding the global consistency and integrity of the data used to generate QS ranking results. The QS ranking was previously known as ''
Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings The term Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings refers to rankings published jointly between 2004 and 2009 by ''Times Higher Education ''Times Higher Education'' (''THE''), formerly ''The Times Higher Education Supplement'' (''THE ...
''. The publisher had collaborated with ''
Times Higher Education ''Times Higher Education'' (''THE''), formerly ''The Times Higher Education Supplement'' (''THES''), is a magazine reporting specifically on news and issues related to higher education. Ownership TPG Capital acquired TSL Education from Charterh ...
'' (''THE'') magazine to publish its international league tables from 2004 to 2009 before both started to announce their own versions. QS then chose to continue using the pre-existing methodology in partnership with
Elsevier Elsevier () is a Netherlands-based publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the creation and ...

Elsevier
, while ''THE'' adopted a new methodology to create their rankings.


History

A perceived need for an international ranking of universities for UK purposes was highlighted in December 2003 in
Richard Lambert Sir Richard Peter Lambert (born 23 September 1944) is a British journalist and business executive. He served as Director-General of the CBI, Chancellor Chancellor ( la, links=no, cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the g ...
's review of university-industry collaboration in Britain for
HM Treasury Her Majesty's Treasury (HM Treasury), sometimes referred to as the Exchequer, or more informally the Treasury, is the department of the Government of the United Kingdom responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance ...
, the finance ministry of the United Kingdom. Amongst its recommendations were world university rankings, which Lambert said would help the UK to gauge the global standing of its universities. The idea for the rankings was credited in Ben Wildavsky's book, ''The Great Brain Race: How Global Universities are Reshaping the World'', to then-editor of ''THE'', John O'Leary. ''THE'' chose to partner with educational and careers advice company
Quacquarelli SymondsQuacquarelli Symonds (QS) is a British company specialising in the analysis of higher education institutions around the world. The company was founded in 1990 by Nunzio Quacquarelli. History On 5 October 2017, QS Quacquarelli Symonds acquired Hobso ...
(QS) to supply the data, appointing Martin Ince, formerly deputy editor and later a contractor to ''THE'', to manage the project. Between 2004 and 2009, QS produced the rankings in partnership with ''THE''. In 2009, ''THE'' announced they would produce their own rankings, the
Times Higher Education World University Rankings ''Times Higher Education World University Rankings'' is an annual publication of university rankings by ''Times Higher Education'' (THE) magazine. The publisher had collaborated with Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) to publish the joint '' THE-QS Wo ...
, in partnership with
Thomson Reuters Thomson Reuters Corporation () is a Canadian-American . The company was founded in , , Canada, where it is headquartered at the . Thomson Reuters was created by the 's purchase of the British company in April 2008 and is majority owned ...
. ''THE'' cited an asserted weakness in the methodology of the original rankings, as well as a perceived favoritism in the existing methodology for science over the humanities, as two of the key reasons for the decision to split with QS. QS retained intellectual property in the prior rankings and the methodology used to compile them, and continues to produce rankings based on that methodology, which are now called the QS World University Rankings. ''THE'' created a new methodology with Thomson Reuters, and published the first Times Higher Education World University Rankings in September 2010.


Global rankings


Overall


Methodology

QS publishes the rankings results in the world's media and has entered into partnerships with a number of outlets, including ''
The Guardian ''The Guardian'' is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as ''The Manchester Guardian'', and changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers ' and ', ''The Guardian'' is part of the , owned by the . The trust was created ...

The Guardian
'' in the United Kingdom, and''
Chosun Ilbo The ''Chosun Ilbo'' () is a leading daily newspaper in South Korea and the oldest daily newspaper in the country. With a daily circulation of more than 1,800,000, the ''Chosun Ilbo'' has been audited annually since the Audit Bureau of Circulatio ...
''in Korea. The first rankings produced by QS independently of ''THE'', and using QS's consistent and original methodology, were released on September 8, 2010, with the second appearing on September 6, 2011. QS designed its rankings to assess performance according to what it believes to be key aspects of a university's mission: teaching, research, nurturing employability, and internationalisation. Academic peer review This is the most controversial part of the methodology. Using a combination of purchased mailing lists and applications and suggestions, this survey asks active academicians across the world about the top universities in their specialist fields. QS has published the job titles and geographical distribution of the participants. The 2017/18 rankings made use of responses from 75,015 people from over 140 nations for its academic reputation indicator, including votes from the previous five years rolled forward provided no more recent information was available from the same individual. Participants can nominate up to 30 universities, but are not able to vote for their own. They tend to nominate a median of about 20, which means that this survey includes over 500,000 data points. The average respondent possesses 20.4 years of academic experience, while 81% of respondents have over a decade of experience in the academic world. In 2004, when the rankings first appeared, academic peer review accounted for half of a university's possible score. In 2005, its share was cut to 40% because of the introduction of the Employer Reputation Survey. Faculty student ratio This indicator accounts for 20% of a university's possible score in the rankings. It is a classic measure used in various ranking systems as a proxy for teaching commitment, but QS has admitted that it is less than satisfactory. Citations per faculty Citations of published research are among the most widely used inputs to national and global university rankings. The QS World University Rankings used citations data from Thomson (now Thomson Reuters) from 2004 to 2007, and since then has used data from Scopus, part of Elsevier. The total number of citations for a five-year period is divided by the number of academics in a university to yield the score for this measure, which accounts for 20% of a university's possible score in the rankings. QS has explained that it uses this approach, rather than the citations per paper preferred for other systems, because it reduces the effect of biomedical science on the overall picture – biomedicine has a ferocious "
publish or perish "Publish or perish" is an aphorism describing the pressure to academic publishing, publish academic work in order to succeed in an academia, academic career. Such institutional pressure is generally strongest at Research university, research unive ...
" culture. Instead, QS attempts to measure the density of research-active staff at each institution, but issues still remain about the use of citations in ranking systems, especially the fact that the arts and humanities generate comparatively few citations.QS Intelligence Unit , Citations per Faculty
. Iu.qs.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
However, since 2015, QS has made methodological enhancements designed to remove the advantage institutions specializing in the Natural Sciences or Medicine previously received. This enhancement is termed faculty area normalization, and ensures that an institution's citations count in each of QS's five key Faculty Areas is weighted to account for 20% of the final citations score. QS has conceded the presence of some data-collection errors regarding citations per faculty in previous years' rankings. One interesting issue is the difference between the Scopus and Thomson Reuters databases. For major world universities, the two systems capture more or less the same publications and citations. For less mainstream institutions, Scopus has more non-English language and smaller-circulation journals in its database. As the papers there are less heavily cited, though, this can also mean fewer citations per paper for the universities that publish in them. This area has been criticized for undermining universities that do not use English as their primary language. Citations and publications in a language different from English are harder to access. The English language is the most internationalized language, so is also the most popular when citing. Employer review This part of the ranking is obtained by a similar method to the Academic Peer Review, except that it samples recruiters who hire graduates on a global or significant national scale. The numbers are smaller – 40,455 responses from over 130 countries in the 2016 rankings – and are used to produce 10% of any university's possible score. This survey was introduced in 2005 in the belief that employers track graduate quality, making this a barometer of teaching quality, a famously problematic factor to measure. University standing here is of special interest to potential students, and acknowledging this was the impetus behind the inaugural QS Graduate Employability Rankings, published in November 2015. International orientation The final 10% of a university's possible score is derived from measures intended to capture their internationalism: half from their percentage of international students, and the other half from their percentage of international staff. This is of interest partly because it shows whether a university is putting effort into being global, but also because it indicates whether it is taken seriously enough by students and academics around the world for them to want to be there.


Reception

In September 2015, ''The Guardian referred to the QS World University Rankings as "the most authoritative of their kind". In 2016, Ben Sowter, Head of Research at the QS Intelligence Unit, was ranked in 40th position i
Wonkhe
s 2016 'Higher Education Power List'. The list enumerated what the organisation believed to be the 50 most influential figures in UK higher education. Several universities in the UK and the Asia-Pacific region have commented on the rankings positively. Vice-chancellor of New Zealand's
Massey University Massey University ( mi, Te Kunenga ki Pūrehuroa) is a university based in Palmerston North, Palmerston North, New Zealand, with significant campuses in Albany, New Zealand, Albany and Wellington. Massey University has approximately 30,883 stude ...
, Professor
Judith Kinnear Judith Kinnear (born 1939) is an Australian academic, a geneticist, and was the first woman to head a New Zealand university. Academic career Kinnear was educated at Kilbreda College , motto_translation = Strength and Kindliness , e ...

Judith Kinnear
, says that the ''THE''-QS ranking is a "wonderful external acknowledgement of several university attributes, including the quality of its research, research training, teaching, and employability." She said the rankings are a true measure of a university's ability to fly high internationally: "The Times Higher Education ranking provides a rather more and more sophisticated, robust, and well rounded measure of international and national ranking than either New Zealand's
Performance Based Research FundThe Performance Based Research Fund (PBRF) is a New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ()—and more than ...
(PBRF) measure or the ."Flying high internationally
In September 2012, British newspaper ''
The Independent ''The Independent'' is a British online newspaper. It was established in 1986 as a national morning printed paper. Nicknamed the ''Indy'', it began as a broadsheet and changed to Tabloid (newspaper format), tabloid format in 2003. The last p ...
'' described the QS World University Rankings as being "widely recognised throughout higher education as the most trusted international tables". Angel Calderon, Principal Advisor for Planning and Research at
RMIT University RMIT University, officially the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT),, section 4(b) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) ...
and member of the QS Advisory Board, spoke positively of the QS University Rankings for Latin America, saying that the "QS Latin American University Rankings has become the annual international benchmark universities use to ascertain their relative standing in the region". He further stated that the 2016/17 edition of this ranking demonstrated improved stability.


Criticisms

Certain commentators have expressed concern about the use or misuse of survey data. However, QS's Intelligence Unit, responsible for compiling the rankings, state that the extent of the sample size used for their surveys means that they are now "almost impossible to manipulate and very difficult for institutions to ‘game’". They also state that "over 62,000 academic respondents contributed to our 2013 academic results, four times more than in 2010. Independent academic reviews have confirmed these results to be more than 99% reliable". Furthermore, since 2013, the number of respondents to QS's Academic Reputation Survey has increased again. Their survey now makes use of nearly 75,000 academic peer reviews, making it "to date, the world’s largest aggregation of feeling in this he global academiccommunity." The QS World University Rankings have been criticised by many for placing too much emphasis on peer review, which receives 40% of the overall score. Some people have expressed concern about the manner in which the peer review has been carried out. In a report, Peter Wills from the
University of Auckland , mottoeng = By natural ability and hard work , established = 1883; years ago , endowment = New Zealand Dollar, NZD $251 million (31 December 2020) , budget = NZD $1.226 billion (31 December 2020) , chancellor = Scott St John , vice_cha ...
wrote of the ''THE''-QS World University Rankings: However, QS state that no survey participant, academic or employer, is offered a financial incentive to respond, while no academics are able to vote for their own institutions. This renders this particular criticism invalid, as it is based on two incorrect premises: (1) that academics are currently financially incentivized to participate, and (2) that conflicts of interests are created by academics being able to vote for their own institutions. Academicians previously criticized of the use of the citation database, arguing that it undervalues institutions that excel in the social sciences. Ian Diamond, former chief executive of the
Economic and Social Research Council The Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC), formerly the Social Science Research Council (SSRC), is part of UK Research and Innovation (UKRI). UKRI is a non-departmental public body (NDPB) funded by the UK government. ESRC provides fundi ...
and now vice-chancellor of the
University of Aberdeen , mottoeng = The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom , established = , type = Public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the t ...
and a member of the THE editorial board, wrote to ''
Times Higher Education ''Times Higher Education'' (''THE''), formerly ''The Times Higher Education Supplement'' (''THES''), is a magazine reporting specifically on news and issues related to higher education. Ownership TPG Capital acquired TSL Education from Charterh ...
'' in 2007, saying: However, in 2015, QS's introduction of faculty area normalization ensured that QS's rankings no longer conferred an undue advantage or disadvantage upon any institution based on their particular subject specialisms. Correspondingly, the London School of Economics rose from 71st in 2014 to 35th in 2015 and 37th in 2016. Since the split from ''Times Higher Education'' in 2009, further concerns about the methodology QS uses for its rankings have been brought up by several experts. In October 2010, criticism of the old system came from Fred L. Bookstein, Horst Seidler, Martin Fieder, and Georg Winckler in the journal ''Scientomentrics'' for the unreliability of QS's methods: In an article for the ''
New Statesman The ''New Statesman'' is a British political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations betwe ...
'' entitled "The QS World University Rankings are a load of old baloney",
David Blanchflower David Graham Blanchflower, (born 2 March 1952), sometimes called Danny Blanchflower, is a British-American labour economist and academic. He is currently a tenure Tenure is a category of academic appointment existing in some countries. A ten ...
, a leading labour economist, said: "This ranking is complete rubbish and nobody should place any credence in it. The results are based on an entirely flawed methodology that underweights the quality of research and overweights fluff... The QS is a flawed index and should be ignored." However, Martin Ince, chair of the Advisory Board for the Rankings, points out that their volatility has been reduced since 2007 by the introduction of the Z-score calculation method and that over time, the quality of QS's data gathering has improved to reduce anomalies. In addition, the academic and employer review are now so big that even modestly ranked universities receive a statistically valid number of votes. QS has published extensive data on who the respondents are, where they are, and the subjects and industries to which the academicians and employers respectively belong. The QS Subject Rankings have been dismissed as unreliable by
Brian Leiter Brian Leiter (; born 1963) is an American philosopher and legal scholar who is Karl N. Llewellyn Professor of Jurisprudence at the University of Chicago Law School The University of Chicago Law School is a professional graduate school of the ...
, who points out that programmes that are known to be high quality, and which rank highly in the Blackwell rankings (e.g., the
University of Pittsburgh The University of Pittsburgh, familiarly known as Pitt, is a Public university, public Commonwealth System of Higher Education, state-related research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The university is composed of 17 undergraduate and grad ...
) fare poorly in the QS ranking for reasons that are not at all clear.Leiter Reports: A Philosophy Blog: Guardian and "QS Rankings" Definitively Prove the Existence of the "Halo Effect"
. Leiterreports.typepad.com (2011-06-05). Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
However, the University of Pittsburgh was ranked in the number one position for Philosophy in the 2016 QS World University Rankings by Subject, while
Rutgers University Rutgers University (RU; ), officially known as Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is a Public university, public land-grant research university based in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Chartered in 1766, Rutgers was originally called Queen ...
— another university that Leiter argued was given a strangely low ranking — was ranked number three in the world in the same ranking. An institution's score for each of QS's metrics can be found on the relevant ranking page, allowing those wishing to examine why an institution has finished in its final position to gain access to the scores that contributed to the overall rank. In an article titled ''The Globalisation of College and University Rankings'' and appearing in the January/February 2012 issue of ''Change'', Philip Altbach, professor of higher education at
Boston College Boston College (BC) is a private university, private research university in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. Founded in 1863 as a Society of Jesus, Jesuit school, the university has more than 9,300 full-time undergraduates and nearly 5,000 gradua ...
and also a member of the THE editorial board, said: "The QS World University Rankings are the most problematical. From the beginning, the QS has relied on reputational indicators for half of its analysis … it probably accounts for the significant variability in the QS rankings over the years. In addition, QS queries employers, introducing even more variability and unreliability into the mix. Whether the QS rankings should be taken seriously by the higher education community is questionable." , professor of higher education at the
University of Melbourne The University of Melbourne is a public university, public research university located in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1853, it is Australia's second oldest university and the oldest in Victoria (Australia), Victoria. Its Parkville Campus ( ...

University of Melbourne
and a member of the THE editorial board, in the article "Improving Latin American universities' global ranking" for University World News on 10 June 2012, said: "I will not discuss the QS ranking because the methodology is not sufficiently robust to provide data valid as social science". QS's Intelligence Unit counter these criticisms by stating that "Independent academic reviews have confirmed these results to be more than 99% reliable". In 2021, research published by the Center for Studies in Higher Education at the
University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public university, public land-grant university, land-grant research university in Berkeley, California. Established in 1868 as the University of California ...

University of California, Berkeley
raised the possibility that institutions that employ QS's consulting services are rewarded with improved rankings. QS denied the possibility and stated that it had firm policies and practices to minimize potential
conflicts of interest A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of a cultu ...
.


Results

The 2022 QS World University Rankings, published on June 8, 2021, was the eighteenth edition of the overall ranking. It confirmed Massachusetts Institute of Technology as the world's highest-ranked university for a seventh successive year. In doing so, MIT broke the record of consecutive number-one positions.


Young universities

QS also releases the ''QS Top 50 under 50 Ranking'' annually to rank universities which have been established for under 50 years. These institutions are judged based on their positions on the overall table of the previous year. From 2015, QS's "'Top 50 Under 50" ranking was expanded to include the world's top 100 institutions under 50 years of age, while in 2017 it was again expanded to include the world's top 150 universities in this cohort. In 2020, the table was topped by
Nanyang Technological University The Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU), is the second oldest public autonomous university, autonomous research university in Singapore. NTU has been ranked as overall 1st in the ranking of young universities in the QS World Unive ...
of
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a island in . It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the , off the southern tip of the , bordering the to the west, the () to the south, and the to the east. The country' ...

Singapore
for the seventh consecutive year. The table is dominated by universities from the Asia-Pacific region, with the top four places taken by Asian institutions.


Faculties and subjects

QS also ranks universities by
academic discipline An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. The usual test for a statement of fact is ...
organized into 5 faculties, namely
Arts The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something somehow new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea, a scienti ...

Arts
, ,
Life Sciences This list of life sciences comprises the branches of science The branches of science, also referred to as science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, build ...
,
Natural Science Natural science is a Branches of science, branch of science concerned with the description, understanding and prediction of Phenomenon, natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. Mechanisms such as peer r ...

Natural Science
s and . The methodology is based on surveying expert academics and global employers, and measuring research performance using data sourced from Elsevier's Scopus database. In the ''2018 QS World University Rankings by Subject'' the world's best universities for the study of 48 different subjects are named. The two new subject tables added in the most recent edition are: Classics & Ancient History and Library & Information Management. The world's leading institution in 2020's portfolio in terms of most world-leading positions is
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a in . Established in 1861, MIT has since played a key role in the development of modern technology and science, ranking it among the top in the world. Founded in response to the increasing ...
, which is number one for 12 subjects. Its longtime rankings rival,
Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly tw ...

Harvard University
, is number one for eleven subjects.


Regional rankings and other tables


QS Graduate Employability Rankings

In 2015, in an attempt to meet student demand for comparative data about the employment prospects offered by prospective or current universities, QS launched the
QS Graduate Employability Rankings
'. The most recent installment, released for the 2020 academic year, ranks 500 universities worldwide. It is led by Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and features four universities from the United States in the top 10. The unique methodology consists of five indicators, with three that do not feature in any other ranking.


Arab Region

First published in 2014, the annua
''QS Arab Region University Rankings''
highlights 130 leading universities in this part of the world. The methodology for this ranking has been developed with the aim of reflecting specific challenges and priorities for institutions in the region, drawing on the following 10 indicators.


Asia

In 2009, QS launched the ''QS Asian University Rankings'' or ''QS University Rankings: Asia'' in partnership with ''
The Chosun Ilbo ''The Chosun Ilbo'' (, ) is a leading daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial published, publications t ...
'' newspaper in Korea to rank universities in Asia independently. The ninth instalment, released for the 2017/18 academic year, ranks the 350 best universities in Asia, and is led by
Nanyang Technological University The Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU), is the second oldest public autonomous university, autonomous research university in Singapore. NTU has been ranked as overall 1st in the ranking of young universities in the QS World Unive ...
, Singapore. These rankings use some of the same criteria as the world rankings, but there are changed weightings and new criteria. One addition is the criterion of incoming and outgoing exchange students. Accordingly, the performance of Asian institutions in the ''QS World University Rankings'' and the ''QS Asian University Rankings'' released in the same academic year are different from each other.


Emerging Europe and Central Asia

First published in 2015
''QS Emerging Europe and Central Asia University Rankings''
ranks 350 universities from mostly Eastern Europe and Central Asia, with Russia's
Lomonosov Moscow State University Moscow State University (MSU; russian: Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова ''Moskovskiy gosudarstvenn'y universitet imeni M. V. Lomonosova'', often abbreviated МГУ, ...
in the top spot since the first publishing of rankings.


Latin America

The ''QS Latin American University Rankings'' or ''QS University Rankings: Latin America'' were launched in 2011. They use academic opinion (30%), employer opinion (20%), publications per faculty member, citations per paper, academic staff with a PhD, faculty/student ratio and web visibility (10 per cent each) as measures. The 2021 edition of the QS World University Rankings: Latin America ranks the top 300 universities in the region. Chile's Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile retained its status as the region's best university for the fourth straight year.


Africa

The number of universities in Africa increased by 115 percent from 2000 to 2010, and enrollment more than doubled from 2.3 million to 5.2 million students, according to UNESCO. However, only one African university, the
University of Cape Town The University of Cape Town (UCT) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This is a different conce ...
, was among the world's 100 best, to judge the world universities ranking of 2016.


BRICS

This set of rankings adopts eight indicators to select the top 100 higher learning institutions in . Institutions in
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a and of China on the eastern in . With over 7.5 million residents of various nationalities in a territory, Hong ...

Hong Kong
,
Macau Macau or Macao (; ; ; ), officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (MSAR), (RAEM) is a and of the in the western by the . With a population of about 680,000 and an area of , it is the most in the ...

Macau
and
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
are not ranked here.


QS Best Student Cities Ranking

In 2012, QS launched the ''QS Best Student Cities'' ranking – a table designed to evaluate which cities were most likely to provide students with a high-quality student experience. Five editions of the ranking have been published thus far, with Paris taking the number-one position in four of them. The 2017 edition was also the first one to see the introduction of student opinion as a contributory indicator.


Events

QS Quacquarelli Symonds organizes a range of international student recruitment events throughout the year. These are generally oriented towards introducing prospective students to university admissions staff, while also facilitating access to admissions advice and scholarships. In 2019, over 360 events were hosted, attended by 265,000 candidates, in 100 cities across 50 countries. Separated into ‘tours’, QS’ event offerings typically comprise a series of university and business school fairs.


World MBA Tour

The QS World MBA Tour is the world's largest series of international business school fairs, attended by more than 60,000 candidates in 100 cities across 50 countries.


World MBA Tour Premium

QS World MBA Premium also focuses on MBA student recruitment, but invites only business schools ranked in the top 200 internationally, according to the QS World University Rankings. The event aims to provide a more holistic overview of an MBA degree, with enhanced focus on pre- and post-study processes and insights.


World Grad School Tour

The QS World Grad School Tour focuses on international postgraduate programs, particularly specialised master's degrees and PhDs in FAME (Finance, Accounting, Management and Economics) and
STEM Stem or STEM may refer to: Biology * Plant stem '' has lost its leaves, but is producing adventitious roots from the nodes. A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root In vascular plants, the roo ...
disciplines.


World University Tour

The QS World University Tour has an emphasis on undergraduate student recruitment, inviting undergraduate programs only.


Connect Events

QS Connect MBA and QS Connect Masters differ from other event series’ in that an open fair format is not followed. Instead, candidates take part in pre-arranged 1-to-1 interviews with admissions staff, based on pre-submitted CVs and academic profiles.


QS Stars

QS also offers universities an auditing service that provides in-depth information about institutional strengths and weaknesses. Called QS Stars, this service is separate from the QS World University Rankings. It involves a detailed look at a range of functions which mark out a modern, global university. The minimum result that a university can receive is zero Stars, while truly exceptional, world-leading universities can receive '5*+', or 'Five Star Plus', status. The QS Stars audit process evaluates universities according to about 50 different indicators. By 2018, about 20 different universities worldwide had been awarded the maximum possible Five Star Plus rating. QS Stars ratings are derived from scores on in eight out of 12 categories. Four categories are mandatory, while institutions must choose the remaining four optional categories. They are: * Teaching * Employability * Research * Internationalization * Facilities * Online/Distance Learning * Arts & Culture * Innovation * Inclusiveness * Social Responsibility * Subject Ranking * Program Strength Stars is an evaluation system, not a ranking. About 400 institutions had opted for the Stars evaluation as of early 2018. In 2012, fees to participate in this program were $9850 for the initial audit and an annual license fee of $6850.


Notes


References


External links

*
QS Intelligence Unit Blog
blog on rankings and higher education from the team that compiles the QS World University Rankings
Interactive maps comparing the QS World University Rankings with the Academic Ranking of World Universities and Times Higher Education rankings
{{DEFAULTSORT:Qs World University Rankings University and college rankings 2004 introductions