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QOPH or QOP (Phoenician Qōp ) is the nineteenth letter of the Semitic abjads . Aramaic Qop is derived from the Phoenician letter, and derivations from Aramaic include Hebrew Qof ק‎, Syriac Qōp̄ ܩ and Arabic
Arabic
Qāf ق.

Its original sound value was a West Semitic emphatic stop , presumably or . In Hebrew gematria , it has the numerical value of 100.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins

* 2 Arabic
Arabic
qāf

* 2.1 Pronunciation * 2.2 Maghrebi variant

* 3 Hebrew Qof

* 3.1 Pronunciation * 3.2 Gematria
Gematria

* 4 Unicode
Unicode
* 5 References * 6 External links

ORIGINS

The origin of the glyph shape of qōp ( ) is uncertain. It is usually suggested to have originally depicted either a sewing needle , specifically the eye of a needle (the Hebrew קוף means "hole"), or the back of a head and neck (qāf in Arabic
Arabic
meant "nape "). According to an older suggestion, it may also have been a picture of a monkey and its tail.

Besides Aramaic Qop, which gave rise to the letter in the Semitic abjads used in classical antiquity, Phoenician qōp is also the origin of the Latin letter Q and Greek Ϙ (qoppa) and Φ
Φ
(phi).

ARABIC QāF

The main Pronunciations of written in Arabic
Arabic
dialects.

The Arabic
Arabic
letter ق is named قاف qāf. It is written is several ways depending in its position in the word:

POSITION IN WORD: ISOLATED FINAL MEDIAL INITIAL

GLYPH FORM: ق‎ ـق‎ ـقـ‎ قـ‎

It is usually transliterated into Latin script
Latin script
as q, though some scholarly works use ḳ.

PRONUNCIATION

According to Sibawayh , author of the first book on Arabic grammar
Arabic grammar
, the letter is pronounced as a voiced phoneme . As noted above, Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
has the voiceless uvular plosive /q / as its standard pronunciation of the letter, but dialectical pronunciations vary as follows:

* : In Druze
Druze
dialects, most of the variants of Maghrebi , Northern Mesopotamian Arabic
Mesopotamian Arabic
, a number of Yemeni accents, and partially in Gulf Arabic . * : In Hejazi Arabic
Hejazi Arabic
, Najdi Arabic , Gulf Arabic , Libyan Arabic
Libyan Arabic
, rural Jordan
Jordan
, Southern Mesopotamian Arabic
Mesopotamian Arabic
and some forms of Yemeni and Sa\'idi Arabic
Arabic
(of Southern Egypt ) and partially in Maghrebi dialects. * : In Najdi Arabic * : In Egyptian Arabic , as well as Levantine Arabic
Levantine Arabic
and forms of Algerian Arabic and Moroccan Arabic
Moroccan Arabic
from around Tlemcen
Tlemcen
and Fes respectively. * : In Sudanese Arabic and some forms of Yemeni Arabic . * : In rural Palestinian Arabic it is often pronounced as a voiceless velar plosive . * : Optionally in Iraqi and in Gulf Arabic , it is sometimes pronounced as a voiced postalveolar affricate .

Note, however, that most dialects of Arabic
Arabic
do use the sound for this letter when it is found in learned words borrowed from standard Arabic
Arabic
into the respective dialect. The Maghribi text renders qāf and fāʼ differently than elsewhere would: منكم فقد ضل سواء السبيل فبما نقضهم ميثـٰـقهم لعنـٰـهم وجعلنا قلوبهم قـٰـسية يحرفون الكلم عن مواضعه ونسوا حظاً مما ذكروا به ولا تزال تطلع‎

MAGHREBI VARIANT

The Maghrebi style of writing qāf is different: having only a single point (dot) above; when the letter is isolated or word-final, it may sometimes become unpointed.

The Maghrebi qāf Position in word: ISOLATED FINAL MEDIAL INITIAL

Form of letter: ڧ‎ ٯ‎ ـڧ‎ ـٯ‎ ـڧـ‎ ڧـ‎

The earliest Arabic
Arabic
manuscripts show qāf in several variants: pointed (above or below) or unpointed. Then the prevalent convention was having a point above for qāf and a point below for fāʼ; this practice is now only preserved in manuscripts from the Maghribi, with the exception of Libya
Libya
and Algeria, where the Mashriqi form (two dots above: ق) prevails.

Within Maghribi texts, there is no possibility of confusing it with the letter fāʼ , as it is instead written with a dot underneath (ڢ‎) in the Maghribi script.

HEBREW QOF

The Oxford Hebrew-English Dictionary transliterates the letter Qoph (קוֹף) a transliteration as q or k; and, when word-final, it may be transliterated as ck. The English spellings of Biblical names (as derived from Latin via Biblical Greek ) containing this letter may represent it as c or k, e.g. Cain for Hebrew Qayin, or Kenan for Qenan (Genesis 4:1, 5:9).

ORTHOGRAPHIC VARIANTS

VARIOUS PRINT FONTS Cursive Hebrew Rashi script

SERIF SANS-SERIF MONOSPACED

ק ק ק

PRONUNCIATION

In modern Israeli Hebrew the letter is also called KUF. The letter represents /k/; i.e., no distinction is made between Qof and Kaph .

However, many historical groups have made that distinction, with Qof being pronounced by Iraqi Jews and other Mizrahim , or even as by Yemenite Jews under the influence of Yemeni Arabic .

GEMATRIA

Qof in gematria represents the number 100. Sarah
Sarah
is described in Genesis Rabba as בת ק' כבת כ' שנה לחטא‎, literally "At Qof years of age, she was like Kaph years of age in sin", meaning that when she was 100 years old, she was as sinless as when she was 20.

UNICODE

CHARACTER ק ق ܩ ࠒ

UNICODE NAME HEBREW LETTER QOF ARABIC LETTER QAF SYRIAC LETTER QAPH SAMARITAN LETTER QUF

ENCODINGS DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX

Unicode
Unicode
1511 U+05E7 1602 U+0642 1833 U+0729 2066 U+0812

UTF-8
UTF-8
215 167 D7 A7 217 130 D9 82 220 169 DC A9 224 160 146 E0 A0 92

Numeric character reference

CHARACTER 𐎖 𐡒 𐤒

UNICODE NAME UGARITIC LETTER QOPA IMPERIAL ARAMAIC LETTER QOPH PHOENICIAN LETTER QOF

ENCODINGS DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX

Unicode
Unicode
66454 U+10396 67666 U+10852 67858 U+10912

UTF-8
UTF-8
240 144 142 150 F0 90 8E 96 240 144 161 146 F0 90 A1 92 240 144 164 146 F0 90 A4 92

UTF-16 55296 57238 D800 DF96 55298 56402 D802 DC52 55298 56594 D802 DD12

Numeric character reference

REFERENCES

* ^ Travers Wood, Henry Craven Ord Lanchester, A Hebrew Grammar, 1913, p. 7. A. B. Davidson, Hebrew Primer and Grammar, 2000, p. 4. The meaning is doubtful. "Eye of a needle" has been suggested, and also "knot" Harvard Studies in Classical Philology vol. 45. * ^ Isaac Taylor, History of the Alphabet: Semitic Alphabets, Part 1, 2003: "The old explanation, which has again been revived by Halévy, is that it denotes an 'ape,' the character Q being taken to represent an ape with its tail hanging down. It may also be referred to a Talmudic root which would signify an 'aperture' of some kind, as the 'eye of a needle,' ... Lenormant adopts the more usual explanation that the word means a 'knot'. * ^ Qop may have been assigned the sound value /kʷʰ/ in early Greek ; as this was allophonic with /pʰ/ in certain contexts and certain dialects, the letter qoppa continued as the letter phi. C. Brixhe, "History of the Alpbabet", in Christidēs, Arapopoulou, & Chritē, eds., 2007, A History of Ancient Greek. * ^ e.g., The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition * ^ Kees Versteegh , The Arabic
Arabic
Language, pg. 131. Edinburgh
Edinburgh
: Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press , 2001. Paperback edition. ISBN 9780748614363 * ^ This variance has led to the confusion over the spelling of Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi
Muammar al-Gaddafi
's name in Latin letters. In Western Arabic
Arabic
dialects the sound is more preserved but can also be sometimes pronounced or as a simple under Berber and French influence. * ^ Bruce Ingham (1 January 1994). Najdi Arabic: Central Arabian. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 90-272-3801-4 . * ^ Lewis jr. (2013) , p. 5. * ^ van den Boogert, N. (1989). "Some notes on Maghrebi script" (PDF). Manuscript of the Middle East. 4. p. 38 shows qāf with a superscript point in all four positions. * ^ Gacek, Adam (2008). The Arabic
Arabic
Manuscript Tradition. Brill. p. 61. ISBN 90-04-16540-1 . * ^ Gacek, Adam (2009). Arabic
Arabic
Manuscripts: A Vademecum for Readers. Brill. p. 145. ISBN 90-04-17036-7 . * ^ Muhammad Ghoniem, M S M Saifullah, cAbd ar-Rahmân Robert Squires text-decoration: none">qif on a traffic sign written ڧڢ‎ which is written elsewhere as قف, Retrieved 2011-August-27

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to ק .

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Arabic
Arabic
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OVERVIEWS

* Language * Alphabet * History * Romanization * Numerology * Influence on other languages

ALPHABET

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