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A pyramid (from Greek: πυραμίς pyramis)[1][2] is a structure whose outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single point at the top, making the shape roughly a pyramid in the geometric sense. The base of a pyramid can be trilateral, quadrilateral, or any polygon shape. As such, a pyramid has at least three outer triangular surfaces (at least four faces including the base). The square pyramid, with square base and four triangular outer surfaces, is a common version. A pyramid's design, with the majority of the weight closer to the ground,[3] and with the pyramidion on top means that less material higher up on the pyramid will be pushing down from above. This distribution of weight allowed early civilizations to create stable monumental structures. Pyramids have been built by civilizations in many parts of the world. The largest pyramid by volume is the Great Pyramid
Pyramid
of Cholula, in the Mexican state of Puebla. For thousands of years, the largest structures on Earth were pyramids—first the Red Pyramid
Red Pyramid
in the Dashur Necropolis
Dashur Necropolis
and then the Great Pyramid
Pyramid
of Khufu, both of Egypt, the latter is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still remaining. Khufu's Pyramid
Pyramid
is built mainly of limestone (with large red granite blocks used in some interior chambers), and is considered an architectural masterpiece. It contains over 2,000,000 blocks ranging in weight from 2.5 tonnes (5,500 lb) to 15 tonnes (33,000 lb) [4] and is built on a square base with sides measuring about 230 m (755 ft), covering 13 acres. Its four sides face the four cardinal points precisely and it has an angle of 52 degrees. The original height of the Pyramid
Pyramid
was 146.5 m (488 ft), but today it is only 137 m (455 ft) high, the 9 m (33 ft) that is missing is due to the theft of the fine quality white Tura limestone covering, or casing stones, for construction in Cairo. It is still the tallest pyramid.

Contents

1 Ancient monuments

1.1 Mesopotamia 1.2 Egypt 1.3 Sudan 1.4 Nigeria 1.5 Greece 1.6 Spain 1.7 China 1.8 Mesoamerica 1.9 North America 1.10 Roman Empire 1.11 Medieval Europe 1.12 India 1.13 Indonesia 1.14 Peru

2 Modern examples 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 Notes

Ancient monuments[edit] See also: List of ancient pyramids by country (other) Mesopotamia[edit]

Chogha Zanbil
Chogha Zanbil
is an ancient Elamite complex in the Khuzestan province of Iran.

The Mesopotamians built the earliest pyramidal structures, called ziggurats. In ancient times, these were brightly painted in gold/bronze. Since they were constructed of sun-dried mud-brick, little remains of them. Ziggurats were built by the Sumerians, Babylonians, Elamites, Akkadians, and Assyrians for local religions. Each ziggurat was part of a temple complex which included other buildings. The precursors of the ziggurat were raised platforms that date from the Ubaid period[5] during the fourth millennium BC. The earliest ziggurats began near the end of the Early Dynastic Period.[6] The latest Mesopotamian ziggurats date from the 6th century BC. Built in receding tiers upon a rectangular, oval, or square platform, the ziggurat was a pyramidal structure with a flat top. Sun-baked bricks made up the core of the ziggurat with facings of fired bricks on the outside. The facings were often glazed in different colors and may have had astrological significance. Kings sometimes had their names engraved on these glazed bricks. The number of tiers ranged from two to seven. It is assumed that they had shrines at the top, but there is no archaeological evidence for this and the only textual evidence is from Herodotus.[7] Access to the shrine would have been by a series of ramps on one side of the ziggurat or by a spiral ramp from base to summit. Egypt[edit] Main article: Egyptian pyramids The most famous pyramids are the Egyptian — huge structures built of brick or stone, some of which are among the world's largest constructions. They are shaped as a reference to the rays of the sun. Most pyramids had a polished, highly reflective white limestone surface, to give them a shining appearance when viewed from a distance. The capstone was usually made of hard stone – granite or basalt – and could be plated with gold, silver, or electrum and would also be highly reflective.[8] After 2700 BC, the ancient Egyptians began building pyramids, until around 1700 BC. The first pyramid was erected during the Third Dynasty
Third Dynasty
by the Pharaoh Djoser
Djoser
and his architect Imhotep. This step pyramid consisted of six stacked mastabas. The largest Egyptian pyramids
Egyptian pyramids
are those at the Giza pyramid complex. The Egyptian sun god Ra, considered the father of all pharaohs, was said to have created himself from a pyramid-shaped mound of earth before creating all other gods.[8] The age of the pyramids reached its zenith at Giza in 2575–2150 BC.[9] Ancient Egyptian pyramids
Egyptian pyramids
were in most cases placed west of the river Nile
Nile
because the divine pharaoh's soul was meant to join with the sun during its descent before continuing with the sun in its eternal round.[8] As of 2008, some 135 pyramids have been discovered in Egypt.[10][11] The Great Pyramid of Giza
Great Pyramid of Giza
is the largest in Egypt and one of the largest in the world. It was the tallest building in the world until Lincoln Cathedral
Lincoln Cathedral
was finished in 1311 AD. The base is over 52,600 square metres (566,000 sq ft) in area. While pyramids are associated with Egypt, the nation of Sudan
Sudan
has 220 extant pyramids, the most numerous in the world.[12] The Great Pyramid
Pyramid
of Giza is one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It is the only one to survive into modern times. The Ancient Egyptians covered the faces of pyramids with polished white limestone, containing great quantities of fossilized seashells.[13] Many of the facing stones have fallen or have been removed and used for construction in Cairo.

Ancient pyramids of Egypt

Most pyramids are located near Cairo, with only one royal pyramid being located south of Cairo, at the Abydos temple complex. The pyramid at Abydos, Egypt
Egypt
were commissioned by Ahmose I
Ahmose I
who founded the 18th Dynasty and the New Kingdom.[14] The building of pyramids began in the Third Dynasty
Third Dynasty
with the reign of King Djoser.[15] Early kings such as Snefru built several pyramids, with subsequent kings adding to the number of pyramids until the end of the Middle Kingdom. The last king to build royal pyramids was Ahmose,[16] with later kings hiding their tombs in the hills, such as those in the Valley of the Kings in Luxor's West Bank.[17] In Medinat Habu, or Deir el-Medina, smaller pyramids were built by individuals. Smaller pyramids were also built by the Nubians who ruled Egypt
Egypt
in the Late Period, though their pyramids had steeper sides.[18] Sudan[edit] Main article: Nubian pyramids

Nubian Pyramids at Meroe
Meroe
with pylon-like entrances.

Nubian pyramids
Nubian pyramids
were constructed (roughly 240 of them) at three sites in Sudan
Sudan
to serve as tombs for the kings and queens of Napata
Napata
and Meroë. The pyramids of Kush, also known as Nubian Pyramids, have different characteristics than the pyramids of Egypt. The Nubian pyramids were constructed at a steeper angle than Egyptian ones. Pyramids were still being built in Sudan
Sudan
as late as 200 AD. Nigeria[edit] One of the unique structures of Igbo culture was the Nsude Pyramids, at the Nigerian town of Nsude, northern Igboland. Ten pyramidal structures were built of clay/mud. The first base section was 60 ft. in circumference and 3 ft. in height. The next stack was 45 ft. in circumference. Circular stacks continued, till it reached the top. The structures were temples for the god Ala/Uto, who was believed to reside at the top. A stick was placed at the top to represent the god's residence. The structures were laid in groups of five parallel to each other. Because it was built of clay/mud like the Deffufa of Nubia, time has taken its toll requiring periodic reconstruction.[19] Greece[edit] Main article: Greek pyramids Pausanias (2nd century AD) mentions two buildings resembling pyramids, one, 19 kilometres (12 mi) southwest of the still standing structure at Hellenikon,[20] a common tomb for soldiers who died in a legendary struggle for the throne of Argos
Argos
and another which he was told was the tomb of Argives killed in a battle around 669/8 BC. Neither of these still survive and there is no evidence that they resembled Egyptian pyramids.

Pyramid
Pyramid
of Hellinikon

There are also at least two surviving pyramid-like structures still available to study, one at Hellenikon and the other at Ligourio/Ligurio, a village near the ancient theatre Epidaurus. These buildings were not constructed in the same manner as the pyramids in Egypt. They do have inwardly sloping walls but other than those there is no obvious resemblance to Egyptian pyramids. They had large central rooms (unlike Egyptian pyramids) and the Hellenikon structure is rectangular rather than square, 12.5 by 14 metres (41 by 46 ft) which means that the sides could not have met at a point.[21] The stone used to build these structures was limestone quarried locally and was cut to fit, not into freestanding blocks like the Great Pyramid
Pyramid
of Giza.[citation needed] The dating of these structures has been made from the pot shards excavated from the floor and on the grounds. The latest dates available from scientific dating have been estimated around the 5th and 4th centuries. Normally this technique is used for dating pottery, but here researchers have used it to try to date stone flakes from the walls of the structures. This has created some debate about whether or not these structures are actually older than Egypt, which is part of the Black Athena
Black Athena
controversy.[22] Mary Lefkowitz has criticised this research. She suggests that some of the research was done not to determine the reliability of the dating method, as was suggested, but to back up an assumption of age and to make certain points about pyramids and Greek civilization. She notes that not only are the results not very precise, but that other structures mentioned in the research are not in fact pyramids, e.g. a tomb alleged to be the tomb of Amphion and Zethus near Thebes, a structure at Stylidha (Thessaly) which is just a long wall, etc. She also notes the possibility that the stones that were dated might have been recycled from earlier constructions. She also notes that earlier research from the 1930s, confirmed in the 1980s by Fracchia was ignored. She argues that they undertook their research using a novel and previously untested methodology in order to confirm a predetermined theory about the age of these structures.[23] Liritzis responded in a journal article published in 2011, stating that Lefkowitz failed to understand and misinterpreted the methodology.[24] Spain[edit] The Pyramids of Güímar
Pyramids of Güímar
refer to six rectangular pyramid-shaped, terraced structures, built from lava stone without the use of mortar. They are located in the district of Chacona, part of the town of Güímar
Güímar
on the island of Tenerife
Tenerife
in the Canary Islands. The structures have been dated to the 19th century and their original function explained as a byproduct of contemporary agricultural techniques. Autochthonous Guanche traditions as well as surviving images indicate that similar structures (also known as, "Morras", "Majanos", "Molleros", or "Paredones") could once have been found in many locations on the island. However, over time they have been dismantled and used as a cheap building material. In Güímar
Güímar
itself there were nine pyramids, only six of which survive. China[edit] Main article: Chinese pyramids

Ancient Korean tomb in Ji'an, Northeastern China

There are many square flat-topped mound tombs in China. The First Emperor Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang
(circa 221 BC, who unified the 7 pre-Imperial Kingdoms) was buried under a large mound outside modern day Xi'an. In the following centuries about a dozen more Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
royals were also buried under flat-topped pyramidal earthworks. Mesoamerica[edit] Main article: Mesoamerican pyramids A number of Mesoamerican cultures also built pyramid-shaped structures. Mesoamerican pyramids
Mesoamerican pyramids
were usually stepped, with temples on top, more similar to the Mesopotamian ziggurat than the Egyptian pyramid. The largest pyramid by volume is the Great Pyramid
Pyramid
of Cholula, in the Mexican state of Puebla. Constructed from the 3rd century BC to the 9th century AD, this pyramid is considered the largest monument ever constructed anywhere in the world, and is still being excavated. The third largest pyramid in the world, the Pyramid
Pyramid
of the Sun, at Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan
is also located in Mexico. There is an unusual pyramid with a circular plan at the site of Cuicuilco, now inside Mexico
Mexico
City and mostly covered with lava from an eruption of the Xitle Volcano in the 1st century BC. There are several circular stepped pyramids called Guachimontones
Guachimontones
in Teuchitlán, Jalisco
Jalisco
as well. Pyramids in Mexico
Mexico
were often used as places of human sacrifice. For the re-consecration of Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan
Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan
in 1487, Where, according to Michael Harner, "one source states 20,000, another 72,344, and several give 80,400".[25] North America[edit]

A diagram showing the various components of Eastern North American platform mounds

Many pre-Columbian Native American societies of ancient North America built large pyramidal earth structures known as platform mounds. Among the largest and best-known of these structures is Monks Mound
Monks Mound
at the site of Cahokia
Cahokia
in what became Illinois, completed around 1100 AD, which has a base larger than that of the Great Pyramid
Pyramid
at Giza. Many of the mounds underwent multiple episodes of mound construction at periodic intervals, some becoming quite large. They are believed to have played a central role in the mound-building peoples' religious life and documented uses include semi-public chief's house platforms, public temple platforms, mortuary platforms, charnel house platforms, earth lodge/town house platforms, residence platforms, square ground and rotunda platforms, and dance platforms.[26][27][28] Cultures who built substructure mounds include the Troyville culture, Coles Creek culture, Plaquemine culture
Plaquemine culture
and Mississippian cultures. Roman Empire[edit] Main article: Pyramid
Pyramid
of Cestius

Pyramid of Cestius
Pyramid of Cestius
in Rome, Italy

The 27-metre-high Pyramid of Cestius
Pyramid of Cestius
was built by the end of the 1st century BC and still exists today, close to the Porta San Paolo. Another one, named Meta Romuli, standing in the Ager Vaticanus (today's Borgo), was destroyed at the end of the 15th century. Medieval Europe[edit] Pyramids have occasionally been used in Christian architecture of the feudal era, e.g. as the tower of Oviedo's Gothic Cathedral of San Salvador. India[edit]

The main gopura of the Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Temple
Temple
pyramid.

Many giant granite temple pyramids were made in South India
South India
during the Chola Empire, many of which are still in religious use today. Examples of such pyramid temples include Brihadisvara Temple
Temple
at Thanjavur, the Temple
Temple
of Gangaikondacholapuram and the Airavatesvara Temple
Temple
at Darasuram. However the largest temple pyramid in the area is Sri Rangam in Srirangam, Tamil Nadu. The Thanjavur
Thanjavur
temple was built by Raja raja Chola in the 11th century. The Brihadisvara Temple
Temple
was declared by UNESCO
UNESCO
as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 1987; the Temple
Temple
of Gangaikondacholapuram and the Airavatesvara Temple
Temple
at Darasuram
Darasuram
were added as extensions to the site in 2004.[29] Indonesia[edit]

Borobudur, Central Java, Indonesia.

Next to menhir, stone table, and stone statue; Austronesian megalithic culture in Indonesia
Indonesia
also featured earth and stone step pyramid structures called punden berundak as discovered in Pangguyangan site near Cisolok[30] and in Cipari near Kuningan.[31] The construction of stone pyramids is based on the native beliefs that mountains and high places are the abode for the spirit of the ancestors.[32] The step pyramid is the basic design of 8th century Borobudur
Borobudur
Buddhist monument in Central Java.[33] However the later temples built in Java were influenced by Indian Hindu architecture, as displayed by the towering spires of Prambanan
Prambanan
temple. In the 15th century Java
Java
during late Majapahit
Majapahit
period saw the revival of Austronesian indigenous elements as displayed by Sukuh temple that somewhat resemble Mesoamerican pyramid, and also stepped pyramids of Mount Penanggungan.[34] Peru[edit] Andean cultures had used pyramids in various architectural structures such as the ones in Caral, Túcume
Túcume
and Chavín de Huantar. Modern examples[edit]

Louvre Pyramid
Louvre Pyramid
(Paris, France)

Luxor Hotel
Luxor Hotel
in Las Vegas, Nevada

The central part of the "Tama-Re" village, as seen from the air

Pyramid Arena
Pyramid Arena
in Memphis, Tennessee

Sunway Pyramid
Sunway Pyramid
in Subang Jaya
Subang Jaya
is the mall that has an Egyptian-inspired Pyramid
Pyramid
with a lion designed Sphinx.

Walter Pyramid
Walter Pyramid
in Long Beach, California

Oscar Niemeyer's design for a museum in Caracas

Transamerica Pyramid
Transamerica Pyramid
in San Francisco, California

The Louvre Pyramid
Louvre Pyramid
in Paris, France, in the court of the Louvre Museum, is a 20.6 metre (about 70 foot) glass structure which acts as an entrance to the museum. It was designed by the American architect I. M. Pei
I. M. Pei
and was completed in 1989. The La Pyramide Inversée (Inverted Pyramid) is displayed in the underground Louvre
Louvre
shopping mall. The Tama-Re village was an Egyptian-themed set of buildings and monuments established near Eatonton, Georgia by Nuwaubians in 1993 that was mostly demolished after being sold under government forfeiture in 2005. The Luxor Hotel
Luxor Hotel
in Las Vegas, United States, is a 30-story true pyramid with light beaming from the top. The 32-story Pyramid Arena
Pyramid Arena
in Memphis, Tennessee
Memphis, Tennessee
(a city named after the ancient Egyptian capital whose name itself was derived from the name of one of its pyramids). Built in 1991, it was the home court for the University of Memphis
University of Memphis
men's basketball program, and the National Basketball
Basketball
Association's Memphis Grizzlies
Memphis Grizzlies
until 2004. The Walter Pyramid, home of the basketball and volleyball teams of the California
California
State University, Long Beach, campus in California, United States, is an 18-story-tall blue true pyramid. The 48-story Transamerica Pyramid
Transamerica Pyramid
in San Francisco, California, designed by William Pereira, one of the city's symbols. The 105-story Ryugyong Hotel
Ryugyong Hotel
in Pyongyang, Northern Korea. A former museum/monument in Tirana, Albania is commonly known as the " Pyramid
Pyramid
of Tirana." It differs from typical pyramids in having a radial rather than square or rectangular shape, and gently sloped sides that make it short in comparison to the size of its base. The Slovak Radio Building
Slovak Radio Building
in Bratislava, Slovakia. This building is shaped like an inverted pyramid. The Summum
Summum
Pyramid, a 3-story pyramid in Salt Lake City, used for instruction in the Summum
Summum
philosophy and conducting rites associated with Modern Mummification. The Palace of Peace and Reconciliation
Palace of Peace and Reconciliation
in Astana, Kazakhstan. The Pyramids at Osho Commune in Pune, India (for meditation purposes). The three pyramids of Moody Gardens
Moody Gardens
in Galveston, Texas. The Co-Op Bank Pyramid
Pyramid
or Stockport
Stockport
Pyramid
Pyramid
in Stockport, England is a large pyramid-shaped office block in Stockport
Stockport
in England. (The surrounding part of the valley of the upper Mersey
Mersey
has sometimes been called the "Kings Valley" after the Valley of the Kings
Valley of the Kings
in Egypt.) The Ames Monument
Ames Monument
in southeastern Wyoming
Wyoming
honoring the brothers who financed the Union Pacific Railroad. The Trylon, a triangular pyramid erected for the 1939 World's Fair
1939 World's Fair
in Flushing, Queens
Flushing, Queens
and demolished after the Fair closed. The Ballandean Pyramid, at Ballandean in rural Queensland
Queensland
is a 15-metre folly pyramid made from blocks of local granite. The Karlsruhe Pyramid
Karlsruhe Pyramid
is a pyramid made of red sandstone, located in the centre of the market square of Karlsruhe, Germany. It was erected in the years 1823–1825 over the vault of the city's founder, Margrave Charles III William (1679–1738). The GoJa Music Hall in Prague. The Muttart Conservatory
Muttart Conservatory
greenhouses in Edmonton, Alberta. Small pyramids similar to those of the Louvre
Louvre
can be found outside the lobby of the Citicorp Building in Long Island City, Queens NY. The Pyramids of the City Stars Complex in Cairo, Egypt. Pyramid
Pyramid
building belonging to The Digital Group (TDG), at Hinjwadi, Pune, India.[35] The Steelcase
Steelcase
Corporate Development Center near Grand Rapids, Michigan. Sunway Pyramid
Sunway Pyramid
shopping mall in Selangor, Malaysia. Hanoi Museum
Hanoi Museum
with an overall design of a reversed Pyramid. The Pyramide des Ha! Ha! by artist Jean-Jules Soucy in La Baie, Quebec is made out of 3 000 give way signs.[36] The "Pyramid" culture-entertainment complex and Monument of Kazan siege (Church of Image of Edessa) in Kazan, Russia. The "Phorum" of Expocentre business-exhibition complex in Moscow, Russia. Few pyramids of the Marco-city shopping-entertainment complex in Vitebsk, Belarus.[37] The Time pyramid
Time pyramid
in Wemding, Germany, a pyramid begun in 1993 and scheduled for completion in the year 3183.[38] Triangle, a proposed skyscraper in Paris. The Shimizu Mega-City Pyramid, a proposed project for construction of a massive pyramid over Tokyo Bay in Japan. The tomb of Quintino Sella, outside the monumental cemetery of Oropa.[39] The Donkin Memorial, erected on a Xhosa reserve in 1820 by Cape Governor Sir Rufane Donkin in memory of his late wife Elizabeth, in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. The pyramid is used in many different coats-of-arms associated with Port Elizabeth. Adjacent to the Pyramid is the lighthouse (1863) that houses the Nelson Mandela Bay Tourism office, as well as a 12 x 8 m South African Flag flying from a 65 m high flagpole. It also forms part of the Route 67 Public Art route. The unbuilt Museum of Modern Art of Caracas
Caracas
was designed as an upside down pyramid. Playing on a variation of the famous configuration, by inverting the natural geometry Oscar Niemeyer
Oscar Niemeyer
intended a bold composition nevertheless compact in its principle.[40]

Comparison of approximate profiles of several notable pyramidal or near-pyramidal buildings. Dotted lines indicate original heights, where data are available. In its SVG file, hover over a pyramid to highlight and click for its article.

Gallery[edit]

Pyramid
Pyramid
of Khafra

Shaohao Tomb, Qufu, China

Stockport
Stockport
Pyramid
Pyramid
in Stockport, United Kingdom

Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe
Pyramid, Germany

The Pyramid Arena
Pyramid Arena
in Memphis, Tennessee

Hanoi Museum
Hanoi Museum
in Vietnam
Vietnam
features an overall design of an inverted Pyramid.

Metairie Cemetery, New Orleans

The Summum Pyramid
Summum Pyramid
in Salt Lake City

Zafer Plaza shopping center in Bursa, Turkey

Slovak Radio Building, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Monument of Kazan
Kazan
siege (Church of Image of Edessa) in Kazan, Russia.

"Pyramid" culture-entertainment complex in Kazan, Russia.

Pyramidal road church in Baden-Baden, Germany

Nubian pyramids
Nubian pyramids
at Archaeological Sites of the Island of Meroe

See also[edit]

List of largest monoliths List of pyramids Pyramid (other) for other uses of the word pyramid. Pyramid
Pyramid
power Triadic pyramid

Notes[edit]

^ πυραμίς, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library ^ The word meant "a kind of cake of roasted wheat-grains preserved in honey"; the Egyptian pyramids
Egyptian pyramids
were named after its form (R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 1261). ^ Centre of volume is one quarter of the way up – see Centre of mass. ^ "National Geographic: Egypt—Great Pyramid
Pyramid
of Khufu
Khufu
at Giza". nationalgeographic.com. Archived from the original on 2014-10-20.  ^ Crawford, page 73 ^ Crawford, page 73-74 ^ Crawford, page 85 ^ a b c Redford, Donald B., Ph.D.; McCauley, Marissa. "How were the Egyptian pyramids
Egyptian pyramids
built?". Research. The Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved 11 December 2012.  ^ " Egypt
Egypt
Pyramids-Time Line". National Geographic. 2002-10-17. Archived from the original on 2011-08-10. Retrieved 2011-08-13.  ^ Slackman, Michael (2008-11-17). "In the Shadow of a Long Past, Patiently Awaiting the Future". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-12.  ^ Lehner, Mark (2008-03-25). Mark Lehner (2008). The Complete Pyramids: Solving the Ancient Mysteries. p. 34. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-28547-3.  ^ Pollard, Lawrence (2004-09-09). "Sudan's past uncovered". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-04-12.  ^ Viegas, J., Pyramids packed with fossil shells, ABC News in Science, <www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2008/04/28/2229383.htm> ^ Filer, Joyce (16 January 2006). Pyramids. Oxford University Press. pp. 38–39. ISBN 978-0-19-530521-0.  ^ Davidovits, Joseph (20 May 2008). They Built the Pyramids. Geopolymer Institute. p. 206. ISBN 978-2-9514820-2-9.  ^ Filer, Joyce (16 January 2006). Pyramids. Oxford University Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-19-530521-0.  ^ Fodor's (15 March 2011). Fodor's Egypt, 4th Edition. Random House Digital, Inc. pp. 249–250. ISBN 978-1-4000-0519-2.  ^ Harpur, James (1997). Pyramid. Barnes & Noble Books. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-7607-0215-4.  ^ Basden, G. S(1966). Among the Ibos of Nigeria, 1912. Psychology Press: p. 109, ISBN 0-7146-1633-8 ^ Mary Lefkowitz (2006). "Archaeology and the politics of origins". In Garrett G. Fagan. Archaeological Fantasies: How Pseudoarchaeology Misrepresents the Past and Misleads the Public. Routledge. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-415-30593-8.  ^ Mary Lefkowitz (2006). "Archaeology and the politics of origins". In Garrett G. Fagan. Archaeological Fantasies: How Pseudoarchaeology Misrepresents the Past and Misleads the Public. Routledge. pp. 189–190. ISBN 978-0-415-30593-8.  ^ Mary Lefkowitz (2006). "Archaeology and the politics of origins". In Garrett G. Fagan. Archaeological Fantasies: How Pseudoarchaeology Misrepresents the Past and Misleads the Public. Routledge. pp. 185–186. ISBN 978-0-415-30593-8.  ^ Mary Lefkowitz (2006). "Archaeology and the politics of origins". In Garrett G. Fagan. Archaeological Fantasies: How Pseudoarchaeology Misrepresents the Past and Misleads the Public. Routledge. pp. 195–195. ISBN 978-0-415-30593-8.  ^ Liritzis Ioannis, "Surface dating by luminescence: An Overview" GEOCHRONOMETRIA 38(3) 292–302, June issue, https://www.springer.com/alert/urltracking.do?id=L1a5692M7cfc5eSae2cd93[permanent dead link] ^ "The Enigma of Aztec Sacrifice". Natural History, April 1977. Vol. 86, No. 4, pages 46–51. ^ Owen Lindauer; John H. Blitz2 (1997). "Higher Ground: The Archaeology of North American Platform Mounds" (PDF). Journal of Archaeological Research. 5 (2). Retrieved 2011-11-02.  ^ Raymond Fogelson (September 20, 2004). Handbook of North American Indians : Southeast. Smithsonian Institution. p. 741. ISBN 978-0-16-072300-1.  ^ Henry van der Schalie; Paul W. Parmalee (September 1960). "The Etowah Site, Mound C :Barlow County, Georgia". Florida Anthropologist. 8: 37–39.  ^ http://whc.unesco.org/archive/2004/whc04-28com-inf14ae.pdf ^ "Pangguyangan". Dinas Pariwisata dan Budaya Provinsi Jawa Barat (in Indonesian).  ^ I.G.N. Anom; Sri Sugiyanti; Hadniwati Hasibuan (1996). Maulana Ibrahim; Samidi, eds. Hasil Pemugaran dan Temuan Benda Cagar Budaya PJP I (in Indonesian). Direktorat Jenderal Kebudayaan. p. 87.  ^ Timbul Haryono (2011). Sendratari mahakarya Borobudur
Borobudur
(in Indonesian). Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia. p. 14. ISBN 9789799103338.  ^ R. Soekmono (2002). Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia
Indonesia
2 (in Indonesian). Kanisius. p. 87. ISBN 9789794132906.  ^ Edi Sedyawati; Hariani Santiko; Hasan Djafar; Ratnaesih Maulana; Wiwin Djuwita Sudjana Ramelan; Chaidir Ashari (2013). Candi Indonesia: Seri Jawa: Indonesian-English, Volume 1 dari Candi Indonesia, Indonesia. Direktorat Pelestarian Cagar Budaya dan Permuseuman, Seri Jawa. Direktorat Jenderal Kebudayaan. ISBN 9786021766934.  ^ "Information Technology
Technology
Services – IT Consulting – Offshore IT Services". thedigitalgroup.com.  ^ "La pyramide de la baies des HaHa: capteurs d'ondes telluriques". conspiration.ca.  ^ В Витебске открыли пирамиду «Марко-сити» Archived 2014-05-17 at the Wayback Machine. В Витебске прошло открытие торгово-развлекательного комплекса «Марко-сити» ^ Conception Official Zeitpyramide website, accessed: 14 December 2010 ^ Luisa Bocchietto, Mario Coda and Carlo Gavazzi. "THE OTHER OROPA: A Guide to the Monumental Cemetery of the Sanctuary" (pdf).  ^ "arquitextos 151.03 tributo a niemeyer: Transcrições arquitetônicas: Niemeyer e Villanueva em diálogo museal – vitruvius". vitruvius.com.br. 

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v t e

Mathematics and art

Concepts

Algorithm Catenary Fractal Golden ratio Plastic number Hyperboloid structure Minimal surface Paraboloid Perspective

Camera lucida Camera obscura

Projective geometry Proportion

Architecture Human

Symmetry Tessellation Wallpaper group

Forms

Algorithmic art Anamorphic art Computer art 4D art Fractal
Fractal
art Islamic geometric patterns

Girih Jali Muqarnas Zellige

Knotting Architecture

Geodesic dome Islamic Mughal Pyramid Vastu shastra

Music Origami Textiles String art Sculpture Tiling

Artworks

List of works designed with the golden ratio Continuum Octacube Pi Pi in the Sky

Buildings

Hagia Sophia Pantheon Parthenon Pyramid
Pyramid
of Khufu Sagrada Família St Mary's Cathedral Sydney Opera House Taj Mahal

Artists

Renaissance

Paolo Uccello Piero della Francesca Albrecht Dürer Leonardo da Vinci

Vitruvian Man

Parmigianino

Self-portrait in a Convex Mirror

19th–20th Century

William Blake

The Ancient of Days Newton

Jean Metzinger

Danseuse au café L'Oiseau bleu

Man Ray René Magritte

La condition humaine

Salvador Dalí

Crucifixion The Swallow's Tail

Giorgio de Chirico M. C. Escher

Circle Limit III Print Gallery Relativity Reptiles Waterfall

Contemporary

Martin and Erik Demaine Scott Draves Jan Dibbets John Ernest Helaman Ferguson Peter Forakis Bathsheba Grossman George W. Hart Desmond Paul Henry John A. Hiigli Anthony Hill Charles Jencks

Garden of Cosmic Speculation

Robert Longhurst István Orosz Hinke Osinga Hamid Naderi Yeganeh

A Bird in Flight Boat

Tony Robbin Oliver Sin Hiroshi Sugimoto Daina Taimina Roman Verostko

Theorists

Ancient

Polykleitos

Canon

Vitruvius

De architectura

Renaissance

Luca Pacioli

De divina proportione

Piero della Francesca

De prospectiva pingendi

Leon Battista Alberti

De pictura De re aedificatoria

Sebastiano Serlio

Regole generali d'architettura

Andrea Palladio

I quattro libri dell'architettura

Albrecht Dürer

Vier Bücher von Menschlicher Proportion

Romantic

Frederik Macody Lund

"Ad Quadratum"

Jay Hambidge

"The Greek Vase"

Samuel Colman

"Nature's Harmonic Unity"

Modern

Owen Jones

The Grammar of Ornament

Ernest Hanbury Hankin

The Drawing of Geometric Patterns in Saracenic Art

G. H. Hardy

A Mathematician's Apology

George David Birkhoff

Aesthetic Measure

Douglas Hofstadter

Gödel, Escher, Bach

Nikos Salingaros

The 'Life' of a Carpet

Publications

Journal of Mathematics and the Arts

Organizations

Ars Mathematica The Bridges Organization European Society for Mathematics and the Arts Goudreau Museum of Mathematics
Museum of Mathematics
in Art and Science Institute For Figuring Museum of Mathematics

Related topics

Droste effect Mathematical beauty Patterns in nature Sacred geometry

Category

v t e

Prehistoric technology

Prehistory

timeline outline Stone Age subdivisions New Stone Age

Technology

history

Tools

Farming

Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution

founder crops New World crops

Ard / plough Celt Digging stick Domestication Goad Irrigation Secondary products Sickle Terracing

Food processing

Fire Basket Cooking

Earth oven

Granaries Grinding slab Ground stone Hearth

Aşıklı Höyük Qesem Cave

Manos Metate Mortar and pestle Pottery Quern-stone Storage pit

Hunting

Arrow Boomerang

throwing stick

Bow and arrow

history

Nets Spear

Spear-thrower baton harpoon woomera Schöningen Spears

Projectile points

Arrowhead Bare Island Cascade Clovis Cresswell Cumberland Eden Folsom Lamoka Manis Site Plano Transverse arrowhead

Systems

Game drive system

Buffalo jump

Toolmaking

Earliest toolmaking

Oldowan Acheulean Mousterian

Clovis culture Cupstone Fire hardening Gravettian
Gravettian
culture Hafting Hand axe

Grooves

Langdale axe industry Levallois technique Lithic core Lithic reduction

analysis debitage flake

Lithic technology Magdalenian
Magdalenian
culture Metallurgy Microblade technology Mining Prepared-core technique Solutrean
Solutrean
industry Striking platform Tool stone Uniface Yubetsu technique

Other tools

Adze Awl

bone

Axe Bannerstone Blade

prismatic

Bone tool Bow drill Burin Canoe

Oar Pesse canoe

Chopper

tool

Cleaver Denticulate tool Fire plough Fire-saw Hammerstone Knife Microlith Quern-stone Racloir Rope Scraper

side

Stone tool Tally stick Weapons Wheel

illustration

Architecture

Ceremonial

Göbekli Tepe Kiva Standing stones

megalith row Stonehenge

Pyramid

Dwellings

Neolithic
Neolithic
architecture British megalith architecture Nordic megalith architecture Burdei Cave Cliff dwelling Dugout Hut

Quiggly hole

Jacal Longhouse Mud brick

Mehrgarh

Neolithic
Neolithic
long house Pit-house Pueblitos Pueblo Rock shelter

Blombos Cave Abri de la Madeleine Sibudu Cave

Stone roof Roundhouse Stilt house

Alp pile dwellings

Wattle and daub

Water management

Check dam Cistern Flush toilet Reservoir Water well

Other architecture

Archaeological features Broch Burnt mound

fulacht fiadh

Causewayed enclosure

Tor enclosure

Circular enclosure

Goseck

Cursus Henge

Thornborough

Oldest buildings Megalithic
Megalithic
architectural elements Midden Timber circle Timber trackway

Sweet Track

Arts and culture

Material goods

Baskets Beadwork Beds Chalcolithic Clothing/textiles

timeline

Cosmetics Glue Hides

shoes Ötzi

Jewelry

amber use

Mirrors Pottery

Cardium Grooved ware Linear Jōmon Unstan ware

Sewing needle Weaving Wine

Winery wine press

PrehistArt

Art of the Upper Paleolithic Art of the Middle Paleolithic

Blombos Cave

List of Stone Age
Stone Age
art Bird stone Bradshaw rock paintings Cairn Carved Stone Balls Cave
Cave
paintings

painting pigment

Cup and ring mark Geoglyph Golden hats Guardian stones Megalithic
Megalithic
art Petroform Petroglyph Petrosomatoglyph Pictogram Rock art

Stone carving

Sculpture Statue menhir Stone circle

list British Isles and Brittany

Venus figurines

Burial

Burial mounds

Bowl barrow Round barrow

Mound Builders
Mound Builders
culture

U.S. sites

Chamber tomb

Severn-Cotswold

Cist

Dartmoor kistvaens

Clava cairn Court tomb Cremation Dolmen

Great dolmen

Funeral pyre Gallery grave

transepted wedge-shaped

Grave goods Jar burial Long barrow

unchambered Grønsalen

Megalithic
Megalithic
tomb Mummy Passage grave Rectangular dolmen Ring cairn Simple dolmen Stone box grave Tor cairn Tumulus Unchambered long cairn

Other cultural

Astronomy

sites lunar calendar

Behavioral modernity Origin of language

trepanning

Prehistoric medicine Evolutionary musicology

music archaeology

Prehistoric music

Alligator drum flutes Divje Babe flute gudi

Prehistoric numerals Origin of religion

Paleolithic religion Prehistoric religion Spiritual drug use

Prehistoric warfare Symbols

symbolism

Authority control

.