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Puxian (Hinghwa Romanized: Pó-sing-gṳ̂/莆仙語; simplified Chinese: 莆仙话; traditional Chinese: 莆仙話; pinyin: Púxiān huà), also known as Pu-Xian Chinese, Puxian Min, Xinghua or Hinghwa (Hing-hua̍-gṳ̂/興化語; simplified Chinese: 兴化语; traditional Chinese: 興化語; pinyin: Xīnghuà yǔ), is a branch of Min Chinese. Puxian is spoken mostly in Fujian
Fujian
province, particularly in Putian city and Xianyou County
Xianyou County
(after which it is named), parts of Fuzhou, and parts of Quanzhou. It is also widely used as the mother tongue in Wuqiu Township, Kinmen
Kinmen
County, Fujian
Fujian
Province, Republic of China. More than 2000 people in Shacheng, Fuding
Fuding
in northern Fujian
Fujian
also speak Puxian.[5] There are minor differences between the dialects of Putian
Putian
and Xianyou. Overseas populations of Puxian speakers exist in Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore. Speakers of Puxian are also known as Henghua, Hinghua, or Xinghua.

Contents

1 History 2 Characteristics

2.1 Differences with Southern Min
Southern Min
dialects 2.2 Borrowings from Eastern Min

3 Phonology

3.1 Initials 3.2 Finals 3.3 Tone 3.4 Register 3.5 Assimilation 3.6 Comparison between Putian
Putian
Min and Quanzhou
Quanzhou
Min Nan

4 Sentence-final particles 5 Romanization 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] Before the year 979 AD, the Puxian region was part of Quanzhou
Quanzhou
county and people there spoke a form of Southern Min.[6][7] due to its origin in the past. In 979 AD, during the Song Dynasty, the region was administratively separated from Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and the Chinese spoken there developed separately from the rest of Southern Min. Due to its proximity with Fuzhou, it absorbed some elements of Eastern Min, but its basic linguistic characteristic i.e. grammar and most vocabulary is based on Quanzhou
Quanzhou
dialect.[8] Puxian Min has 62% cognates with Quanzhou
Quanzhou
dialect (Southern Min) and only 39% cognates with Fuzhou
Fuzhou
dialect (Eastern Min).[9] Characteristics[edit] Differences with Southern Min
Southern Min
dialects[edit] Puxian differs from most Southern Min
Southern Min
varieties in several ways:

The vowel 'a' is replaced by /ɒ/ (o̤) in most cases, e.g. 腳 ko̤ "leg". The vowel 'ư' /ɯ/ is replaced by /y/ ('ü'), e.g. 魚 hṳ "fish". In Putian
Putian
'ng' has changed to /uŋ/ except after zero initial and h- (notation: ng), e.g. 湯 tung "soup". The vowel /e/ is often replaced by /ɒ/ o̤, e.g. 馬 bo̤ "horse". Where Quanzhou
Quanzhou
has 'ĩ' and Zhangzhou has 'ẽ', the corresponding Putian
Putian
vowel is 'ã', e.g. 病 baⁿ "sick", where ⁿ indicates a nasalized vowel. The vowel 'io' is replaced by 'iau' (notation: a̤u), e.g. 笑 ciao "laugh". This also holds for nasalized vowels, e.g. 張 da̤uⁿ corresponding to Quanzhou
Quanzhou
tioⁿ. Nasals 'm' sometimes occur in place of voiced stops 'b', e.g. 夢 mang vs. Quanzhou
Quanzhou
bang. Initial consonant 'ng' replaces 'g' e.g. 五 'ngo' vs. Quanzhou
Quanzhou
'go'. There is a loss of distinction between voiced and unvoiced stops, e.g. the sounds /b/ and /p/ both correspond to the same phoneme and occur in free variation.

Borrowings from Eastern Min[edit]

Wife 老媽 (Lau Ma)

Phonology[edit] Puxian has 15 consonants, including the zero onset, the same as most other Min varieties. Puxian has a lateral fricative [ɬ] instead of the [s] in other Min varieties. Puxian has 40 finals and 6 phonemic tones. Initials[edit]

Puxian Min Initial Chart

  Bilabial Alveolar Lateral Velar Glottal

Plosive unaspirated p 巴 (b) t 打 (d)

k 家 (g) ʔ 烏

aspirated pʰ 彭 (p) tʰ 他 (t)

kʰ 卡 (k)

Nasals m 麻 (m) n 拿 (n)

ŋ 雅 (ng)

Fricatives voiceless

ɬ 沙 (s)

h 下 (h)

voiced β*

Affricates unaspirated

ts 渣 (c)

aspirated

tsʰ 査 (ch)

Approximant

l 拉 (l)

β (only appears in connected speech. It's a result of consonant mutation of [p])

Finals[edit] Puxian Min has 39 finals.

Finals

Vowel Diphthong Nasal Glottal

no glide a 鴉 (a) au 拗 (au) aŋ 王 (ang) aʔ 壓 (ah)

ɒ 奥 (o̤)

ɒŋ 用 (o̤ng) ɒʔ 屋 (o̤h)

o 科 (eo) ɔu 烏 (o) oŋ 温 (eong) oʔ 熨 (eoh)

e 裔 (a̤) ai 愛 (ai) ɛŋ 煙 (eng) ɛʔ 黑 (eh)

œ 改 (e̤)

œŋ 換 (e̤ng) œʔ 郁 (e̤h)

ŋ 伓 (ng)

/-i-/ i 衣 (i) iu 油 (iu) iŋ 引 (ing) iʔ 益 (ih)

ia 夜 (ia) iau 要 (a̤u) iaŋ 鹽 (iang) iaʔ 葉 (iah)

/-u-/ u 夫 (u) ui 位 (ui) uŋ 黄 (ng)

ua 画 (ua) ue 歪 (oi) uaŋ 碗 (uang) uaʔ 活 (uah)

/-y-/ y 余 (ṳ)

yŋ 恩 (ṳng) yʔ 役 (ṳh)

yɒ 安 (io̤ⁿ)

yɒŋ 羊 (io̤ng) yɒʔ 藥 (io̤h)

Chinese character 黃 (ńg) 方 (hng) 漲 (dn̂g) 幫 (bng) 光 (gng) 兩 (nn̄g) 毛 (mńg)

Putian ŋ̍ hŋ̍ tuŋ puŋ kuŋ nuŋ muŋ

Xianyou ŋ̍ hŋ̍ tŋ̍ pŋ̍ kŋ̍ nŋ̍ mŋ̍

Xianyou dialect
Xianyou dialect
nasals

IPA ã ẽ ɛ̃ ĩ ỹ ɒ̃ iã yã uã aĩ aũ uĩ iũ

Romanization aⁿ

a̤ⁿ e̤ⁿ o̤ⁿ iaⁿ io̤ⁿ uaⁿ

oiⁿ a̤uⁿ

Romanized IPA ã

ẽ ø̃ ɒ̃ iã yɒ̃ uã

oĩ ɛũ

Chinese character 爭 (caⁿ) 還 (há̤ⁿ) 段 (dē̤ⁿ) 三 (so̤ⁿ) 鼎 (diáⁿ) 張 (da̤uⁿ) 看 (kua̍ⁿ) 飯 (bōiⁿ) 贏 (ió̤ⁿ)

Xianyou tsã hĩ tỹ sɒ̃ tiã tiũ kʰuã puĩ yɒ̃

Putian tsa hi tø sɒ tia tiau kʰua puai yɒ

Tone[edit]

Tone Ing-báⁿ 陰平 Ing-siō̤ng 陰上 Ing-kṳ̍ 陰去 Ing-ci̍h 陰入 Ió̤ng-báⁿ 陽平 Ió̤ng-kṳ̍ 陽去 Ió̤ng-ci̍h 陽入

Putian ˥˧˧ (533) ˦˥˧ (453) ˦˨ (42) ʔ˨˩ (ʔ2) ˩˧ (13) ˩ (11) ʔ˦ (ʔ4)

Xianyou ˥˦˦ (544) ˧˧˨ (332) ˥˨ (52) ʔ˨ (ʔ2) ˨˦ (24) ˨˩ (21) ʔ˦ (ʔ4)

Register[edit]

Xianyou dialect
Xianyou dialect
register chart

Chinese character 買 黃 生 領 師 兩 火 壁 著

Colloquial pe ŋ̍ ɬã, tsʰã nia ɬai nŋ̍ hoe pia tieu

Literary mai hɒŋ ɬɛŋ liŋ ɬo løŋ hɒ piʔ tøʔ

Assimilation[edit] 新婦房 ɬiŋ pu paŋ → ɬiŋ mu βaŋ 青草 tsʰɔŋ tsʰau → tsʰɔŋ nau Comparison between Putian
Putian
Min and Quanzhou
Quanzhou
Min Nan[edit]

Chinese character 埋 (lit.) 萬 (lit.) 人 (lit.) 入 危 (lit.) 逆 內 諾

Putian mai man tsin tsiʔ kui kiʔ tue tɔʔ

Quanzhou bai ban lin dzip ɡui ɡiak lue lɔk

Sentence-final particles[edit]

ah (啊): used to express exclamation. lah (啦): used to stress or for adding emotional effect to your words. neh (呢): used for questioning. ngo (唔): used to express emotion. yo (哟): used to denote obviousness or contention.

Romanization[edit] Main article: Hinghwa Romanized Hing-hua̍ báⁿ-uā-ci̍ (興化平話字) is the Romanization system for Puxian Min. It has 23 letters: a a̤ b c ch d e e̤ g h i k l m n ng o o̤ p s t u ṳ. The Romanization only needs five tone marks for seven tones:

陰平 Ing-báⁿ (unmarked) 陰上 Ing-siō̤ng ˆ (â) 陰去 Ing-kṳ̍ ˈ (a̍) 陰入 Ing-ci̍h (unmarked) 陽平 Ió̤ng-báⁿ ́ (á) 陽去 Ió̤ng-kṳ̍ - (ā) 陽入 Ió̤ng-ci̍h ˈh (a̍h) 

IPA Puxian Min (Xinghua) Fuzhou

pʰ p p

tʰ t t

kʰ k k

p b b

t d d

k g g

tsʰ ch ch

ts c c

Tone 陰平 Ing-báⁿ 陰上 Ing-siō̤ng 陰去 Ing-kṳ̍ 陰入 Ing-ci̍h 陽平 Ió̤ng-báⁿ 陽去 Ió̤ng-kṳ̍ 陽入 Ió̤ng-ci̍h

Báⁿ-uā-ci̍ a â a̍ ah á ā a̍h

Pe̍h-ōe-jī a á à ah â ā a̍h

References[edit]

^ Puxian at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Pu-Xian Chinese". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Henghua". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Xinghua". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-LYSX201301010.htm ^ http://www.taiwanus.net/church/index3/201105272034221335.htm ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-06-21. Retrieved 2015-06-19.  ^ http://baike.baidu.com/view/909013.htm ^ 李如龍、陳章太:《論閩方言內部的主要差異》,《閩語硏究》 pg 58-138. 北京:語文出版社, 1991.

External links[edit]

Pu-Xian Min
Pu-Xian Min
test of at Wikimedia Incubator

Pu-Xian Min
Pu-Xian Min
test of Wiktionary
Wiktionary
at Wikimedia Incubator

Pu-Xian Min
Pu-Xian Min
repository of Wikisource, the free library

Motoki Makajima, Conversational Texts in Two Min Dialects, 1979

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