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The Puritans
Puritans
were English Reformed
Reformed
Protestants
Protestants
in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England
Church of England
from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England
Church of England
was only partially reformed.[1]

Contents

1 Overview 2 Terminology

2.1 The Godly 2.2 Puritans
Puritans
and Separatists 2.3 Puritans
Puritans
and Killjoys

3 Summary history

3.1 Elizabethan Puritanism 3.2 Jacobean Puritanism 3.3 Fragmentation and political failure 3.4 Great Ejection
Great Ejection
and Dissenters

4 Beliefs

4.1 Calvinism 4.2 Diversity 4.3 Demonology 4.4 Millennialism

5 Cultural consequences

5.1 Early science

6 Family life 7 New England
New England
Puritans

7.1 Education 7.2 Behavioral regulations 7.3 Opposition to other religious views 7.4 The Puritan spirit in the United States

8 Historiography 9 Notable Puritans 10 See also 11 Footnotes 12 Further reading

Overview[edit]

A Catalogue of the Severall Sects and Opinions in England and other Nations: With a briefe Rehearsall of their false and dangerous Tenents, a propaganda broadsheet denouncing English dissenters from 1647.

Puritanism in this sense was founded as an activist movement within the Church of England. The founders, clergy exiled under Mary I, returned to England shortly after the accession of Elizabeth I of England in 1558. Puritanism played a significant role in English history during the first half of the 17th century. One of the most effective stokers of anti-Catholic feeling was John Pym, whose movement succeeded in taking control of the government of London at the time of the Grand Remonstrance of 1641. Puritans
Puritans
were blocked from changing the established church from within and were severely restricted in England by laws controlling the practice of religion. Their beliefs, however, were transported by the emigration of congregations to the Netherlands, and later to New England in North America, and by evangelical clergy to Ireland
Ireland
(and later to Wales), and were spread into lay society and parts of the educational system, particularly certain colleges of the University of Cambridge. They took on distinctive beliefs about clerical dress and in opposition to the episcopal system, particularly after the 1619 conclusions of the Synod of Dort
Synod of Dort
were resisted by the English bishops. They largely adopted Sabbatarianism in the 17th century, and were influenced by millennialism. The Puritans
Puritans
were in alliance with the growing commercial world, with the parliamentary opposition to the royal prerogative, and with the Scottish Presbyterians in the late 1630s with whom they had much in common. Consequently, they became a major political force in England and came to power as a result of the First English Civil War (1642–46). Almost all Puritan clergy left the Church of England after the Restoration of 1660 and the 1662 Uniformity Act, with many continuing to practice their faith in nonconformist denominations, especially in Congregationalist, as well as in Presbyterian churches.[2] The nature of the movement in England changed radically, although it retained its character for a much longer period in New England. Puritans
Puritans
by definition were dissatisfied with the limited extent of the English Reformation
English Reformation
and with the Church of England's tolerance of practices which they associated with the Catholic Church. They formed and identified with various religious groups advocating greater purity of worship and doctrine, as well as personal and group piety. Puritans adopted a Reformed
Reformed
theology and, in that sense, were Calvinists
Calvinists
(as were many of their earlier opponents), but they also took note of radical criticisms of Zwingli in Zurich and Calvin in Geneva. In church polity, some advocated separation from all other established Christian denominations in favour of autonomous gathered churches. These separatist and independent strands of Puritanism became prominent in the 1640s, when the supporters of a Presbyterian
Presbyterian
polity in the Westminster Assembly
Westminster Assembly
were unable to forge a new English national church. The Puritans
Puritans
were never a formally defined sect or religious division within Protestantism, and the term "Puritan" itself was rarely used to describe people after the turn of the 18th century. Some Puritan ideals became incorporated into the Church of England, such as the formal rejection of Roman Catholicism; some were absorbed into the many Protestant
Protestant
denominations that emerged in the late 17th and early 18th centuries in the Americas and Britain. The Congregationalist Churches, widely considered to be a part of the Reformed
Reformed
tradition, are descended from the Puritans.[3][4] Moreover, Puritan beliefs are enshrined in the Savoy Declaration, the confession of faith held by the Congregationalist Churches, which they originated.[5] Terminology[edit]

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Protestantism

Topics

Reformation Great Awakenings History Culture Demographics Persecution Criticism

Major branches

Adventism Anabaptism Anglicanism Baptist
Baptist
churches Calvinism Lutheranism Methodism Pentecostalism

Minor branches

Hussitism Waldensianism Plymouth Brethren Holiness movement Quakerism Multiple others

Interdenominational movements

Evangelicalism Charismatic movement Neo-charismatic movement

Other developments

Arminianism Pietism Puritanism Neo-orthodoxy Paleo-orthodoxy Christian fundamentalism Modernism and liberalism

Related movements

Nondenominational churches House churches

v t e

Main article: Definitions of Puritanism Historically, the word "Puritan" was considered a pejorative term that characterized Protestant
Protestant
groups as extremists, similar to the Cathars of France. According to Thomas Fuller
Thomas Fuller
in his Church History, the term dates to 1564. Archbishop Matthew Parker
Matthew Parker
of that time used it and "precisian" with the sense of the modern "stickler".[6] In modern times, the word "puritan" is often used to mean "against pleasure".[7] The "Puritan" movement referred to the desire and goal of purifying the Church of England
Church of England
and Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Church from within, in contrast to "Separatists" such as the Pilgrims, who believed that the established churches could not be reformed and the only hope was to set up separate churches. In this sense, the term "Puritan" was coined in the 1560s, when it first appeared as a term of abuse for those who found the Elizabethan Religious Settlement
Elizabethan Religious Settlement
of 1559 inadequate. The term Puritan, therefore, was not intended to refer to strict morality, a common modern misunderstanding, but to a reforming attitude towards established churches. The Godly[edit] The word "Puritan" was applied unevenly to a number of Protestant churches (and religious groups within the Anglican Church) from the late 16th century onwards. Puritans
Puritans
did not originally use the term for themselves. The practitioners knew themselves as members of particular churches or movements, and not by a single term. "Precise men" and "Precisians" were other early derogatory terms for Puritans, who preferred to call themselves "the godly" and the "saints". Seventeenth century English Puritan preacher Thomas Watson used "the godly" to describe Puritans
Puritans
in the title of one of his more famous works The Godly Man's Picture. The parliament that came into being on 4 July 1653, after a request by Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
and the Army Council of Offices was known by its supporters as the Parliament of Saints
Parliament of Saints
and the Barebones Parliament by its Royalist detractors. Puritans
Puritans
and Separatists[edit] Further information: English Dissenters Some Puritans
Puritans
are known as "non-separating Puritans," those who were not satisfied with the Reformation
Reformation
of the Church of England
Church of England
but who remained within it, advocating further reforms. This group disagreed among themselves about how much further reformation was possible or even necessary. Others thought that the Church of England
Church of England
was so corrupt that true Christians should separate from it altogether; they are known as "separating Puritans" or simply "Separatists". The term "Puritan" in the wider sense includes both groups.[8][9] Separatists had no particular Church title. The Mayflower
Mayflower
Pilgrims[10] were referred to only as Separatists.[11] Plymouth Colony
Plymouth Colony
leaders John Robinson and William Brewster were separatists.[12][13] In contrast, John Winthrop
John Winthrop
and the other main leaders of Puritan emigration to New England
New England
in 1629 were non-separating Puritans.[14] There is no current consensus among modern historians whether Separatists can properly be counted as Puritans,[15] but separatists and non-separatists alike have traditionally been viewed as two branches of the Puritan view. Separating Puritans
Puritans
were called "Dissenters," especially after the English Restoration
English Restoration
of 1660. The 1662 Uniformity Act
1662 Uniformity Act
caused almost all Puritan clergy to leave the Church of England, the so-called Great Ejection or Black Bartholomew's Day (see below). They were removed in part because they objected to a Church ruled by bishops and the requirement that all ministers of the Church of England
Church of England
(deacons, priests and bishops) be ordained by bishops in the Apostolic Succession. Some of these 2,000 "ejected" clergymen became nonconformist ministers (later Congregationalists, Baptists, Unitarians, Presbyterians, etc.). The movement in England changed radically at this time, though this change was not as immediate across the Atlantic (see History of the Puritans
History of the Puritans
in North America). Puritans
Puritans
and Killjoys[edit] In modern usage, the word "puritan" is often used to describe someone who adheres to strict, joyless moral or religious principles. In this usage, hedonism and puritanism are antonyms.[7] In fact, Puritans embraced sexuality but placed it in the context of marriage. Peter Gay writes of the Puritans' standard reputation for "dour prudery" as a "misreading that went unquestioned in the nineteenth century", commenting how unpuritanical they were in favour of married sexuality, and in opposition to the Catholic veneration of virginity, citing Edward Taylor and John Cotton.[16] One Puritan settlement in Western Massachusetts banished a husband and sent him into exile because he refused to fulfill his marital duties to his wife.[17] Summary history[edit]

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Puritans

The Puritan (1887), a statue in Springfield, Massachusetts
Springfield, Massachusetts
by Augustus Saint-Gaudens

Background

Christianity Protestantism Reformation English Reformation Calvinism Anglicanism Arminianism Arminianism
Arminianism
in the Church of England English Dissenters Independents Nonconformism English Presbyterianism Ecclesiastical separatism 17th-century denominations in England

Crucial themes

Definitions of Puritanism Impropriation Puritan Sabbatarianism Millennialism Puritan choir Puritan work ethic Merton thesis

History

under Queen Elizabeth I under King James I under King Charles I Cromwellian era and after in North America

England

Scrooby Congregation Trial of Archbishop Laud Marian exiles Vestments controversy Martin Marprelate Millenary Petition Grand Remonstrance English Civil War English Restoration Act of Uniformity 1662 Great Ejection Westminster Confession of Faith Elizabethan Religious Settlement

America

Providence Island Company Massachusetts Bay Colony Salem witch trials immigration to New England culture in New England Christmas
Christmas
prohibition American exceptionalism

Elsewhere

Troubles at Frankfurt

Notable individuals

Peter Bulkley John Bunyan William Bradford Anne Bradstreet John Cotton Oliver Cromwell John Endecott Jonathan Edwards Anne Hutchinson Cotton Mather Increase Mather James Noyes Thomas Parker Roger Williams John Winthrop Robert Woodford

Works

The Godly Man's Picture The Pilgrim's Progress Paradise Lost Foxe's Book of Martyrs

Continuing movements

Congregational churches
Congregational churches
(U.S.) other Reformed
Reformed
churches Reformed
Reformed
Baptists Nondenominational Protestants Unitarian Universalism

v t e

Main article: History of the Puritans Puritanism has a historical importance over a period of a century, followed by 50 years of development in New England. It changed character and emphasis almost decade-by-decade over that time. Elizabethan Puritanism[edit] Further information: History of the Puritans
History of the Puritans
under Elizabeth I Elizabethan Puritanism contended with the Elizabethan religious settlement, with little to show for it. The Lambeth Articles of 1595, a high-water mark for Calvinism
Calvinism
within the Church of England, failed to receive royal approval. Jacobean Puritanism[edit] Further information: History of the Puritans
History of the Puritans
under James I The accession of James I brought the Millenary Petition, a Puritan manifesto of 1603 for reform of the English church, but James wanted a new religious settlement along different lines. He called the Hampton Court Conference in 1604, and heard the teachings of four prominent Puritan leaders there, including Laurence Chaderton, but largely sided with his bishops. He was well informed on theological matters by his education and Scottish upbringing, and he dealt shortly with the peevish legacy of Elizabethan Puritanism, pursuing an eirenic religious policy, in which he was arbiter. Many of his episcopal appointments were Calvinists, notably James Montague, who was an influential courtier. Puritans
Puritans
still opposed much of the Catholic summation in the Church of England, notably the Book of Common Prayer, but also the use of non-secular vestments (cap and gown) during services, the sign of the Cross in baptism, and kneeling to receive Holy Communion.[18] Some of the bishops under both Elizabeth and James tried to suppress the Puritan Movement, though other bishops were more tolerant and, in many places, individual ministers were able to omit disliked portions of the Book of Common Prayer. The Puritan movement of Jacobean times became distinctive by adaptation and compromise, with the emergence of "semi-separatism," "moderate puritanism," the writings of William Bradshaw, who adopted the term "Puritan" as self-identification, and the beginnings of congregationalism.[19] Most Puritans
Puritans
of this period were non-separating and remained within the Church of England, and Separatists who left the Church of England
Church of England
altogether were numerically much fewer. Fragmentation and political failure[edit] Further information: History of the Puritans
History of the Puritans
from 1649

The Westminster Assembly
Westminster Assembly
in a Victorian history painting by John Rogers Herbert.

The Puritan movement in England was riven over decades by emigration and inconsistent interpretations of Scripture, as well as some political differences that surfaced at that time. The Fifth Monarchy Men, a radical millenarian wing of Puritanism, aided by strident, popular clergy like Vavasor Powell, agitated from the right wing of the movement, even as sectarian groups like the Ranters, Levellers, and Quakers
Quakers
pulled from the left.[20][21] The fragmentation created a collapse of the centre and, ultimately, sealed a political failure, while depositing an enduring spiritual legacy that would remain and grow in English-speaking Christianity.[22] The Westminster Assembly
Westminster Assembly
was called in 1643, assembling clergy of the Church of England. The Assembly was able to agree to the Westminster Confession of Faith doctrinally, a consistent Reformed
Reformed
theological position. The Directory of Public Worship
Worship
was made official in 1645, and the larger framework (now called the Westminster Standards) was adopted by the Church of Scotland. In England, the Standards were contested by Independents up to 1660.[23] The Westminster Divines, on the other hand, were divided over questions of church polity and split into factions supporting a reformed episcopacy, presbyterianism, congregationalism, and Erastianism. The membership of the Assembly was heavily weighted towards the Presbyterians, but Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
was a Puritan and an independent Congregationalist separatist who imposed his doctrines upon them. The Church of England
Church of England
of the Interregnum (1649–60)
Interregnum (1649–60)
was run along Presbyterian
Presbyterian
lines but never became a national Presbyterian church, such as existed in Scotland, and England was not the theocratic state which leading Puritans
Puritans
had called for as "godly rule".[24]

Great Ejection
Great Ejection
and Dissenters[edit] Further information: History of the Puritans
History of the Puritans
from 1649 At the time of the English Restoration
English Restoration
in 1660, the Savoy Conference was called to determine a new religious settlement for England and Wales. Under the Act of Uniformity 1662, the Church of England
Church of England
was restored to its pre-Civil War constitution with only minor changes, and the Puritans
Puritans
found themselves sidelined. A traditional estimate of historian Calamy is that around 2,400 Puritan clergy left the Church in the "Great Ejection" of 1662.[25] At this point, the term "Dissenter" came to include "Puritan," but more accurately described those (clergy or lay) who "dissented" from the 1662 Book of Common Prayer.[citation needed] The Dissenters divided themselves from all Christians in the Church of England and established their own separatist congregations in the 1660s and 1670s. An estimated 1,800 of the ejected clergy continued in some fashion as ministers of religion, according to Richard Baxter.[25] The government initially attempted to suppress these schismatic organisations by using the Clarendon Code. There followed a period in which schemes of "comprehension" were proposed, under which Presbyterians could be brought back into the Church of England, but nothing resulted from them. The Whigs opposed the court religious policies and argued that the Dissenters should be allowed to worship separately from the established Church, and this position ultimately prevailed when the Toleration Act was passed in the wake of the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
in 1689. This permitted the licensing of Dissenting ministers and the building of chapels. The term "Nonconformist" generally replaced the term "Dissenter" from the middle of the 18th century. Beliefs[edit] Calvinism[edit]

Part of a series on

Calvinism

John Calvin

Background

Christianity St. Augustine The Reformation Five Solas Synod of Dort

Theology

Theology of John Calvin Covenant theology Lord's Supper Regulative principle Predestination in Calvinism

Documents

Institutes of the Christian Religion Geneva Bible Three Forms of Unity Westminster Standards Canons of Dort Second Helvetic Confession Heidelberg Catechism Belgic Confession La Rochelle Confession Savoy Declaration 1689 Baptist
Baptist
Confession of Faith First Helvetic Confession Scots Confession

Influences

Huldrych Zwingli Martin Bucer Peter Martyr Vermigli William Farel Heinrich Bullinger John Calvin John Knox Theodore Beza Francis Turretin Jonathan Edwards Charles Hodge

Churches

Continental Reformed Presbyterian Congregationalist Reformed
Reformed
Baptist Low church
Low church
Anglican

Peoples

Afrikaners Huguenots Pilgrims Puritans

Largest groups

World Communion of Reformed
Reformed
Churches World Reformed
Reformed
Fellowship International Conference of Reformed
Reformed
Churches North American Presbyterian
Presbyterian
and Reformed
Reformed
Council Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
in South Korea List of Reformed
Reformed
denominations

Calvinism
Calvinism
portal

v t e

The idea of personal Biblical interpretation through the Holy Spirit was central to Puritan beliefs, though it was shared with most Protestants
Protestants
in general at that time. Puritans
Puritans
sought both individual and corporate conformity to the teaching of the Bible, with moral purity pursued down to the smallest detail, as well as ecclesiastical purity to the highest level. They believed that man existed for the glory of God, that his first concern in life was to do God's will and so to receive future happiness. They believed that Jesus
Jesus
Christ was the center of public and personal affairs, and was to be exalted above all other names.[26] The Puritans
Puritans
also believed in limited atonement (the belief that God only chose a select number of people called the elect to be saved) and irresistible grace (the elect could not resist His salvation). The Puritans
Puritans
also thought that their religion was the only way to Heaven.[27] Diversity[edit] Various strands of Calvinistic theology in the 17th century were taken up by different parts of the Puritan movement and, in particular, Amyraldism
Amyraldism
was adopted by some influential figures, including John Davenant, Samuel Ward and, to some extent, Richard Baxter. In the same fashion, there is no theory of church polity that is uniquely Puritan, and ideology differed beyond opposition to Erastianism
Erastianism
(state control), though even that had its small group of supporters in the Westminster Assembly. Some approved of the existing church hierarchy with bishops, but others sought to reform the Episcopal churches on the Presbyterian
Presbyterian
model. Some Separatist Puritans
Puritans
were Presbyterian, but most were early Congregationalists. The separating Congregationalists believed that the Divine Right of Kings
Divine Right of Kings
was heresy but, on the other hand, there were many royalist Presbyterians, in terms of allegiance in the political struggle. Migration also brought out differences and brought together Puritan communities with their own regional customs and beliefs. The New World Puritans' policies of church governance diverged from those remaining in the British Isles, who faced different issues.[28] Demonology[edit] Puritans
Puritans
believed in the active existence of demonic forces, as did almost all Christians of this period. Puritan pastors undertook exorcisms for demonic possession in some high-profile cases, and believed in some allegations of witchcraft. Exorcist John Darrell was supported by Arthur Hildersham
Arthur Hildersham
in the case of Thomas Darling.[29] Samuel Harsnett, a skeptic on witchcraft and possession, attacked Darrell. However, Harsnett was in the minority, and many clergy, not only Puritans, believed in witchcraft and possession.[30] The possession case of Richard Dugdale was taken up by ejected nonconformist Thomas Jollie
Thomas Jollie
and other local ministers in 1689. The context of the Salem witch trials
Salem witch trials
of 1692–93 shows the intricacy of trying to place "Puritan" beliefs as distinctive. The publication of Saducismus Triumphatus, an anti-skeptical tract that has been implicated in the moral panic at Salem, involved Joseph Glanvill
Joseph Glanvill
(a latitudinarian) and Henry More
Henry More
(a Cambridge Platonist) as editors, and Anthony Horneck, an evangelical German Anglican, as translator of a pamphlet about a Swedish witch hunt. None of these was a Puritan. Glanvill and More had been vehemently opposed in the 1670s by sceptic John Webster, an Independent and sometime chaplain to the Parliamentary forces. Millennialism[edit] Puritan millennialism has been placed in the broader context of European Reformed
Reformed
beliefs about the millennium and interpretation of Biblical prophecy, for which representative figures of the period were Johannes Piscator, Thomas Brightman, Joseph Mede, Johannes Heinrich Alsted, and John Amos Comenius.[31] Both Brightman and Mede were Puritan by conviction, and so are identified as such by their biographers, though neither clashed with the church authorities. David Brady describes a "lull before the storm" in the early 17th century, in which "reasonably restrained and systematic" Protestant
Protestant
exegesis of the Book of Revelation
Book of Revelation
was seen with Brightman, Mede, and Hugh Broughton, after which "apocalyptic literature became too easily debased" as it became more populist and less scholarly.[32] William Lamont argues that, within the church, the Elizabethan millennial beliefs of John Foxe became sidelined, with Puritans adopting instead the "centrifugal" doctrines of Thomas Brightman, while the Laudians replaced the "centripetal" attitude of Foxe to the "Christian Emperor" by the national and episcopal Church closer to home, with its royal head, as leading the Protestant
Protestant
world iure divino (by divine right).[33] Viggo Norskov Olsen writes[34] that Mede "broke fully away from the Augustinian-Foxian tradition, and is the link between Brightman and the premillennialism of the 17th century". The dam broke in 1641 when the traditional retrospective reverence for Thomas Cranmer
Thomas Cranmer
and other martyred bishops in the Acts and Monuments was displaced by forward-looking attitudes to prophecy among radical Puritans.[33] Cultural consequences[edit]

Pilgrims Going to Church
Pilgrims Going to Church
by George Henry Boughton
George Henry Boughton
(1867)

Further information: New England
New England
Puritan culture and recreation Some strong religious beliefs common to Puritans
Puritans
had direct impacts on culture. Education was essential to the masses so that they could read the Bible
Bible
for themselves. The opposition to acting as public performance, typified by William Prynne's book Histriomastix, was not a concern with drama as a form. John Milton
John Milton
wrote Samson Agonistes
Samson Agonistes
as verse drama, and had contemplated writing Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
in that form at an early stage. N.H. Keeble writes:

...when Milton essayed drama, it was with explicit Pauline authority and neither intended for the stage nor in the manner of the contemporary theatre.

But the sexualisation of Restoration theatre was attacked as strongly as ever by Thomas Gouge, as Keeble points out.[35] Puritans
Puritans
eliminated the use of musical instruments in their religious services for theological and practical reasons. The only music remaining in church services was the setting of the psalms. Church organs were commonly damaged or destroyed in the Civil War period, such as when an axe was taken to the organ of Worcester Cathedral
Worcester Cathedral
in 1642.[36] Early science[edit] The Merton Thesis is an argument about the nature of early experimental science proposed by Robert K. Merton. Similar to Max Weber's famous claim on the link between Protestant
Protestant
ethic and the capitalist economy, Merton argued for a similar positive correlation between the rise of Protestant
Protestant
Pietism
Pietism
in Germany and as well English Puritanism and early experimental science.[37] The Merton Thesis has resulted in continuous debates.[38] As an example, seven of 10 nucleus members of the Royal Society
Royal Society
were Puritans. In the year 1663 sixty-two percent of the members of the Royal Society
Royal Society
were similarly identified.[39] Family life[edit]

The Snake in the Grass or Satan Transform'd to an Angel of Light, title page engraved by Richard Gaywood, ca. 1660

Based on Biblical portrayals of Adam and Eve, Puritans
Puritans
believed that marriage was rooted in procreation, love, and, most importantly, salvation.[40] Husbands were the spiritual heads of the household, while women were to demonstrate religious piety and obedience under male authority.[41] Furthermore, marriage represented not only the relationship between husband and wife, but also the relationship between spouses and God. Puritan husbands commanded authority through family direction and prayer. The female relationship to her husband and to God was marked by submissiveness and humility.[42] Thomas Gataker
Thomas Gataker
describes Puritan marriage as:

... together for a time as copartners in grace here, [that] they may reigne together forever as coheires in glory hereafter.[43]

The paradox created by female inferiority in the public sphere and the spiritual equality of men and women in marriage, then, gave way to the informal authority of women concerning matters of the home and childrearing.[44] With the consent of their husbands, wives made important decisions concerning the labour of their children, property, and the management of inns and taverns owned by their husbands.[45] Pious Puritan mothers laboured for their children's righteousness and salvation, connecting women directly to matters of religion and morality.[46] In her poem titled "In Reference to her Children," poet Anne Bradstreet
Anne Bradstreet
reflects on her role as a mother:

I had eight birds hatched in one nest; Four cocks there were, and hens the rest. I nursed them up with pain and care, Nor cost nor labour I did spare.

Bradstreet alludes to the temporality of motherhood by comparing her children to a flock of birds on the precipice of leaving home. While Puritans
Puritans
praised the obedience of young children, they also believed that, by separating children from their mothers at adolescence, children could better sustain a superior relationship with God.[47] A child could only be redeemed through religious education and obedience. Girls carried the additional burden of Eve's corruption and were catechised separately from boys at adolescence. Boys' education prepared them for vocations and leadership roles, while girls were educated for domestic and religious purposes. The pinnacle of achievement for children in Puritan society, however, occurred with the conversion process.[46] Puritans
Puritans
viewed the relationship between master and servant similarly to that of parent and child. Just as parents were expected to uphold Puritan religious values in the home, masters assumed the parental responsibility of housing and educating young servants. Older servants also dwelt with masters and were cared for in the event of illness or injury. African-American and Indian servants were likely excluded from such benefits.[48] New England
New England
Puritans[edit]

Interior of the Old Ship Church, a Puritan meetinghouse in Hingham, Massachusetts. Puritans
Puritans
were Calvinists, therefore coherently with their values they kept their churches unadorned and plain. It is the oldest building in continuous ecclesiastical use in America and today serves a Unitarian Universalist
Unitarian Universalist
congregation.

Puritans
Puritans
left for New England, particularly in the years after 1630, supporting the founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
Massachusetts Bay Colony
and other settlements among the northern colonies. The large-scale Puritan emigration to New England
New England
ceased by 1641, with around 21,000 having moved across the Atlantic. This English-speaking population in America did not all consist of original colonists, since many returned to England shortly after arriving on the continent, but it produced more than 16 million descendants.[49][50] This so-called "Great Migration" is not so named because of sheer numbers, which were much less than the number of English citizens who emigrated to Virginia
Virginia
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
during this time.[51] The rapid growth of the New England colonies (around 700,000 by 1790) was almost entirely due to the high birth rate and lower death rate per year.[52] Puritan hegemony lasted for at least a century. That century can be broken down into three parts: the generation of John Cotton and Richard Mather, 1630–61 from the founding to the Restoration, years of virtual independence and nearly autonomous development; the generation of Increase Mather, 1662–89 from the Restoration and the Halfway Covenant to the Glorious Revolution, years of struggle with the British crown; and the generation of Cotton Mather, 1689–1728 from the overthrow of Edmund Andros
Edmund Andros
(in which Cotton Mather
Cotton Mather
played a part) and the new charter, mediated by Increase Mather, to the death of Cotton Mather.[53] Education[edit]

Cotton Mather, influential New England
New England
Puritan minister, portrait by Peter Pelham.

The Puritans
Puritans
were well prepared and well born; among their number was landed gentry and educated aristocrats. In the area of education, New England differed from its mother country, where nothing in English statute required schoolmasters or the literacy of children. The Puritan model of education in New England
New England
was unique, with the possible exception of Scotland. John Winthrop
John Winthrop
claimed in 1630 that the society which they would form in New England
New England
would be "as a city upon a hill,"[54] and the colony leaders would educate all. These were men of letters. Hampton's founder, the Reverend
Reverend
Stephen Bachiler, had graduated from Oxford, others had attended Cambridge. These men had communicated with intellectuals and aristocrats from all over Europe. In 1636, they founded the school that soon became Harvard College.[55] Besides the Bible, children needed to read to "understand ... the capital laws of this country," as the Massachusetts code declared, order being of the utmost importance, and children not taught to read would grow "barbarous" (the 1648 amendment to the Massachusetts law and the 1650 Connecticut code both used the word "barbarisme"). By the 1670s, all New England
New England
colonies except Rhode Island
Rhode Island
had passed legislation that mandated literacy for children. In 1647, Massachusetts passed a law that required towns to hire a schoolmaster to teach writing. Forms of schooling ranged from dame schools to "Latin" schools for boys already literate in English and ready to master preparatory grammar for Latin, Hebrew, and Greek. Reading schools were often the single source of education for girls, whereas boys would go to the town grammar schools. Gender largely determined educational practices; women introduced all children to reading, and men taught boys in higher pursuits. Latin grammar schools did not accept girls (nor did Harvard), since grammar schools were designed to "instruct youth so far as they may be fited for the university," and girls could play no role in the ministry. Most evidence suggests that girls could not attend the less ambitious town schools, the lower-tier writing-reading schools mandated for townships of over 50 families. Behavioral regulations[edit] Further information: Christmas
Christmas
in Puritan New England

1659 public notice in Boston
Boston
deeming Christmas
Christmas
illegal

In New England, the Puritans
Puritans
believed the Puritan controlled governments were obliged to support their own church, and expected the church to influence politics and social life.[56] The Plymouth Colony Puritans
Puritans
of New England
New England
disapproved of Christmas
Christmas
celebrations, as did some other Protestant
Protestant
churches of the time. Celebration was outlawed in Boston
Boston
from 1659.[57] The ban was revoked in 1681 by the English-appointed governor Edmund Andros, who also revoked a Puritan ban on festivities on Saturday nights.[57] Nevertheless, it was not until the mid-19th century that celebrating Christmas
Christmas
became more widely fashionable in the Boston
Boston
region.[58] Likewise, the colonies banned many secular entertainments on moral grounds, such as drama, dancing, card playing and gambling.[56][59] They were not, however, opposed to drinking alcohol in moderation.[60] Early New England
New England
laws banning the sale of alcohol to Native Americans were criticized because it was "not fit to deprive Indians of any lawful comfort aloweth to all men by the use of wine." Laws banned the practice of individuals toasting each other, with the explanation that it led to wasting God's gift of beer and wine, as well as being carnal. Bounds were not set on enjoying sexuality within the bounds of marriage, as a gift from God.[61] Spouses were disciplined if they did not perform their sexual marital duties, in accordance with 1 Corinthians 7 and other biblical passages. Women and men were equally expected to fulfill marital responsibilities.[62] Women and men could file for divorce based on this issue alone. In Massachusetts colony, which had some of the most liberal colonial divorce laws, one out of every six divorce petitions was filed on the basis on male impotence.[63] Puritans
Puritans
publicly punished drunkenness and sexual relations outside marriage.[56] Couples who had sex during their engagement were fined and publicly humiliated.[56] Men, and a handful of women, who engaged in homosexual behavior, were seen as especially sinful, with some executed.[56] Opposition to other religious views[edit]

Quaker
Quaker
Mary Dyer
Mary Dyer
led to execution on Boston
Boston
Common, 1 June 1660, by an unknown 19th century artist.

The Puritans
Puritans
expressed intolerable ideas to others of opposing religious ideas, including Quaker, Anglican and Baptist
Baptist
theologies. The Puritans
Puritans
of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
Massachusetts Bay Colony
were the most active of the New England
New England
persecutors of Quakers, and the persecuting spirit was shared by the Plymouth Colony
Plymouth Colony
and the colonies along the Connecticut river.[64] In 1660, one of the most notable victims of the religious intolerance was English Quaker
Quaker
Mary Dyer, who was hanged in Boston
Boston
for repeatedly defying a Puritan law banning Quakers
Quakers
from the colony.[64] She was one of the four executed Quakers
Quakers
known as the Boston
Boston
martyrs. The hanging of Dyer on Boston
Boston
Common marked the beginning of the end of the Puritan theocracy.[65] In 1661, King Charles II explicitly forbade Massachusetts from executing anyone for professing Quakerism.[65] In 1684, England revoked the Massachusetts charter, sent over a royal governor to enforce English laws in 1686 and, in 1689, passed a broad Toleration Act.[65] The first two of the four Boston
Boston
martyrs were executed by the Puritans on 27 October 1659, and in memory of this, 27 October is now International Religious Freedom Day to recognize the importance of freedom of religion.[66] Anti-Catholic
Anti-Catholic
sentiment appeared in New England with the first Pilgrim and Puritan settlers.[67] In 1647, Massachusetts passed a law prohibiting any Jesuit Roman Catholic priests from entering territory under Puritan jurisdiction.[68] Any suspected person who could not clear himself was to be banished from the colony; a second offense carried a death penalty.[69] The Puritan spirit in the United States[edit]

A copy of The Puritan, a late 19th-century sculpture by Augustus Saint-Gaudens.

Alexis de Tocqueville
Alexis de Tocqueville
suggested in Democracy in America
Democracy in America
that Puritanism was the very thing that provided a firm foundation for American democracy. As Sheldon Wolin puts it, "Tocqueville was aware of the harshness and bigotry of the early colonists". However, on the other hand, he saw them as "archaic survivals, not only in their piety and discipline but in their democratic practices".[70] The theme of a religious basis of economic discipline is echoed in sociologist Max Weber's work, but both de Tocqueville and Weber argued that this discipline was not a force of economic determinism, but one factor among many that should be considered when evaluating the relative economic success of the Puritans. Historiography[edit] The literature on Puritans, particularly biographical literature on individual Puritan ministers, was already voluminous in the 17th century and, indeed, the interests of Puritans
Puritans
in the narratives of early life and conversions made the recording of the internal lives important to them. The historical literature on Puritans
Puritans
is, however, quite problematic and subject to controversies over interpretation. The early writings are those of the defeated, excluded and victims. The great interest of authors of the 19th century in Puritan figures was routinely accused in the 20th century of consisting of anachronism and the reading back of contemporary concerns. A debate continues on the definition of "Puritanism".[71] English historian Patrick Collinson believes that "Puritanism had no content beyond what was attributed to it by its opponents."[72] The analysis of "mainstream Puritanism" in terms of the evolution from it of Separatist and antinomian groups that did not flourish, and others that continue to this day, such as Baptists
Baptists
and Quakers, can suffer in this way. The national context (England and Wales, as well as the kingdoms of Scotland and Ireland) frames the definition of Puritans, but was not a self-identification for those Protestants
Protestants
who saw the progress of the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
from 1620 as directly bearing on their denomination, and as a continuation of the religious wars of the previous century, carried on by the English Civil Wars. English historian Christopher Hill, who has contributed to analyses of Puritan concerns that are more respected than accepted, writes of the 1630s, old church lands, and the accusations that William Laud
William Laud
was a crypto-Catholic:

To the heightened Puritan imagination it seemed that, all over Europe, the lamps were going out: the Counter- Reformation
Reformation
was winning back property for the church as well as souls: and Charles I and his government, if not allied to the forces of the Counter-Reformation, at least appeared to have set themselves identical economic and political objectives.[73]

Puritans
Puritans
were politically important in England, but it is debated whether the movement was in any way a party with policies and leaders before the early 1640s. While Puritanism in New England
New England
was important culturally for a group of colonial pioneers in America, there have been many studies trying to pin down exactly what the identifiable cultural component was. Fundamentally, historians remain dissatisfied with the grouping as "Puritan" as a working concept for historical explanation. The conception of a Protestant
Protestant
work ethic, identified more closely with Calvinist or Puritan principles, has been criticised at its root,[by whom?] mainly as a post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy aligning economic success with a narrow religious scheme. Notable Puritans[edit]

Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland

Peter Bulkley was an influential Puritan minister and founder of Concord. John Bunyan, famous for The Pilgrim's Progress William Bradford was Plymouth Colony's Governor. Anne Bradstreet
Anne Bradstreet
was the first female to have her works published in the British North American colonies. Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
was an English military and political leader and eventually became Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland. He was a very religious man and was considered an independent Puritan. John Endecott
John Endecott
was the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and an important military leader. Jonathan Edwards, evangelical preacher who sparked the First Great Awakening Anne Hutchinson
Anne Hutchinson
was a Puritan woman noted for speaking freely about her religious views, which resulted in her banishment from Massachusetts Bay Colony. James Noyes
James Noyes
was an influential Puritan minister, teacher and founder of Newbury. Thomas Parker was an influential Puritan minister, teacher and founder of Newbury. John Winthrop
John Winthrop
is noted for his sermon "A Model of Christian Charity" and as a leading figure in founding the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Robert Woodford was an English lawyer, largely based at Northampton and London. His diary for the period 1637-1641 records in detail the outlook of an educated Puritan.

See also[edit]

Calvinism
Calvinism
portal Anglicanism
Anglicanism
portal Christianity
Christianity
portal History portal Religion portal

Church covenant Independents List of Puritans Plymouth Rock Salem witch trials Separatists Work ethic

Footnotes[edit]

^ Julie Spraggon (2003). "Puritan Iconoclasm During the English Civil War". p. 98. Boydell Press ^ Cliffe, Trevor (11 September 2002). Puritan Gentry Besieged 1650–1700. Routledge. p. 195. ISBN 9781134918157.  ^ Miller, Randall M. (30 December 2008). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Daily Life in America. ABC-CLIO. p. 296. ISBN 9780313065361. Congregationalists were theologically descended directly from the Puritans
Puritans
of England and consequently enjoyed pride of place as one of the oldest, most numerous, and most significant religious groups in the colonies.  ^ Archpriest John W. Morris (2011). "The Historic Church: An Orthodox View of Christian History". p. 438. Author House ^ Puritans
Puritans
and Puritanism in Europe and America. ABC-CLIO. 2006. p. 534. ISBN 9781576076781.  ^ "Puritanism (Lat. purit... – Online Information article about Puritanism (Lat. purit". Encyclopedia.jrank.org. Archived from the original on 9 December 2010. Retrieved 21 August 2010.  ^ a b H. L. Mencken, "Puritanism: The haunting fear that someone, somewhere, may be happy", from A Book of Burlesques (1916), being a classic rendering. ^ C. Jack Trickler (4 February 2010). A Layman's Guide To: Why Are There So Many Christian Denominations?. AuthorHouse. p. 146. ISBN 978-1-4490-4578-4. Archived from the original on 18 July 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2012.  ^ Geoffrey F. Nuttall (15 July 1992). The Holy Spirit in Puritan Faith and Experience. University of Chicago Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-226-60941-6. Archived from the original on 27 June 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2012.  ^ That is, those passengers on the Mayflower
Mayflower
who were emigrating for the purpose of escaping religious persecution in England, as distinct from "the adventurers" who joined them through different motives. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620–1691, (Salt Lake City: Ancestry Publishing, 1986), p. 17 ^ Sprunger, Keith L. "Robinson, John". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/23847.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ Thompson, Roger. "Brewster, William". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/3376.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ Michael G. Hall (1 April 1988). The Last American Puritan: The Life of Increase Mather, 1639–1723. Wesleyan University Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-8195-6238-8. Archived from the original on 29 June 2016. Retrieved 4 November 2012.  ^ Francis J. Bremer; Tom Webster (2006). Puritans
Puritans
and Puritanism in Europe and America: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-57607-678-1. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2012.  ^ Gay, Peter (1984), The Bourgeois Experience: The Tender Passion, W. W. Norton & Company, p. 49, ISBN 9780393319033, archived from the original on 2 January 2017  ^ Coffin, Charles (1987), The Story of Liberty: So You Will Comprehend What Liberty Has Cost, and What It Is Worth, Maranatha Publications, ISBN 093855820X  ^ Neil (1844), p. 246 Archived 4 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ John Spurr, English Puritanism, 1603–1689 (1998), Chapter 5. ^ Milton, Michael A. (1997). The Application of the Faith of the Westminster Assembly
Westminster Assembly
in the Ministry of the Welsh Puritan, Vavasor Powell (1617–1670) (Ph.D.). University of Wales.  ^ Hill, Christopher (1972). The World Turned Upside Down; Radical Ideas During the English Revolution (Print). Viking.  ^ Kelly, Douglas F. (1992). The Emergence of Liberty in the Modern World: The Influence of Calvin on Five Governments from the 16th Through 18th Centuries (Print). P&R.  ^ Robert Benedetto; Donald K. McKim (2010). Historical Dictionary of the Reformed
Reformed
Churches. Scarecrow Press. pp. 521–2. ISBN 978-0-8108-5807-7. Archived from the original on 18 July 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2012.  ^ William M. Lamont, Godly Rule: Politics and Religion 1603–60 (1969). ^ a b  Lee, Sidney, ed. (1897). "Calamy, Edmund (1671–1732)". Dictionary of National Biography. 51. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 63–65.  ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot (1972). The Oxford History of the American People. New York City: Mentor. p. 102. ISBN 0-451-62600-1.  ^ Flynn, John (1970). The Influence of Puritanism. Port Washington, New York: Kennikat Press. p. 95.  ^ Charlotte Gordon, Mistress Bradstreet (2005), p. 86 and p. 225. ^ Francis J. Bremer, Tom Webster, Puritans
Puritans
and Puritanism in Europe and America: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia (2006), p. 584. ^  "Scott, Reginald". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.  ^ Howard Hotson, Paradise Postponed: Johann Heinrich Alsted and the Birth of Calvinist Millenarianism (2001), p. 173. ^ David Brady, The Contribution of British Writers Between 1560 and 1830 to the Interpretation of Revelation 13.16–18 (1983), p. 58. ^ a b William M. Lamont, Godly Rule: Politics and Religion 1603–60 (1969), p. 25, 36, 59, 67, 78. ^ Viggo Norskov Olsen, John Foxe and the Elizabethan Church (1973), p. 84. ^ N. H. Keeble, The Literary Culture of Nonconformity in Later Seventeenth-Century England (1987), p. 153. ^ " Worcester Cathedral
Worcester Cathedral
welcomes you to their Website". Worcestercathedral.co.uk. 20 February 2010. Archived from the original on 23 August 2010. Retrieved 21 August 2010.  ^ Sztompka, 2003 ^ Cohen, 1990 ^ Harrison, Peter (26 July 2001). The Bible, Protestantism, and the Rise of Natural Science. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521000963. Archived from the original on 2 January 2017.  ^ Porterfield, Amanda (1992). Female Piety in Puritan New England
New England
the Emergence of Religious Humanism. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 82.  ^ Norton, Mary Beth (2011). Separated by Their Sex: Women in Public and Private in the Colonial Atlantic World. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. p. 91.  ^ Porterfield, Amanda (1992). Female Piety in Puritan New England
New England
the Emergence of Religious Humanism. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 81.  ^ Johnson, James Turner (1970). A Society Ordained by God. Nashville: Abingdon Press. p. 93.  ^ Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher (1976). "Vertuous Women Found: New England Ministerial Literature, 1668–1735". American Quarterly. 28.1: 37. doi:10.2307/2712475.  ^ Demos, John (1970). A Little Commonwealth; Family Life in Plymouth Colony. New York: Oxford University Press.  ^ a b Saxton, Martha (2003). Being Good: Women's Moral Values in Early America. New York: Hill and Wang. p. 82.  ^ Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher (1976). "Vertuous Women Found: New England Ministerial Literature 1668–1735". American Quarterly. 28.1: 35. doi:10.2307/2712475.  ^ Demos, John (1970). A Little Commonwealth; Family Life in Plymouth Colony. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 107–117.  ^ David Hackett Fischer, Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America (1989) ISBN 0-19-506905-6 ^ "The Puritans: A Sourcebook of Their Writings Archived 16 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine.". Perry Miller and Thomas H. Johnson. ^ "Leaving England: The Social Background of Indentured Servants in the Seventeenth Century Archived 6 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine.", The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. ^ Francis J. Bremer, The Puritan Experiment: New England
New England
Society from Bradford to Edwards (1995). ^ Carpenter, John B. (2003) "New England's Puritan Century: Three Generations of Continuity in the City upon a Hill," Fides Et Historia 30:1, p. 41. ^ Collins (1999), pp. 63–65. Quoting an excerpt from John Winthrop's sermon. ^ Cheever, Susan. "Drinking in America: Our Secret History". Hachette UK, 13 October 2015. Archived from the original on 14 November 2017. Retrieved 13 November 2017. The Puritans
Puritans
were well prepared and well born, among their number was landed gentry, educated aristocrats and dukes and earls. The Arbella's captain, John Winthrop, would become the governor of Massachusetts.......Far from being members of the ruling class or the landed gentry, the Pilgrims and their hangerson were outcasts in England, mostly impoverished.....  ^ a b c d e Norton, Mary Beth (2008). People and a Nation: A History of the United States, Volume 1: To 1877, Brief. P. 49. Cengage Learning ^ a b Barnett, James Harwood (1984). The American Christmas: A Study in National Culture. Ayer Publishing. p. 3. ISBN 0-405-07671-1. Archived from the original on 20 May 2016.  ^ Marling, Karal Ann (2000). Merry Christmas!: Celebrating America's Greatest Holiday. Harvard University Press. p. 44. ISBN 0-674-00318-7. Archived from the original on 5 May 2016.  ^ Miller, Perry; Johnson, Thomas H. (2014). The Puritans: A Sourcebook of Their Writings. Courier Corporation,. p. 394.  ^ West (2003) pp. 68ff ^ Lewis (1969), pp. 116–117. "On many questions and specially in view of the marriage bed, the Puritans
Puritans
were the indulgent party, ... they were much more Chestertonian than their adversaries [the Roman Catholics]. The idea that a Puritan was a repressed and repressive person would have astonished Sir Thomas More
Thomas More
and Luther about equally." ^ Foster, Thomas (October 1999). "Deficient Husbands: Manhood, Sexual Incapacity, and Male Marital Sexuality in Seventeenth-Century New England". The William and Mary Quarterly. 56 (4): 724. doi:10.2307/2674233.  ^ Foster, Thomas (October 1999). "Deficient Husbands: Manhood, Sexual Incapacity, and Male Marital Sexuality in Seventeenth-Century New England". The William and Mary Quarterly. 56 (4): 726–727. doi:10.2307/2674233.  ^ a b Rogers, Horatio, 2009. Mary Dyer
Mary Dyer
of Rhode Island: The Quaker Martyr That Was Hanged on Boston
Boston
Archived 15 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine. pp.1–2. BiblioBazaar, LLC ^ a b c " Puritans
Puritans
and Puritanism in Europe and America". ABC-CLIO. 1 January 2006. Archived from the original on 26 January 2018 – via Google Books.  ^ Margery Post Abbott (2011). Historical Dictionary of the Friends (Quakers). Scarecrow Press. pp. 102. ISBN 978-0-8108-7088-8. Archived from the original on 10 May 2016.  ^ "America's dark and not-very-distant history of hating Catholics". The Guardian. 25 February 2016. Archived from the original on 30 December 2016.  ^ Pat, Perrin (1 January 1970). Crime and Punishment: The Colonial Period to the New Frontier. Discovery Enterprises. p. 24.  ^ Mahoney, Kathleen A. (10 September 2003). Catholic Higher Education in Protestant
Protestant
America: The Jesuits and Harvard in the Age of the University. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 47.  ^ Sheldon Wolin, Tocqueville Between Two Worlds (2001), p. 234. ^ Francis J. Bremer (24 July 2009). Puritanism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-19-533455-5. Archived from the original on 18 July 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2012.  ^ Spurr (1998), p. 16; cites and quotes Patrick Collinson (1989). The Puritan Character, p. 8. ^ Christopher Hill, Economic Problems of the Church (1971), p. 337.

Further reading[edit]

Look up puritans in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Puritans

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Puritans.

Bremer, Francis J. Lay Empowerment and the Development of Puritanism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015. Carpenter, John B. "New England's Puritan Century: Three Generations of Continuity in the City upon a Hill," Fides Et Historia, 30:1, 2003. Coffey, John and Paul C. H. Lim (2008). The Cambridge Companion to Puritanism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-86088-8 Collins, Owen (1999). Speeches That Changed the World, Westminster John Knox
John Knox
Press, ISBN 0-664-22149-1. Gardiner, Samuel Rawson (1895). The First Two Stuarts and the Puritan Revolution. New York: C. Scribner's Sons. pp. 10–11.  Giussani, Luigi. American Protestant
Protestant
Theology: A Historical Sketch. McGill-Queens UP (2013). Lancelott, Francis (1858). The Queens of England and Their Times. New York: D. Appleton and Co. p. 684. ISBN 1-4255-6082-2.  C. S. Lewis
C. S. Lewis
(1969). Selected Literary Essays. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-07441-X.  Morone, James A. (2003). Hellfire Nation: The Politics of Sin in American History, Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10517-7. M. Michelle Jarrett Morris, Under Household Government: Sex and Family in Puritan Massachusetts. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Neal, Daniel (1844). The History of the Puritans. New York: Harper. ISBN 1-899003-88-6.  Neuman, Meredith Marie (2013). Jeremiah's Scribes: Creating Sermon LIterature in Puritan New England. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. Spurr, John. English Puritanism, 1603–1689. Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-21426-X.  West, Jim (2003). Drinking with Calvin and Luther!, Oakdown Books, ISBN 0-9700326-0-9

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