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The word PURANAS (Sanskrit : पुराण, purāṇa, /pʊˈrɑːnəz/ ) literally means "ancient, old", and it is a vast genre of Indian literature about a wide range of topics, particularly myths, legends and other traditional lore. Composed primarily in Sanskrit, but also in regional languages, several of these texts are named after major Hindu
Hindu
deities such as Vishnu, Shiva
Shiva
and Devi. The Puranas
Puranas
genre of literature is found in both Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism
Jainism
.

The Puranic literature is encyclopedic, and it includes diverse topics such as cosmogony , cosmology , genealogies of gods, goddesses, kings, heroes, sages, and demigods, folk tales, pilgrimages, temples, medicine, astronomy, grammar, mineralogy, humor, love stories, as well as theology and philosophy. The content is highly inconsistent across the Puranas, and each Purana has survived in numerous manuscripts which are themselves inconsistent. The Hindu
Hindu
Puranas
Puranas
are anonymous texts and likely the work of many authors over the centuries; in contrast, most Jaina Puranas
Puranas
can be dated and their authors assigned.

There are 18 Maha Puranas
Puranas
(Great Puranas) and 18 Upa Puranas
Puranas
(Minor Puranas), with over 400,000 verses. The first versions of the various Puranas
Puranas
were likely composed between the 3rd- and 10th-century CE. The Puranas
Puranas
do not enjoy the authority of a scripture in Hinduism, but are considered a Smriti
Smriti
.

They have been influential in the Hindu
Hindu
culture , inspiring major national and regional annual festivals of Hinduism. Their role and value as sectarian religious texts and historical texts has been controversial because all Puranas
Puranas
praise many gods and goddesses and "their sectarianism is far less clear cut" than assumed, states Ludo Rocher . The religious practices included in them are considered Vaidika (congruent with Vedic literature), because they do not preach initiation into Tantra. The Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
has been among the most celebrated and popular text in the Puranic genre, and is of non-dualistic tenor. The Puranic literature wove with the Bhakti movement in India, and both Dvaita
Dvaita
and Advaita
Advaita
scholars have commented on the underlying Vedantic themes in the Maha Puranas.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Origins

* 3 Texts

* 3.1 Mahapuranas * 3.2 Upapuranas * 3.3 Sthala Puranas
Puranas
* 3.4 Skanda Purana
Skanda Purana

* 4 Content

* 4.1 Symbolism and layers of meaning * 4.2 Puranas
Puranas
as a complement to the Vedas
Vedas
* 4.3 Puranas
Puranas
as encyclopedias

* 4.4 Puranas
Puranas
as religious texts

* 4.4.1 Jainism
Jainism
* 4.4.2 Sectarian, pluralistic or monotheistic theme

* 4.5 Puranas
Puranas
as historical texts

* 5 Manuscripts

* 5.1 Chronology * 5.2 Forgeries * 5.3 Translations

* 6 Influence * 7 Notes

* 8 References

* 8.1 Cited sources

* 9 External links

* 9.1 Translations

ETYMOLOGY

Douglas Harper states that a etymological origins of Puranas
Puranas
is from Sanskrit Puranah, literally "ancient, former," from pura "formerly, before," cognate with Greek paros "before," pro "before," Avestan paro "before," Old English fore, from proto-Indo-European *pre-, from root *per-."

ORIGINS

Part of a series on

HINDUISM

* Hindu
Hindu
* History

Concepts GOD / HIGHEST REALITY

* Brahman
Brahman
* Ishvara
Ishvara
* God in Hinduism
Hinduism
* God and gender

LIFE

* Atman * Maya * Karma
Karma
* Samsara
Samsara

* Purusharthas
Purusharthas

* Dharma
Dharma
* Artha
Artha
* Kama
Kama
* Moksha
Moksha

ETHICS

* Niti shastra * Yamas
Yamas
* Niyama
Niyama
* Ahimsa
Ahimsa
* Asteya
Asteya
* Aparigraha
Aparigraha
* Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
* Satya
Satya
* Damah * Dayā * Akrodha
Akrodha
* Ārjava * Santosha
Santosha
* Tapas * Svādhyāya
Svādhyāya
* Shaucha
Shaucha
* Mitahara
Mitahara
* Dāna
Dāna

LIBERATION

* Bhakti yoga
Bhakti yoga
* Jnana yoga
Jnana yoga
* Karma
Karma
yoga

Schools SIX ASTIKA SCHOOLS

* Samkhya
Samkhya
* Yoga
Yoga
* Nyaya
Nyaya
* Vaisheshika * Mimamsa
Mimamsa

* Vedanta
Vedanta

* Advaita
Advaita
* Dvaita
Dvaita
* Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita

OTHER SCHOOLS

* Pasupata
Pasupata
* Saiva * Pratyabhijña * Raseśvara * Pāṇini
Pāṇini
Darśana * Charvaka

Deities TRIMURTI

* Brahma
Brahma
* Vishnu * Shiva
Shiva

------------------------- OTHER MAJOR DEVIS / DEVAS

* Vedic * Indra
Indra
* Agni
Agni
* Prajapati
Prajapati
* Rudra
Rudra
* Devi
Devi
* Saraswati
Saraswati
* Ushas
Ushas
* Varuna
Varuna
* Vayu
Vayu

* Post-Vedic * Durga
Durga
* Ganesha
Ganesha
* Hanuman
Hanuman
* Kali
Kali
* Kartikeya
Kartikeya
* Krishna
Krishna
* Lakshmi
Lakshmi
* Parvati
Parvati
* Radha
Radha
* Rama
Rama
* Shakti
Shakti
* Sita
Sita

Texts SCRIPTURES VEDAS

* Rigveda
Rigveda
* Yajurveda
Yajurveda
* Samaveda
Samaveda
* Atharvaveda
Atharvaveda

DIVISIONS

* Samhita * Brahmana
Brahmana
* Aranyaka
Aranyaka
* Upanishad
Upanishad

UPANISHADS

* Rigveda: * Aitareya * Kaushitaki

* Yajurveda: * Brihadaranyaka * Isha * Taittiriya * Katha * Shvetashvatara * Maitri

* Samaveda: * Chandogya * Kena

* Atharvaveda: * Mundaka * Mandukya * Prashna

OTHER SCRIPTURES

* Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
* Agama (Hinduism)

OTHER TEXTS VEDANGAS

* Shiksha
Shiksha
* Chandas * Vyakarana
Vyakarana
* Nirukta
Nirukta
* Kalpa * Jyotisha
Jyotisha

PURANAS

* Vishnu Purana * BHAGAVATA PURANA * Nāradeya Purana
Nāradeya Purana
* Vāmana Purana * Matsya Purana
Matsya Purana
* Garuda Purana
Garuda Purana
* Brahma
Brahma
Purana * Brahmānda Purana * Brahma
Brahma
Vaivarta Purana * Bhavishya Purana
Bhavishya Purana
* Padma Purana * Agni
Agni
Purana * Shiva
Shiva
Purana * Linga Purana
Linga Purana
* Kūrma Purana * Skanda Purana
Skanda Purana
* Varaha Purana
Varaha Purana
* Mārkandeya Purana
Mārkandeya Purana

ITIHASAS

* Ramayana
Ramayana
* Mahabharata
Mahabharata

UPAVEDAS

* Ayurveda * Dhanurveda
Dhanurveda
* Gandharvaveda
Gandharvaveda
* Sthapatyaveda
Sthapatyaveda

SHASTRAS AND SUTRAS

* Dharma
Dharma
Shastra * Artha
Artha
Śastra * Kamasutra
Kamasutra
* Brahma
Brahma
Sutras * Samkhya
Samkhya
Sutras * Mimamsa
Mimamsa
Sutras * Nyāya Sūtras
Nyāya Sūtras
* Vaiśeṣika Sūtra
Vaiśeṣika Sūtra
* Yoga
Yoga
Sutras * Pramana Sutras * Charaka Samhita * Sushruta Samhita * Natya Shastra * Panchatantra
Panchatantra
* Divya Prabandha
Divya Prabandha
* Tirumurai
Tirumurai
* Ramcharitmanas
Ramcharitmanas
* Yoga Vasistha
Yoga Vasistha
* Swara yoga * Shiva
Shiva
Samhita * Gheranda Samhita
Gheranda Samhita
* Panchadasi
Panchadasi
* Stotra
Stotra
* Sutras

TEXT CLASSIFICATION

* Śruti
Śruti
Smriti
Smriti

* TIMELINE OF HINDU TEXTS

Practices WORSHIP

* Puja * Temple * Murti
Murti
* Bhakti
Bhakti
* Japa
Japa
* Bhajana
Bhajana
* Yajna
Yajna
* Homa * Vrata
Vrata
* Prāyaścitta
Prāyaścitta
* Tirtha * Tirthadana * Matha
Matha
* Nritta-Nritya

MEDITATION AND CHARITY

* Tapa * Dhyana * Dāna
Dāna

YOGA

* Asana * Hatha yoga
Hatha yoga
* Jnana yoga
Jnana yoga
* Bhakti yoga
Bhakti yoga
* Karma
Karma
yoga * Raja yoga
Raja yoga

RITES OF PASSAGE

* Garbhadhana
Garbhadhana
* Pumsavana * Simantonayana * Jatakarma
Jatakarma
* Namakarana
Namakarana
* Nishkramana
Nishkramana
* Annaprashana * Chudakarana
Chudakarana
* Karnavedha
Karnavedha
* Vidyarambha
Vidyarambha
* Upanayana
Upanayana
* Keshanta
Keshanta
* Ritushuddhi
Ritushuddhi
* Samavartana
Samavartana
* Vivaha * Antyeshti
Antyeshti

ASHRAMA DHARMA

* Ashrama : Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
* Grihastha
Grihastha
* Vanaprastha
Vanaprastha
* Sannyasa

FESTIVALS

* Diwali
Diwali
* Holi
Holi
* Shivaratri
Shivaratri

* Navaratri
Navaratri

* Durga
Durga
Puja * Ramlila
Ramlila
* Vijayadashami-Dussehra

* Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
* Ganesh Chaturthi
Ganesh Chaturthi
* Vasant Panchami
Vasant Panchami
* Rama
Rama
Navami * Janmashtami
Janmashtami
* Onam
Onam
* Makar Sankranti
Makar Sankranti
* Kumbha Mela
Kumbha Mela
* Pongal
Pongal
* Ugadi
Ugadi

* Vaisakhi
Vaisakhi

* Bihu
Bihu
* Puthandu * Vishu
Vishu

* Ratha Yatra

Gurus, saints, philosophers ANCIENT

* Agastya
Agastya
* Angiras * Aruni * Ashtavakra
Ashtavakra
* Atri
Atri
* Bharadwaja
Bharadwaja
* Gotama * Jamadagni
Jamadagni
* Jaimini
Jaimini
* Kanada * Kapila
Kapila
* Kashyapa
Kashyapa
* Pāṇini
Pāṇini
* Patanjali
Patanjali
* Raikva
Raikva
* Satyakama Jabala
Satyakama Jabala
* Valmiki * Vashistha
Vashistha
* Vishvamitra * Vyasa
Vyasa
* Yajnavalkya

MEDIEVAL

* Nayanars * Alvars
Alvars
* Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
* Basava
Basava
* Akka Mahadevi * Allama Prabhu
Allama Prabhu
* Siddheshwar * Jñāneśvar
Jñāneśvar
* Chaitanya * Gangesha Upadhyaya * Gaudapada
Gaudapada
* Gorakshanath
Gorakshanath
* Jayanta Bhatta * Kabir
Kabir
* Kumarila Bhatta * Matsyendranath
Matsyendranath
* Mahavatar Babaji
Mahavatar Babaji
* Madhusudana * Madhva * Haridasa Thakur
Haridasa Thakur
* Namdeva * Nimbarka * Prabhakara * Raghunatha Siromani * Ramanuja
Ramanuja
* Sankardev
Sankardev
* Purandara Dasa
Purandara Dasa
* Kanaka Dasa
Kanaka Dasa
* Ramprasad Sen
Ramprasad Sen
* Jagannatha Dasa * Vyasaraya * Sripadaraya
Sripadaraya
* Raghavendra Swami
Raghavendra Swami
* Gopala Dasa * Śyāma Śastri * Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika * Tyagaraja
Tyagaraja
* Tukaram
Tukaram
* Tulsidas * Vachaspati Mishra * Vallabha * Vidyaranya

MODERN

* Aurobindo * Coomaraswamy * Bhaktivinoda Thakur
Bhaktivinoda Thakur
* Chinmayananda
Chinmayananda
* Dayananda Saraswati
Saraswati
* Mahesh Yogi * Krishnananda Saraswati
Saraswati
* Narayana Guru
Narayana Guru
* Prabhupada * Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
* Ramana Maharshi
Ramana Maharshi
* Radhakrishnan * Sarasvati * Sivananda * U. G. Krishnamurti * Sai Baba * Vivekananda * Nigamananda * Yogananda * Ramachandra Dattatrya Ranade
Ramachandra Dattatrya Ranade
* Tibbetibaba
Tibbetibaba
* Trailanga
Trailanga

Other topics

* Balinese Hinduism
Hinduism
* Calendar * Criticism * Denominations * Iconography * Mythology * Nationalism ( Hindutva
Hindutva
) * Persecution * Pilgrimage sites

* Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism
Jainism
/ and Judaism

* Hinduism
Hinduism
by country

* Glossary of Hinduism
Hinduism
terms * Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

* v * t * e

Vyasa
Vyasa
, the narrator of the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
, is hagiographically credited as the compiler of the Puranas.

The date of the production of the written texts does not define the date of origin of the Puranas. They existed in an oral form before being written down, and were incrementally modified well into the 16th century.

An early occurrence of the term 'purana' is found in the Chandogya Upanishad
Upanishad
(7.1.2), translated by Patrick Olivelle as "the corpus of histories and ancient tales" (The Early Upanisads, 1998, p. 259). The Brhadaranyaka Upanishad
Upanishad
refers to purana as the "fifth Veda", itihāsapurāṇaṃ pañcamaṃ vedānāṃ, reflecting the early religious importance of these facts, which over time have been forgotten and presumably then in purely oral form. Importantly, the most famous form of itihāsapurāṇaṃ is the Mahabharata. The term also appears in the Atharvaveda
Atharvaveda
11.7.24. It is important to bear in mind that perhaps a thousand years separates the occurrence of this term in these Upanisads from 'The Puranas' understood as a unified set of texts (see below), and it is therefore by no means certain that the term as it occurs in the Upanisads has any direct relation to what today is identified as 'The Puranas'. The extant Puranas, states Coburn, are not identical to the original Puranas. Rajendra Hazra notes that Puranas
Puranas
that survive presently do not follow, partially or totally, the characteristic definition of the scope and contents of Puranas
Puranas
as described in ancient non-Puranic Indian texts.

In the 19th century, F. E. Pargiter believed the "original Purana" may date to the time of the final redaction of the Vedas. Gavin Flood connects the rise of the written Purana historically with the rise of devotional cults centring upon a particular deity in the Gupta era: the Puranic corpus is a complex body of materials that advance the views of various competing cults. Wendy Doniger , based on her study of indologists, assigns approximate dates to the various Puranas. She dates Markandeya Purana to c. 250 CE (with one portion dated to c. 550 CE), Matsya Purana
Matsya Purana
to c. 250–500 CE, Vayu
Vayu
Purana to c. 350 CE, Harivamsa
Harivamsa
and Vishnu Purana to c. 450 CE, Brahmanda Purana to c. 350–950 CE, Vamana Purana to c. 450–900 CE, Kurma Purana to c. 550–850 CE, and Linga Purana
Linga Purana
to c. 600–1000 CE.

TEXTS

MAHAPURANAS

Of the many texts designated 'Puranas' the most important are the Mahāpurāṇas or the major Puranas. These are said to be eighteen in number, divided into three groups of six, though they are not always counted in the same way.

S.NO. PURANA NAME VERSES NUMBER COMMENTS

1 Agni
Agni
15,400 verses Contains encyclopedic information. Includes geography of Mithila ( Bihar
Bihar
and neighboring states), cultural history, politics, education system, iconography, taxation theories, organization of army, theories on proper causes for war, diplomacy, local laws, building public projects, water distribution methods, trees and plants, medicine, Vastu Shastra (architecture), gemology, grammar, metrics, poetry, food, rituals and numerous other topics.

2 Bhagavata 18,000 verses The most studied and popular of the Puranas, telling of Vishnu's Avatars , and of Vaishnavism. It contains a controversial genealogical details of various dynasties. Numerous inconsistent versions of this text and historical manuscripts exist, in many Indian languages. Influential and elaborated during Bhakti movement .

3 Brahma
Brahma
10,000 verses Sometimes also called Adi Purana, because many Mahapuranas lists put it first of 18. The text has 245 chapters, shares many passages with Vishnu, Vayu, Markendeya Puranas, and with the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
. Includes mythology, theory of war, art work in temples, and other cultural topics. Describes holy places in Odisha
Odisha
, and weaves themes of Vishnu and Shiva, but hardly any mention of deity Brahma
Brahma
despite the title.

4 Brahmanda 12,000 verses One of the earliest composed Puranas, it contains a controversial genealogical details of various dynasties. Includes Lalita Sahasranamam , law codes, system of governance, administration, diplomacy, trade, ethics. Old manuscripts of Brahmanda Purana have been found in the Hindu
Hindu
literature collections of Bali
Bali
, Indonesia.

5 Brahmavaivarta 17,000 verses Discusses Shiva, Parvati, Ganesha, Devis, Vishnu, Krishna
Krishna
and Radha. Primarily mythology, love and seduction stories of gods and goddesses. Mentions geography and rivers such as Ganga
Ganga
to Kaveri
Kaveri
.

6 Garuda
Garuda
19,000 verses An encyclopedia of diverse topics. Primarily about Vishnu, but praises all gods. Describes how Vishnu, Shiva
Shiva
and Brahma
Brahma
collaborate. Many chapters are a dialogue between Vishnu and the bird-vehicle Garuda
Garuda
. Cosmology, Describes cosmology, relationship between gods. Discusses ethics, what are crimes, good verses evil, various schools of Hindu
Hindu
philosophies, the theory of Yoga, the theory of "heaven and hell" with "karma and rebirth", includes Upanishadic discussion of self-knowledge as a means of moksha . Includes chapters on rivers, geography of Bharat (India) and other nations on earth, types of minerals and stones, testing methods for stones for their quality, various diseases and their symptoms, various medicines, aphrodisiacs, prophylactics, Hindu
Hindu
calendar and its basis, astronomy, moon, planets, astrology, architecture, building home, essential features of a temple, rites of passage, virtues such as compassion, charity and gift making, economy, thrift, duties of a king, politics, state officials and their roles and how to appointment them, genre of literature, rules of grammar, and other topics. The final chapters discuss how to practice Yoga
Yoga
( Samkhya
Samkhya
and Advaita
Advaita
types), personal development and the benefits of self-knowledge.

7 Kurma 17,000 verses Is the second of ten major avatars of Lord Vishnu.

8 Linga
Linga
11,000 verses Discusses Lingam
Lingam
, symbol of Shiva, and origin of the universe. It also contains many stories of Lingam, one of which entails how Agni Lingam
Lingam
solved a dispute between Vishnu and Brahma.

9 Markandeya 9,000 verses Describes Vindhya Range and western India. Probably composed in the valleys of Narmada and Tapti rivers, in Maharashtra and Gujarat
Gujarat
. Named after sage Markandeya, a student of Brahma. Contains chapters on dharma and on Hindu
Hindu
epic Mahabharata. The Purana includes Devi Mahatmyam of Shaktism .

10 Matsya 14,000 verses An encyclopedia of diverse topics. Narrates the story of Matsya , the first of ten major Avatars of Vishnu. Likely composed in west India, by people aware of geographical details of the Narmada river. Includes legends about Brahma
Brahma
and Saraswati. It also contains a controversial genealogical details of various dynasties.

11 Narada 25,000 verses Also called Naradiya Purana. Discusses the four Vedas
Vedas
and the six Vedangas . Dedicates one chapter each, from Chapters 92 to 109, to summarize the other 17 Maha Puranas
Puranas
and itself. Lists major rivers of India and places of pilgrimage, and a short tour guide for each. Includes discussion of various philosophies, soteriology, planets, astronomy, myths and characteristics of major deities including Vishnu, Shiva, Devi, Krishna, Rama, Lakshmi
Lakshmi
and others.

12 Padma 55,000 verses A large compilation of diverse topics. The north Indian manuscripts of Padma Purana are very different than south Indian versions, and the various recensions in both groups in different languages (Devanagari and Bengali, for example) show major inconsistencies. Describes cosmology, the world and nature of life from the perspective of Vishnu. Discusses festivals, numerous legends, geography of rivers and regions from northwest India to Bengal
Bengal
to the kingdom of Tripura
Tripura
, major sages of India, various Avatars of Vishnu and his cooperation with Shiva, the story of Rama- Sita
Sita
that is different than the Hindu epic Ramayana
Ramayana
. Like Skanda Purana, it is a detailed treatise on travel and pilgrimage centers in India.

13 Shiva
Shiva
24,000 verses Discusses Shiva, and stories about him.

14 Skanda 81,100 verses Describes the birth of Skanda (or Karthikeya), son of Shiva. The longest Purana, it is an extraordinarily meticulous pilgrimage guide, containing geographical locations of pilgrimage centers in India, with related legends, parables, hymns and stories. Many untraced quotes are attributed to this text.

15 Vamana 10,000 verses Describes North India
North India
, particularly Himalayan foothills region.

16 Varaha 24,000 verses Primarily Vishnu-related worship manual, with large Mahatmya sections or travel guide to Mathura and Nepal. Presentation focuses on Varaha as incarnation of Narayana, but rarely uses the terms Krishna
Krishna
or Vasudeva. Many illustrations also involve Shiva
Shiva
and Durga .

17 Vayu
Vayu
24,000 verses Possibly the oldest of all Maha Puranas. Some medieval Indian texts call it Vayaviya Purana. Mentioned and studied by Al Biruni
Al Biruni
, the 11th century Persian visitor to India. Praises Shiva. Discusses rituals, family life, and life stages of a human being. The content in Vayu Purana is also found in Markandeya Purana. Describes south India, particularly modern Telangana
Telangana
and Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
regions. It contains a controversial genealogical details of various dynasties.

18 Vishnu 23,000 verses One of the most studied and circulated Puranas, it also contains a controversial genealogical details of various dynasties. Better preserved after the 17th century, but exists in inconsistent versions, more ancient pre-15th century versions are very different from modern versions, with some versions discussing Buddhism and Jainism. Some chapters likely composed in Kashmir and Punjab region of South Asia. A Vaishnavism text, focussed on Vishnu.

The Mahapuranas have also been classified based on a specific deity, although the texts are mixed and revere all gods and goddesses:

Brāhma : Brahma
Brahma
Purana , Padma Purana

Surya
Surya
: Brahma
Brahma
Vaivarta Purana

Agni
Agni
: Agni
Agni
Purana

Śaiva : Shiva
Shiva
Purana , Linga Purana
Linga Purana
, Skanda Purana
Skanda Purana
, Varaha Purana
Varaha Purana
, Vāmana Purana , Kūrma Purana , Matsya Purana
Matsya Purana
, Mārkandeya Purana , Bhavishya Purana
Bhavishya Purana
, Brahmānda Purana , Periya Puranam or Tiru-Thondar-Puranam

Vaiṣṇava : Vishnu Purana , Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
, Nāradeya Purana
Nāradeya Purana
, Garuda
Garuda
Purana , Vayu
Vayu
Purana , Varaha Purana
Varaha Purana

The Padma Purana , Uttara Khanda (236.18-21), itself a Vaishnava Purana, classifies the Puranas
Puranas
in accordance with the three gunas or qualities; truth , passion , and ignorance .

Sattva ("truth") Vishnu Purana , Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
, Naradeya Purana , Garuda Purana
Garuda Purana
, Padma Purana , Varaha Purana
Varaha Purana

Rajas ("passion") Brahmanda Purana , Brahma
Brahma
Vaivarta Purana , Markandeya Purana , Bhavishya Purana
Bhavishya Purana
, Vamana Purana , Brahma
Brahma
Purana

Tamas ("ignorance") Matsya Purana
Matsya Purana
, Kurma purana , Linga Purana
Linga Purana
, Shiva Purana , Skanda Purana
Skanda Purana
, Agni
Agni
Purana

All major Puranas
Puranas
contain sections on Devi
Devi
(goddesses) and Tantra
Tantra
, but of these the six most significant ones are: Markandeya Purana , Shiva
Shiva
Purana , Linga Purana
Linga Purana
, Brahma
Brahma
Vaivarta Purana , Agni
Agni
Purana and Padma Purana .

UPAPURANAS

The Goddess Durga
Durga
Leading the Eight Matrikas in Battle Against the Demon Raktabija , Folio from Devi
Devi
Mahatmyam , Markandeya Purana. Main article: Upapurana

The difference between Upapuranas and Mahapuranas has been explained by Rajendra Hazra as, "a Mahapurana is well known, and that what is less well known becomes an Upapurana". Rocher states that the distinction between Mahapurana and Upapurana is ahistorical, there is little corroborating evidence that either were more or less known, and that "the term Mahapurana occurs rarely in Purana literature, and is probably of late origin."

The Upapuranas are eighteen in number, with disagreement as to which canonical titles belong in that list of eighteen. They include among many: Sanat-kumara, Narasimha , Brihan-naradiya, Siva-rahasya, Durvasa, Kapila
Kapila
, Vamana, Bhargava, Varuna, Kalika , Samba , Nandi, Surya, Parasara, Vasishtha, Devi-Bhagavata, Ganesha
Ganesha
, Mudgala , and Hamsa, with only a few having been critically edited.

The Ganesha
Ganesha
and Mudgala Puranas
Puranas
are devoted to Ganesha
Ganesha
. The Devi- Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
, which extols the goddess Durga
Durga
, has become (along with the Devi
Devi
Mahatmya of the Markandeya Purana) a basic text for Devi
Devi
worshipers.

STHALA PURANAS

This corpus of texts tells of the origins and traditions of particular Tamil Shiva
Shiva
temples or shrines. There are numerous Sthala Puranas, most written in vernaculars , some with Sanskrit versions as well. The 275 Shiva
Shiva
Sthalams of the continent have puranas for each, famously glorified in the Tamil literature Tevaram
Tevaram
. Some appear in Sanskrit versions in the Mahapuranas or Upapuranas. Some Tamil Sthala Puranas
Puranas
have been researched by David Dean Shulman .

SKANDA PURANA

The Skanda Purana
Skanda Purana
is the largest Purana with 81,000 verses, named after deity Skanda , the son of Shiva
Shiva
and Uma, and brother of deity Ganesha. The mythological part of the text weaves the stories of Shiva
Shiva
and Vishnu, along with Parvati, Rama, Krishna
Krishna
and other major gods in Hindu
Hindu
pantheon. In Chapter 1.8, it declares,

Vishnu is nobody but Shiva, and he who is called Shiva
Shiva
is but identical with Vishnu. — Skanda Purana, 1.8.20-21

The Skanda Purana
Skanda Purana
has received renewed scholarly interest ever since the late 20th-century discovery of a Nepalese Skanda Purana
Skanda Purana
manuscript dated to be from the early 9th century. This discovery established that Skanda Purana
Skanda Purana
existed by the 9th century. However, a comparison shows that the 9th-century document is entirely different than versions of Skanda Purana
Skanda Purana
that have been circulating in South Asia since the colonial era.

CONTENT

The Puranas
Puranas
include cosmos creation myths such as the Samudra Manthan (churning of the ocean). It is represented in the Angkor Wat temple complex of Cambodia
Cambodia
, and at Bangkok airport, Thailand
Thailand
(above).

Several Puranas, such as the Matysa Purana, list "five characteristics" or "five signs" of a Purana. These are called the Pancha Lakshana ( pañcalakṣaṇa), and are topics covered by a Purana:

* Sarga: cosmogony * Pratisarga: cosmogony and cosmology * Vamśa: genealogy of the gods, sages and kings * Manvañtara: cosmic cycles, history of the world during the time of one patriarch * Vamśānucaritam: legends during the times of various kings.

A few Puranas, such as the most popular Bhagavata Purana, add five more characteristics to expand this list to ten:

* Utaya: karmic links between the deities, sages, kings and the various living beings * Ishanukatha: tales about a god * Nirodha: finale, cessation * Mukti: moksha , spiritual liberation * Ashraya: refuge

These five or ten sections weave in biographies, myths, geography, medicine, astronomy, Hindu
Hindu
temples, pilgrimage to distant real places, rites of passage, charity, ethics, duties, rights, dharma, divine intervention in cosmic and human affairs, love stories, festivals, theosophy and philosophy. The Puranas
Puranas
link gods to men, both generally and in religious bhakti context. Here the Puranic literature follows a general pattern. It starts with introduction, a future devotee is described as ignorant about the god yet curious, the devotee learns about the god and this begins the spiritual realization, the text then describes instances of god's grace which begins to persuade and convert the devotee, the devotee then shows devotion which is rewarded by the god, the reward is appreciated by the devotee and in return performs actions to express further devotion.

Over time, states Om Prakash, chapters and verses from one Purana were transferred or interpolated into another Purana. Similarly, texts from Vedic literature, Smritis and Sutras were incorporated into the Puranas, older verses were replaced with new ones, thereby creating manuscripts with the same name but inconsistent content. The content about kings, history of various people, sages and kingdoms are in part based on real events, in part hagiography , and in part expansive imagination or fabrication. The high degree of inconsistency and manuscript corruption occurred particularly from the 12th century onwards, evidenced by cross referencing across the texts; Matsya Purana, for example, stated that Kurma Purana has 18,000 verses, while Agni
Agni
Purana asserts the same text has 8,000 verses, and Naradiya attests that Kurma manuscript has 17,000 verses.

Along with inconsistencies, common ideas are found throughout the corpus but it is not possible to trace the lines of influence of one Purana upon another so the corpus is best viewed as a synchronous whole. An example of similar myths woven across the Puranas, but in different versions, include the lingabhava – the "apparition of the linga ". The story features Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, the three major deities of Hinduism, who get together, debate, and after various versions of the story, in the end the glory of Shiva
Shiva
is established by the apparition of linga. This myth, state Bonnefoy and Doniger, appears in Vayu
Vayu
Purana 1.55, Brahmanda Purana 1.26, Shiva
Shiva
Purana's Rudra
Rudra
Samhita Sristi Khanda 15, Skanda Purana's chapters 1.3, 1.16 and 3.1, and other Puranas.

The texts are in Sanskrit as well as regional languages, and almost entirely in narrative metric couplets.

SYMBOLISM AND LAYERS OF MEANING

The texts use ideas, concepts and even names that are symbolic. The words can interpreted literally, and at an axiological level. The Vishnu Purana , for example, recites a myth where the names of the characters are loaded with symbolism and axiological significance. The myth is as follows,

The progeny of Dharma
Dharma
by the daughters of Daksha were as follows: by Sraddhá (devotion) he had Kama
Kama
(desire); by Lakshmí (wealth, prosperity), was born Darpa (pride); by Dhriti (courage), the progeny was Niyama
Niyama
(precept); by Tusht́i (inner comfort), Santosha (contentment); by Pusht́i (opulence), the progeny was Lobha (cupidity, greed); by Medhá (wisdom, experience), Sruta (sacred tradition); by Kriyá (hard work, labour), the progeny were Dańd́a, Naya, and Vinaya (justice, politics, and education); by Buddhi (intellect), Bodha (understanding); by Lajjá (shame, humility), Vinaya (good behaviour); by Vapu (body, strength), Vyavasaya (perseverance). Shanti (peace) gave birth to Kshama (forgiveness); Siddhi (excellence) to Sukha (enjoyment); and Kírtti (glorious speech) gave birth to Yasha (reputation). These were the sons of Dharma; one of whom, Kama
Kama
(love, emotional fulfillment) had baby Hersha (joy) by his wife Nandi (delight).

The wife of Adharma (vice, wrong, evil) was Hinsá (violence), on whom he begot a son Anrita (falsehood), and a daughter Nikriti (immorality): they intermarried, and had two sons, Bhaya (fear) and Naraka (hell); and twins to them, two daughters, Máyá (deceit) and Vedaná (torture), who became their wives. The son of Bhaya (fear) and Máyá (deceit) was the destroyer of living creatures, or Mrityu (death); and Dukha (pain) was the offspring of Naraka (hell) and Vedaná (torture). The children of Mrityu were Vyádhi (disease), Jará (decay), Soka (sorrow), Trishńa (greediness), and Krodha (wrath). These are all called the inflictors of misery, and are characterised as the progeny of Vice (Adharma). They are all without wives, without posterity, without the faculty to procreate; they perpetually operate as causes of the destruction of this world. On the contrary, Daksha and the other Rishis, the elders of mankind, tend perpetually to influence its renovation: whilst the Manus and their sons, the heroes endowed with mighty power, and treading in the path of truth, as constantly contribute to its preservation. — Vishnu Purana, Chapter 7, Translated by Horace Hayman Wilson

PURANAS AS A COMPLEMENT TO THE VEDAS

The mythology in the Puranas
Puranas
has inspired many reliefs and sculptures found in Hindu
Hindu
temples . The legend behind the Krishna
Krishna
and Gopis relief above is described in the Bhagavata Purana.

The Puranic literature, stated Max Muller
Max Muller
, is independent, has changed often over its history, and has little relation to the Vedic age or the Vedic literature. Some scholars suggest that the Puranas claim a link to the Vedas
Vedas
but in name only, not in substance. Yet a third group of scholars state that the link is there, at least in spiritual themes and theology. The Puranas
Puranas
aim to complement the Vedic literature, interpret its theories, and help spread the ideas therein.

PURANAS AS ENCYCLOPEDIAS

The Puranas, states Kees Bolle, are best seen as "vast, often encyclopedic" works from ancient and medieval India. Some of them, such as the Agni
Agni
Purana and Matsya Purana, cover all sorts of subjects, dealing with – states Rocher – "anything and everything", from fiction to facts, from practical recipes to abstract philosophy, from geographic Mahatmyas (travel guides) to cosmetics, from festivals to astronomy. Like encyclopedias, they were updated to remain current with their times, by a process called Upabrimhana. However, some of the 36 major and minor Puranas
Puranas
are more focussed handbooks, such as the Skanda Purana, Padma Purana and Bhavishya Purana which deal primarily with Tirtha Mahatmyas (pilgrimage travel guides), while Vayu
Vayu
Purana and Brahmanda Purana focus more on history, mythology and legends.

PURANAS AS RELIGIOUS TEXTS

The colonial era scholars of Puranas
Puranas
studied them primarily as religious texts, with Vans Kennedy declaring in 1837, that any other use of these documents would be disappointing. John Zephaniah Holwell , who from 1732 onwards spent 30 years in India and was elected Fellow of the Royal Society
Royal Society
in 1767, described the Puranas
Puranas
as "18 books of divine words". British officials and researchers such as Holwell, states Urs App, were orientalist scholars who introduced a distorted picture of Indian literature and Puranas
Puranas
as "sacred scriptures of India" in 1767. Holwell, states Urs App, "presented it as the opinion of knowledgeable Indians; But it is abundantly clear that no knowledgeable Indian would ever have said anything remotely similar".

Modern scholarship doubts this 19th-century premise. Ludo Rocher, for example, states,

I want to stress the fact that it would be irresponsible and highly misleading to speak of or pretend to describe the religion of the Puranas. —  Ludo Rocher , The Puranas
Puranas

The study of Puranas
Puranas
as a religious text remains a controversial subject. Some Indologists, in colonial tradition of scholarship, treat the Puranic texts as scriptures or useful source of religious contents. Other scholars, such as Ronald Inden, consider this approach "essentialist and antihistorical" because the Purana texts changed often over time and over distance, and the underlying presumption of they being religious texts is that those changes are " Hinduism
Hinduism
expressed by a religious leader or philosopher", or "expressiveness of Hindu
Hindu
mind", or "society at large", when the texts and passages are literary works and "individual geniuses of their authors".

Jainism

The Jaina Puranas
Puranas
are like Hindu
Hindu
Puranas
Puranas
encyclopedic epics in style, and are considered as anuyogas (expositions), but they are not considered Jain Agamas
Jain Agamas
and do not have scripture or quasi-canonical status in Jainism
Jainism
tradition. They are best described, states John Cort, as post-scripture literary corpus based upon themes found in Jain scriptures.

Sectarian, Pluralistic Or Monotheistic Theme

Scholars have debated whether the Puranas
Puranas
should be categorized as sectarian, or non-partisan, or monotheistic religious texts. Different Puranas
Puranas
describe a number of stories where Brahma, VIshnu and Shiva
Shiva
compete for supremacy. In some Puranas, such as Devi Bhagavata , the Goddess Devi
Devi
joins the competition and ascends for the position of being Supreme. Further, most Puranas
Puranas
emphasize legends around one who is either Shiva, or Vishnu, or Devi. The texts thus appear to be sectarian. However, states Edwin Bryant, while these legends sometimes appear to be partisan, they are merely acknowledging the obvious question of whether one or the other is more important, more powerful. In the final analysis, all Puranas
Puranas
weave their legends to celebrate pluralism, and accept the other two and all gods in Hindu pantheon as personalized form but equivalent essence of the Ultimate Reality called Brahman
Brahman
. The Puranas
Puranas
are not spiritually partisan, states Bryant, but "accept and indeed extol the transcendent and absolute nature of the other, and of the Goddess Devi
Devi
too".

merely affirm that the other deity is to be considered a derivative manifestation of their respective deity, or in the case of Devi, the Shakti, or power of the male divinity. The term monotheism, if applied to the Puranic tradition, needs to be understood in the context of a supreme being, whether understood as Vishnu, Shiva
Shiva
or Devi, who can manifest himself or herself as other supreme beings. — Edwin Bryant, Krishna: The Beautiful Legend of God: Srimad Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana

Ludo Rocher, in his review of Puranas
Puranas
as sectarian texts, states, "even though the Puranas
Puranas
contain sectarian materials, their sectarianism should not be interpreted as exclusivism in favor of one god to the detriment of all others".

PURANAS AS HISTORICAL TEXTS

Despite the diversity and wealth of manuscripts from ancient and medieval India that have survived into the modern times, there is a paucity of historical data in them. Neither the author name nor the year of their composition were recorded or preserved, over the centuries, as the documents were copied from one generation to another. This paucity tempted 19th-century scholars to use the Puranas as a source of chronological and historical information about India or Hinduism. This effort was, after some effort, either summarily rejected by some scholars, or become controversial, because the Puranas
Puranas
include fables and fiction, and the information within and across the Puranas
Puranas
was found to be inconsistent.

In early 20th-century, some regional records were found to be more consistent, such as for the Hindu
Hindu
dynasties in Telangana
Telangana
, Andhra Pradesh. Basham, as well as Kosambi have questioned whether lack of inconsistency is sufficient proof of reliability and historicity . More recent scholarship has attempted to, with limited success, states Ludo Rocher, use the Puranas
Puranas
for historical information in combination with independent corroborating evidence, such as "epigraphy, archaeology, Buddhist literature, Jaina literature, non-Puranic literature, Islamic records, and records preserved outside India by travelers to or from India in medieval times such as in China, Myanmar and Indonesia".

MANUSCRIPTS

An 11th-century Nepalese palm-leaf manuscript in Sanskrit of Devimahatmya (Markandeya Purana).

The study of Puranas
Puranas
manuscripts has been challenging because they are highly inconsistent. This is true for all Mahapuranas and Upapuranas. Most editions of Puranas, in use particularly by Western scholars, are "based on one manuscript or on a few manuscripts selected at random", even though divergent manuscripts with the same title exist. Scholars have long acknowledged the existence of Purana manuscripts that "seem to differ much from printed edition", and it is unclear which one is accurate, and whether conclusions drawn from the randomly or cherrypicked printed version were universal over geography or time. This problem is most severe with Purana manuscripts of the same title, but in regional languages such as Tamil, Telugu, Bengali and others which have largely been ignored.

Modern scholarship noticed all these facts. It recognized that the extent of the genuine Agni
Agni
Purana was not the same at all times and in all places, and that it varied with the difference in time and locality. (...) This shows that the text of the Devi
Devi
Purana was not the same everywhere but differed considerably in different provinces. Yet, one failed to draw the logical conclusion: besides the version or versions of puranas that appear in our manuscripts, and fewer still in our editions, there have been numerous other versions, under the same titles, but which either have remained unnoticed or have been irreparably lost. — Ludo Rocher, The Puranas
Puranas

CHRONOLOGY

Newly discovered Puranas
Puranas
manuscripts from the medieval centuries has attracted scholarly attention and the conclusion that the Puranic literature has gone through slow redaction and text corruption over time, as well as sudden deletion of numerous chapters and its replacement with new content to an extent that the currently circulating Puranas
Puranas
are entirely different than those that existed before 11th century, or 16th century.

For example, a newly discovered palm-leaf manuscript of Skanda Purana in Nepal
Nepal
has been dated to be from 810 CE, but is entirely different than versions of Skanda Purana
Skanda Purana
that have been circulating in South Asia since the colonial era. Further discoveries of four more manuscripts, each different, suggest that document has gone through major redactions twice, first likely before the 12th century, and the second very large change sometime in the 15th-16th century for unknown reasons. The different versions of manuscripts of Skanda Purana suggest that "minor" redactions, interpolations and corruption of the ideas in the text over time.

Rocher states that the compositions date of each Purana remains a contested issue. Dimmitt and van Buitenen state that each of the Puranas
Puranas
manuscripts is encyclopedic in style, and it is difficult to ascertain when, where, why and by whom these were written:

As they exist today, the Puranas
Puranas
are a stratified literature. Each titled work consists of material that has grown by numerous accretions in successive historical eras. Thus no Purana has a single date of composition. (...) It is as if they were libraries to which new volumes have been continuously added, not necessarily at the end of the shelf, but randomly. — Cornelia Dimmitt and J.A.B. van Buitenen , Classical Hindu
Hindu
Mythology: A Reader in the Sanskrit Puranas

FORGERIES

Many of the extant manuscripts were written on palm leaf or copied during the British India colonial era, some in the 19th-century. The scholarship on various Puranas, has suffered from frequent forgeries, states Ludo Rocher , where liberties in the transmission of Puranas were normal and those who copied older manuscripts replaced words or added new content to fit the theory that the colonial scholars were keen on publishing.

TRANSLATIONS

Horace Hayman Wilson published one of the earliest English translations of one version of the Vishnu Purana in 1840. The same manuscript, and Wilson's translation, was reinterpreted by Manmatha Nath Dutt, and published in 1896. The All India Kashiraj Trust has published editions of the Puranas.

Maridas Poullé (Mariyadas Pillai) published a French translation from a Tamil version of the Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
in 1788, and this was widely distributed in Europe becoming an introduction to the 18th-century Hindu
Hindu
culture and Hinduism
Hinduism
to many Europeans during the colonial era. Poullé republished a different translation of the same text as Le Bhagavata in 1795, from Pondicherry . A copy of Poullé translation is preserved in Bibliothèque nationale de France
Bibliothèque nationale de France
, Paris.

INFLUENCE

The Puranas
Puranas
have had a large cultural impact on Hindus , from festivals to diverse arts. Bharata natyam
Bharata natyam
(above) is inspired in part by Bhagavata Purana.

The most significant influence of the Puranas
Puranas
genre of Indian literature have been, state scholars and particularly Indian scholars, in "culture synthesis", in weaving and integrating the diverse beliefs from ritualistic rites of passage to Vedantic philosophy, from fictional legends to factual history, from individual introspective yoga to social celebratory festivals, from temples to pilgrimage, from one god to another, from goddesses to tantra, from the old to the new. These have been dynamic open texts, composed socially, over time. This, states Greg Bailey, may have allowed the Hindu
Hindu
culture to "preserve the old while constantly coming to terms with the new", and "if they are anything, they are records of cultural adaptation and transformation" over the last 2,000 years.

The Puranic literature, suggests Khanna, influenced "acculturation and accommodation" of a diversity of people, with different languages and from different economic classes, across different kingdoms and traditions, catalyzing the syncretic "cultural mosaic of Hinduism". They helped influence cultural pluralism in India, and are a literary record thereof.

Om Prakash states the Puranas
Puranas
served as efficient medium for cultural exchange and popular education in ancient and medieval India. These texts adopted, explained and integrated regional deities such as Pashupata in Vayu
Vayu
Purana, Sattva in Vishnu Purana, Dattatreya in Markendeya Purana, Bhojakas in Bhavishya Purana. Further, states Prakash, they dedicated chapters to "secular subjects such as poetics, dramaturgy, grammar, lexicography, astronomy, war, politics, architecture, geography and medicine as in Agni
Agni
Purana, perfumery and lapidary arts in Garuda
Garuda
Purana, painting, sculpture and other arts in Vishnudharmottara Purana". Indian Arts

The cultural influence of the Puranas
Puranas
extended to Indian classical arts, such as songs, dance culture such as Bharata Natyam
Bharata Natyam
in south India and Rasa Lila
Rasa Lila
in northeast India, plays and recitations. Festivals

The myths, lunar calendar schedule, rituals and celebrations of major Hindu
Hindu
cultural festivities such as Holi
Holi
, Diwali
Diwali
and Durga
Durga
Puja are in the Puranic literature.

NOTES

* ^ This text underwent a near complete rewrite in or after 15th/16th century CE, and almost all extant manuscripts are Vaishnava (Krishna) bhakti oriented. * ^ Like all Puranas, this text underwent extensive revisions and rewrite in its history; the extant manuscripts are predominantly an encyclopedia, and so secular in its discussions of gods and goddesses that scholars have classified as Smartism , Shaktism , Vaishnavism and Shaivism
Shaivism
Purana. * ^ A B C D This text is named after a Vishnu avatar, but extant manuscripts praise all gods and goddesses equally with some versions focusing more on Shiva. * ^ A B Hazra includes this in Vaishnava
Vaishnava
category. * ^ This text includes the famous Devi-Mahatmya, one of the most important Goddess-related text of the Shaktism tradition in Hinduism. * ^ A B C Scholars consider the Sattva-Rajas-Tamas classification as "entirely fanciful" and there is nothing in each text that actually justifies this classification.

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature (1995 Edition), Article on Puranas, ISBN 0-877790426 , page 915 * ^ A B C D E F Greg Bailey (2001), Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy (Editor: Oliver Leaman), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415172813 , pages 437-439 * ^ A B C D E F G John Cort (1993), Purana Perennis: Reciprocity and Transformation in Hindu
Hindu
and Jaina Texts (Editor: Wendy Doniger), State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791413821 , pages 185-204 * ^ A B C D E Gregory Bailey (2003), The Study of Hinduism
Hinduism
(Editor: Arvind Sharma), The University of South Carolina Press, ISBN 978-1570034497 , page 139 * ^ A B C Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225 , pages 1-5, 12-21 * ^ Nair, Shantha N. (2008). Echoes of Ancient Indian Wisdom: The Universal Hindu
Hindu
Vision and Its Edifice. Hindology Books. p. 266. ISBN 978-81-223-1020-7 . * ^ A B C Cornelia Dimmitt (2015), Classical Hindu
Hindu
Mythology: A Reader in the Sanskrit Puranas, Temple University Press, ISBN 978-8120839724 , page xii, 4 * ^ A B Collins, Charles Dillard (1988). The Iconography and Ritual of Śiva at Elephanta. SUNY Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-88706-773-0 . * ^ Greg Bailey (2001), Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy (Editor: Oliver Leaman), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415172813 , page 503 * ^ Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225 , pages 12-13, 134-156, 203-210 * ^ A B C Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225 , pages 21-24, 104-113, 115-126 * ^ Dominic Goodall (1996), Hindu
Hindu
Scriptures, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520207783 , page xxxix * ^ A B Thompson, Richard L. (2007). The Cosmology
Cosmology
of the Bhagavata Purana \'Mysteries of the Sacred Universe. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p. 10. ISBN 978-81-208-1919-1 . * ^ Dominic Goodall (1996), Hindu
Hindu
Scriptures, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520207783 , page xli * ^ BN Krishnamurti Sharma (2008), A History of the Dvaita
Dvaita
School of Vedānta and Its Literature, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120815759 , pages 128-131 * ^ Douglas Harper (2015), Purana, Etymology Dictionary * ^ The Puranas
Puranas
by Swami Sivananda * ^ A B Johnson 2009 , p. 247 * ^ Singh 1997 , p. 2324 * ^ Brhadaranyaka Upanisad 2.4.10, 4.1.2, 4.5.11. Satapatha Brahmana
Brahmana
(SBE, Vol. 44, pp. 98, 369). Moghe 1997 , pp. 160,249 * ^ A B Pargiter 1962 , pp. 30–54. * ^ Moghe 1997 , p. 249 and the Satapatha Brahmana
Brahmana
11.5.6.8. and 13.4.3.13. SBE Vol. 44, pp. 98, 369 * ^ Thomas Colburn (2002), Devī-māhātmya: The Crystallization of the Goddess Tradition, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120805576 , page 27 * ^ RC Hazra (1987), Studies in the Puranic Records on Hindu
Hindu
Rites and Customs, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120804227 , pages 5-7 * ^ A B Flood 1996 , p. 359 * ^ Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225 , pages 134-137 * ^ Monier-Williams 1899 , p. 752, column 3, under the entry Bhagavata. * ^ A B C D E F G H I Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225 , pages 115-121 with footnotes * ^ Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225 , pages 139-149 * ^ Hardy 2001 * ^ A B Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225 , pages 154-156 * ^ H Hinzler (1993), Balinese palm-leaf manuscripts, In: Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Landen Volkenkunde, Manuscripts of Indonesia 149 (1993), No 3, Leiden: BRILL, page 442 * ^ A B C Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225 , page 78-79 * ^ Giorgio Bonazzoli (1977), Seduction Stories in the Brahmavaivarta Purana, Purana, Vol. XIX, No. 2, pages 321-341 * ^ A B C MN Dutt, The Garuda Purana
Garuda Purana
Calcutta (1908) * ^ Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225 , pages 70-71 * ^ RC Hazra (1987), Studies in the Puranic Records on Hindu
Hindu
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