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Punjabi (/pʌnˈdʒɑːbi/;[6] Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ pañjābī; Shahmukhi: پنجابی‬ paṉjābī)[7] is an Indo-Aryan language
Indo-Aryan language
spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015)[8][9] in the world. It is the native language of the Punjabi people, who associate with the historical Punjab region
Punjab region
of India
India
and Pakistan. Among Indo-European languages, it is unusual due to the use of lexical tone.[10][11][12] Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan,[13] the 11th most widely spoken in India, and the third most-spoken native language in the Indian Subcontinent. Punjabi is the fifth most-spoken native language (after English, French, Mandarin and Cantonese) in Canada. It also has a significant presence in the United Arab Emirates, United States, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Italy, & Netherlands. The Punjab is one of the relatively few regions in the world with a situation of digraphia; Punjabi is written in both the Shahmukhi
Shahmukhi
and the Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
scripts; the former mainly by Muslims, the latter mainly by Sikhs and Hindus.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Etymology 1.2 Origin 1.3 Arabic
Arabic
and Persian influence on Punjabi

2 Geographic distribution

2.1 Pakistan 2.2 India 2.3 Punjabi diaspora

3 Official status

3.1 Modern Punjabi

3.1.1 Standard Punjabi

4 Major dialects

4.1 Majhi (Standard Punjabi) 4.2 Shahpuri 4.3 Malwai 4.4 Doabi 4.5 Pwadhi 4.6 Jhangochi/Changvi 4.7 Jangli/Rachnavi 4.8 Chenavari 4.9 Pothohari/Pahari-Potowari 4.10 Hindko 4.11 Saraiki

5 Phonology

5.1 Tone

6 Grammar 7 Writing systems 8 Sample text 9 Literature development

9.1 Medieval era, Mughal and Sikh
Sikh
period 9.2 British Raj era and post-independence period

10 In Pakistan

10.1 Language demands in Punjab province

11 In India 12 Institutes working for Punjabi 13 Governmental academies and institutes 14 Software 15 Gallery 16 See also 17 Notes 18 References 19 Further reading 20 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of the Punjabi language Etymology[edit] The word Punjabi has been derived from the word Panj-āb, Persian for "Five Waters", referring to the five major eastern tributaries of the Indus River. The name of the region was introduced by the Turko-Persian
Turko-Persian
conquerors[14] of South Asia. Panj is cognate with Sanskrit
Sanskrit
पञ्च (pañca) and Greek πέντε (pénte) "five", and "āb" is cognate with Sanskrit
Sanskrit
अप् (áp) and with the Av- of Avon. The historical Punjab region, now divided between India
India
and Pakistan, is defined physiographically by the Indus River
Indus River
and these five tributaries. One of the five, the Beas River, is a tributary of another, the Sutlej. Origin[edit]

Tilla Jogian
Tilla Jogian
a hilltop associated with many Nath
Nath
jogis(considered among compilers of earlier Punjabi works),Gurunanak dev( a Punjabi,the founder and first Guru of Sikhism and writer) and Ranjha (the hero of Punjabi epic Heer Ranjha

Punjabi developed from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
through Prakrit languages and later Apabhraṃśa (Sanskrit: अपभ्रंश; corruption or corrupted speech)[15] From 600 BC Sanskrit
Sanskrit
gave birth to many regional languages in different parts of India. All these languages are called Prakrit (Sanskrit: प्राकृत prākṛta) collectively. Shauraseni Prakrit was one of these Prakrit languages, which was spoken in north and north-western India
India
and Punjabi and western dialects of Hindi
Hindi
developed from this Prakrit. Later in northern India
India
Shauraseni Prakrit gave rise to Shauraseni Aparbhsha, a descendent of Prakrit. Punjabi emerged as an Apabhramsha, a degenerated form of Prakrit, in the 7th century A.D. and became stable by the 10th century. By the 10th century, many Nath
Nath
poets were associated with earlier Punjabi works.[16][17][17][18][18] Arabic
Arabic
and Persian influence on Punjabi[edit] Arabic
Arabic
and Persian influence in the historical Punjab region
Punjab region
began with the late first millennium Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent.[19] The Persian language
Persian language
was introduced in the subcontinent a few centuries later by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties including that of Mahmud of Ghazni. Many Persian and Arabic
Arabic
words were incorporated in Punjabi.[20] Punjabi has more Persian and Arabic
Arabic
vocabulary than Bengali, Marathi, and Gujarati due to the proximity of the Punjab with western Asia.[21] It is noteworthy that the Hindustani language
Hindustani language
divided into Hindi, with more Sanskritisation, and Urdu, with more Persianisation, but in Punjabi both Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Persian words are used with a liberal approach to language. Later, it was influenced by Portuguese and English, though these influences have been minor in comparison to Persian and Arabic. However, in India, English words in the official language are more widespread than Hindi.[22] Geographic distribution[edit] Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan, the eleventh -most widely spoken in India
India
and spoken Punjabi diaspora
Punjabi diaspora
in various countries. Pakistan[edit]

Map showing the geographical distribution of Punjabis
Punjabis
in Pakistan
Pakistan
in parrot green colour.

A book cover from Pakistan, written in Shahmukhi
Shahmukhi
script, which is used in Pakistan.

Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan, being the native language of 44% of its population. It is the provincial language in the Punjab Province.

Census history of Punjabi speakers in Pakistan[23]

Year Population of Pakistan Percentage Punjabi speakers

1951 33,740,167 57.08% 22,632,905

1961 42,880,378 56.39% 28,468,282

1972 65,309,340 56.11% 43,176,004

1981 84,253,644 48.17% 40,584,980

1998 132,352,279 44.15% 58,433,431

Beginning with the 1981 census, speakers of Saraiki and Hindko
Hindko
were no longer included in the total numbers for Punjabi, which could explain the apparent decrease. India[edit] See also: States of India
India
by Punjabi speakers

"Jallianwala Bagh" written in Hindi, Punjabi, and English in Amritsar, India.

Areas of the Indian subcontinent where Punjabi is spoken.

Punjabi is spoken as a native language, second language, or third language by about 30 million people in India. Punjabi is the official language of the Indian states of Punjab, Haryana
Haryana
and Delhi. Some of its major urban centres in northern India
India
are Ambala, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Chandigarh, Jalandhar, and Delhi.

Census history of Punjabi speakers in India[24]

Year Population of India Punjabi speakers in India Percentage

1971 548,159,652 14,108,443 2.57%

1981 665,287,849 19,611,199 2.95%

1991 838,583,988 23,378,744 2.79%

2001 1,028,610,328 29,102,477 2.83%

Punjabi diaspora[edit] Main article: Punjabi diaspora

Southall Station (United Kingdom) sign in Punjabi, in the Gurmukhī script.

Signs in Punjabi (along with English and Chinese) of New Democratic Party of British Columbia, Canada
Canada
during 2009 elections

Punjabi is also spoken as a minority language in several other countries where Punjabi people
Punjabi people
have emigrated in large numbers, such as the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, and Canada, where it is the fourth-most-commonly used language.[25] There were 76 million Punjabi speakers in Pakistan
Pakistan
in 2008,[26] 33 million in India
India
in 2011,[27] 368,000 in Canada
Canada
in 2006,[28] and smaller numbers in other countries. Official status[edit] Despite Punjabi's rich literary history, it was not until 1947 that it would be recognized as an official language. Previous governments in the area of the Punjab had favoured Persian, Hindustani, or even earlier standardised versions of local registers as the language of the court or government. After the annexation of the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
by the British East India
India
Company following the Second Anglo-Sikh War
Second Anglo-Sikh War
in 1849, the British policy of establishing a uniform language for administration was expanded into the Punjab. The British Empire employed Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu
Urdu
in its administration of North-Central and North-West India, while in the North-East of India, Bengali was used as the language of administration. Despite its lack of official sanction, the Punjabi language
Punjabi language
continued to flourish as an instrument of cultural production, with rich literary traditions continuing until modern times. The Sikh
Sikh
religion, with its Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
script, played a special role in standardising and providing education in the language via Gudwaras, while writers of all religions continued to produce poetry, prose, and literature in the language. In India, Punjabi is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. It is the first official language of the Indian State of Punjab. Punjabi also has second language official status in Delhi
Delhi
along with Urdu, and in Haryana. In Pakistan, no regional ethnic language has been granted official status at the national level, and as such Punjabi is not an official language at the national level, even though it is the most spoken language in Pakistan
Pakistan
even after Urdu, the national language of Pakistan. It is, however, the official provincial language of Punjab, Pakistan, the second largest and the most populous province of Pakistan
Pakistan
as well as in Islamabad
Islamabad
Capital Territory. The only two official national languages in Pakistan
Pakistan
are Urdu
Urdu
and English, which are considered the lingua francas of Pakistan. Modern Punjabi[edit]

Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
alphabet excluding vowels

Standard Punjabi[edit]

Punjabi is spoken in many dialects in an area from Islamabad
Islamabad
to Delhi. The Majhi dialect
Majhi dialect
has been adopted as standard Punjabi in Pakistan
Pakistan
and India
India
for education, media etc. The Majhi (in Shahmukhi
Shahmukhi
ماجھی، in Gurumukhi ਮਾਝੀ) dialect originated in the Majha
Majha
region of the Punjab. The Majha
Majha
region consists central districts of Pakistani Punjab and in India
India
around Amritsar
Amritsar
and Gurdaspur
Gurdaspur
regions, known. The two most important cities in this area are Lahore
Lahore
and Amritsar. In India
India
technical words in Standard Punjabi are loaned from Sanskrit similarly to other major Indian languages, but it generously uses Arabic, Persian, and English words also in the official language. In India, Punjabi is written in the Gurumukhī script in offices, schools, and media. Gurumukhi is considered the standard script for Punjabi, though it is often unofficially written in the Devanagari
Devanagari
or Latin scripts due to influence from Hindi
Hindi
and English, India's two primary official languages at the Union-level.

In Pakistan, Punjabi is generally written using the Shahmukhī script, created from a modification of the Persian Nastaʿlīq script. In Pakistan, Punjabi loans technical words from Persian and Arabic languages, just like Urdu
Urdu
does.

Major dialects[edit] Majhi (Standard Punjabi)[edit] Majhi is Punjabi's prestige dialect because it is standard of written Punjabi. It is spoken in the heart of Punjab which include Lahore, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Kasur, Wazirabad, Sialkot, Narowal, Gujrat, Okara, Nankana Sahib, Faisalabad, Jhelum, Pakpattan, Vehari, Khanewal, Sahiwal, Hafizabad, Mandi Bahauddin
Mandi Bahauddin
and Chiniot
Chiniot
districts of Pakistan's Punjab Province along with some major cities. In India
India
Amritsar, Tarn Taran Sahib, and Gurdaspur
Gurdaspur
Districts of the State of Punjab and sizable population also in major cities of the States of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi
Delhi
and Mumbai India. In Pakistan
Pakistan
Standard Punjabi dialect is not called Majhi which is Indian terminology, in Pakistan
Pakistan
it is simply called Standard Punjabi. This dialect is used for both Punjabi Films, TV and Theater industry to make Punjabi language
Punjabi language
content in Lahore. Shahpuri[edit] Shahpuri dialect (also known as Sargodha
Sargodha
dialect) is mostly spoken in Pakistani Punjab. Its name is derived from former Shahpur District (now Shahpur Tehsil, being part of Sargodha
Sargodha
District). It is spoken throughout a widespread area, spoken in Sargodha
Sargodha
and Khushab Districts and also spoken in neighbouring Mianwali
Mianwali
and Bhakkar
Bhakkar
Districts. It is mainly spoken on western end of Sindh
Sindh
River to Chennab river crossing Jehlam river.[29] Malwai[edit] Malwai is spoken in the eastern part of Indian Punjab and also in Bahawalnagar
Bahawalnagar
and Vehari
Vehari
districts of Pakistan. Main areas are Ludhiana, Patiala, Ambala, Bathinda, Mansa, Ganganagar, Malerkotla, Fazilka, Ferozepur, Moga. Malwa
Malwa
is the southern and central part of present-day Indian Punjab. It also includes the Punjabi speaking northern areas of Haryana, viz. Ambala, Hissar, Sirsa, Kurukshetra etc. Not to be confused with the Malvi language, which shares its name. Doabi[edit] Doabi
Doabi
is spoken in both the Indian Punjab as well as parts of Pakistan Punjab owing to post-1947 migration of Muslim populace from East Punjab. The word "Do Aabi" means "the land between two rivers" and this dialect was historically spoken between the rivers of the Beas and the Sutlej
Sutlej
in the region called Doaba. Regions it is presently spoken includes the Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur and Kapurthala districts in Indian Punjab, specifically in the areas known as the Dona and Manjki, as well as the Toba Tek Singh and Faisalabad
Faisalabad
districts in Pakistan Punjab where the dialect is known as Faisalabadi Punjabi. This Dialect is also used as a standard for Indian Punjabi Films and TV shows. Pwadhi[edit] Pwadhi, Powadh, Puadh or Powadha is a region of Punjab and parts of Haryana
Haryana
between the Satluj and Ghaggar rivers. The part lying south, south-east and east of Rupnagar
Rupnagar
adjacent to Ambala
Ambala
District (Haryana) is Powadhi. The Powadh extends from that part of the Rupnagar
Rupnagar
District which lies near Satluj to beyond the Ghaggar river in the east up to Kala Amb, which is at the border of the states of Himachal pradesh and Haryana. Parts of Fatehgarh Sahib
Fatehgarh Sahib
district, and parts of Patiala districts like Rajpura are also part of Powadh. The language is spoken over a large area in present Punjab as well as Haryana. In Punjab, Kharar, Kurali, Ropar, Nurpurbedi, Morinda, Pail, Rajpura and Samrala are the areas where the Puadhi is spoken and the dialect area also includes Pinjore, Kalka, Ismailabad, Pehowa to Bangar area in Fatehabad district. Jhangochi/Changvi[edit] Jhangochi (جھنگوچی) dialect is spoken in Pakistani Punjab throughout a widespread area, starting from Khanewal
Khanewal
and Jhang
Jhang
at both ends of Ravi and Chenab to Hafizabad
Hafizabad
district. Jangli/Rachnavi[edit] Jangli is a dialect of former nomad tribes of areas whose names are often suffixed with 'Bar' derived from jungle bar before irrigation system arrived in the start of the 20th century, for example, Sandal Bar, Kirana Bar, Neeli Bar, Ganji Bar. Former Layllpur and western half of Montgomary district used to speak this dialect. Chenavari[edit] West of Chenaab river in Jhang
Jhang
district of Pakistani Punjab
Pakistani Punjab
the dialect of Jhangochi merges with Thalochi and resultant dialect is Chenavari. Name is derived from Chenaab river. Pothohari/Pahari-Potowari[edit] Pothohari is spoken in north Pakistani Punjab
Pakistani Punjab
and Azad Kashmir. The area where it is spoken extends in the north from Muzaffarabad
Muzaffarabad
to as far south as Jhelum, Gujar Khan, Rawat and Rawalpindi, Murree Hills north of Rawalpindi, and east to Bhimber. Chibhali and Dhundi-Kairali dialects may be related. It merges with Majhi dialect
Majhi dialect
at Saraialamgir/Kharian in the south and with Hindko
Hindko
dialects in the north at Attock. Hindko[edit] The diverse dialects of the furthest northwest areas of "Greater Punjabi" are known as Hindko. The central Hindko
Hindko
dialects comprise Ghebi, Awankari, Chacchi
Chacchi
and Kohati. Peshawari, the divergent dialect spoken to the northwest in Peshawar, has been used as a basis for a literary language. The dialect of the Hazara region to the northeast forms a dialect group of its own known as Northern Hindko
Hindko
or Kagani. Saraiki[edit] Saraiki is now considered a separate language, instead of merely a dialect of Punjabi. Its standard is based on the central dialect of Multani. Other dialects that are commonly associated with it are Riasti (also known as Bahawalpuri or Choolistani) to the south and Thali (or Thalochri) to the northwest. The varieties of Multani and Thali spoken in the west along the boundary with Balochistan and Pashtun dominated regions are also known as Derawali. Phonology[edit]

Vowels

Front Central Back

Close i(ː) ਈ

u(ː) ਊ

Near-close ɪ ਇ

ʊ ਉ

Close-mid e(ː) ਏ

o(ː) ਓ

Mid

ə ਅ

Open-mid ɛ(ː) ਐ

ɔ(ː) ਔ

Open

a(ː) ਆ

The long vowels (the vowels with [ː]) also have nasal analogues.

Consonants

Labial Dental/ Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal

Nasal m ਮ n ਨ ɳ ਣ ɲ ਞ ŋ ਙ

Stop/ Affricate tenuis p ਪ t̪ ਤ ʈ ਟ t͡ʃ ਚ k ਕ

aspirated pʰ ਫ t̪ʰ ਥ ʈʰ ਠ t͡ʃʰ ਛ kʰ ਖ

voiced b ਬ d̪ ਦ ɖ ਡ d͡ʒ ਜ ɡ ਗ

Fricative voiceless f ਫ਼ s ਸ

ʃ ਸ਼ (x ਖ਼)

voiced

z ਜ਼

(ɣ ਗ਼)

Flap

ɾ ਰ ɽ ੜ

Approximant ʋ ਵ l ਲ ɻ ਲ਼[30] j ਯ

ɦ ਹ

Tone[edit]

Some Punjabi distinct tones for gh, jh, dh, dh, bh

Punjabi has three phonemically distinct tones that developed from the lost murmured (or "voiced aspirate") series of consonants. Phonetically the tones are rising or rising-falling contours and they can span over one syllable or two, but phonemically they can be distinguished as high, mid, and low. A historical murmured consonant (voiced aspirate consonant) in word initial position became tenuis and left a low tone on the two syllables following it: ghoṛā [kòːɽɑ̀ː] "horse". A stem-final murmured consonant became modally voiced and left a high tone on the two syllables preceding it: māgh [mɑ́ːɡ] "October". A stem-medial murmured consonant which appeared after a short vowel and before a long vowel became modally voiced and left a low tone on the two syllables following it: maghāuṇā [məɡɑ̀ːʊ̀ɳɑ̀ː] "to have something lit". Other syllables have mid tone.[31] Grammar[edit] Main article: Punjabi grammar The grammar of the Punjabi language
Punjabi language
concerns the word order, case marking, verb conjugation, and other morphological and syntactic structures of the Punjabi language. The main article discusses the grammar of Modern Standard Punjabi as defined by the sources cited therein. Writing systems[edit] Main articles: Shahmukhī alphabet, Gurmukhī alphabet, and Punjabi braille

Shahmukhi
Shahmukhi
alphabet

ا
ا
ب
ب
پ ت ٹ ث
ث
ج
ج
چ
چ
ح خ د
د
ڈ
ڈ
ذ
ذ
ر ڑ
ڑ
ز ژ س
س
ش
ش
ص ض
ض
ط ظ ع غ ف ق
ق
ک گ
گ
ل م ن و
و
ه
ه
ھ
ھ
ء
ء
ی ے
ے

Extended Perso- Arabic
Arabic
script

History Transliteration Diacritics Hamza Numerals Numeration

v t e

Punjabi has two major writing systems in use: Gurmukhi, which is a Brahmic script derived from the Laṇḍā script,[32] and Shahmukhi, which is an Arabic
Arabic
script. The word Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
means "from the Guru's mouth",[33] and Shahmukhi
Shahmukhi
means "from the King's mouth".[34] In the Punjab province of Pakistan, the script used is Shahmukhi
Shahmukhi
and differs from the Urdu
Urdu
alphabet in having four additional letters.[35] In the Indian states of Punjab, Haryana
Haryana
and Delhi
Delhi
and other parts of India, the Gurmukhī script is generally used for writing Punjabi.[35] Historically, various local Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts
including Laṇḍā were also in use.[36] Sample text[edit] This sample text was taken from the Punjabi article on Lahore. Gurmukhi: ਲਹੌਰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨੀ ਪੰਜਾਬ ਦੀ ਰਾਜਧਾਨੀ ਹੈ । ਲੋਕ ਗਿਣਤੀ ਦੇ ਨਾਲ ਕਰਾਚੀ ਤੋਂ ਬਾਅਦ ਲਹੌਰ ਦੂਜਾ ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਵੱਡਾ ਸ਼ਹਿਰ ਹੈ । ਲਹੌਰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਦਾ ਸਿਆਸੀ, ਰਹਤਲੀ ਤੇ ਪੜ੍ਹਾਈ ਦਾ ਗੜ੍ਹ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਇਸ ਲਈ ਇਹਨੂੰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਦਾ ਦਿਲ ਵੀ ਕਿਹਾ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ । ਲਹੌਰ ਦਰਿਆ-ਏ-ਰਾਵੀ ਦੇ ਕੰਢੇ ਤੇ ਵਸਦਾ ਹੈ । ਤੇ ਇਸਦੀ ਲੋਕ ਗਿਣਤੀ ਇੱਕ ਕਰੋੜ ਦੇ ਨੇੜੇ ਹੈ । Shahmukhi: لہو ر پاکستان ی پنجا ب
ب
د ا
ا
دارالحکوم ت اے۔ لوک گنت ی د ے
ے
نا ل کراچ ی توں بع د
د
لاهور دوج ا
ا
سب ھ
ھ
توں وڈ ا
ا
شہ ر اے۔ لاهو ر پاکستان د ا
ا
سیاسی، رہتل ی ت ے
ے
پڑھائ ی د ا
ا
گڑ ھ
ھ
ا ے
ے
تے ا س
س
لئ ی ایھنوں پاکستا ن د ا
ا
د ل و ی کیھا جاند ا
ا
اے۔ لاهو ر دریاۓ راو ی د ے
ے
کنڈھ ے
ے
تے وسد ا
ا
۔ ا ے
ے
اسد ی لوک گنت ی اک کرو ڑ
ڑ
د ے
ے
نیڑے ا ے
ے
۔‬ Transliteration: lahaur pākistānī panjāb dī rājdā̀ni ài. lok giṇtī de nāḷ karācī tõ bāad lahaur dūjā sáb tõ vaḍḍā šáir ài. lahor pākistān dā siāsī, rátalī te paṛā̀ī dā gáṛ ài te is laī ínū̃ pākistān dā dil vī kihā jāndā ài. lahaur dariāe rāvī de kaṇḍè te vasdā ài. te isdī lok giṇtī ikk karoṛ de neṛe ài. Translation: Lahore
Lahore
is the capital city of the Pakistani Punjab. After a number of people from Karachi, Lahore
Lahore
is the second largest city. Lahore
Lahore
is Pakistan's political stronghold and education capital and so it is also the heart of Pakistan. Lahore
Lahore
lies on the bank of the Ravi River. And, its population is close to ten million people. IPA: [lə̄ɦɔ̄ːɾ pāːkɪ̄st̪āːnīː pə̄̃d͡ʒāːb d̪īː ɾāːd͡ʒt̪àːnɪ̄ ɦɛ̀ː ‖ lōk ɡɪ̄ɳt̪īː d̪ē nāːl kə̄ɾāːt͡ʃīː t̪ō̃ bāːə̄d̪ lə̄ɦɔ̄ːɾ d̪ūːd͡ʒāː sə́p t̪ō̃ ʋːə̄ɖāː ʃə̄ɦɪ̄ɾ ɦɛ̀ː ‖ lə̄ɦɔ̄ːɾ pāːkɪ̄st̪āːn d̪āː sɪ̄āːsīː ɾə́ɦt̪ə̄līː t̪ē pə̄ɽɦàːīː d̪āː ɡə́ɽɦ ɦɛ̀ː t̪ē ɪ̄s lə̄īː ɪ́ɦnū̃ pāːkɪ̄st̪āːn d̪āː d̪ɪ̄l ʋīː kɪ̄ɦāː d͡ʒā̃ːd̪āː ɦɛ̀ː ‖ lə̄ɦɔ̄ːɾ d̪ə̄ɾɪ̄āːē ɾāːʋīː d̪ē kə̄̃ʈè t̪ē ʋə̄̃sd̪īː ɦɛ̀ː ‖ t̪ē īsd̪īː lōk ɡɪ̄ɳt̪īː ɪ̄kː kə̄ɾōɽ d̪ē nēɽē ɦɛ̀ː ‖] Literature development[edit] Main article: Punjabi literature Medieval era, Mughal and Sikh
Sikh
period[edit]

The earliest Punjabi literature
Punjabi literature
is found in the fragments of writings of the 11th Nath
Nath
yogis (ਨਾਥਯੋਗੀ, ناتھیوگی‬) Gorakshanath and Charpatnah which is primarily spiritual and mystical in tone. Fariduddin Ganjshakar
Fariduddin Ganjshakar
of Pak Pattan
Pak Pattan
is generally recognised as the first major poet of the Punjabi language.[37] Roughly from the 11th century to 19th century, many great Sufi
Sufi
saints and poets preached in the Punjabi language. Bulle Shah
Bulle Shah
is considered one of the greatest Sufi
Sufi
poets. Punjabi Sufi
Sufi
poetry developed under Shah Hussain (1538–1599), Sultan Bahu
Sultan Bahu
(1628–1691), Shah Sharaf (1640–1724), Ali Haider (1690–1785), Saleh Muhammad Safoori
Saleh Muhammad Safoori
(son of Hazrat Mai Safoora Qadiriyya, whom Ali Haider had given great tribute) and Bulleh Shah (1680–1757).

Great Punjabi poet Waris Shah

Sufi
Sufi
poets have enriched Punjabi literature

The Sikh
Sikh
religion originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region and Punjabi is the predominant language spoken by Sikhs.[38] Most portions of the Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
use the Punjabi language
Punjabi language
written in Gurmukhi, though Punjabi is not the only language used in Sikh scriptures.

Varan Gyan Ratnavali by 16th-century historian Bhai Gurdas.

The Janamsakhis
Janamsakhis
(ਜਨਮਸਾਖੀ, جن م ساکھی‬), stories on the life and legend of Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
(1469–1539), are early examples of Punjabi prose literature.

The Punjabi language
Punjabi language
is famous for its rich literature of qisse (ਕਿੱਸੇ, قصّے‬), most of the which are about love, passion, betrayal, sacrifice, social values and a common man's revolt against a larger system. The qissa of Heer Ranjha
Heer Ranjha
by Waris Shah (1706–1798) is among the most popular of Punjabi qissas. Other popular stories include Sohni Mahiwal
Sohni Mahiwal
by Fazal Shah, Mirza Sahiban by Hafiz Barkhudar (1658–1707), Sassui Punnhun by Hashim Shah (c. 1735–c. 1843), and Qissa Puran Bhagat by Qadaryar (1802–1892).[citation needed] Heroic ballads known as Vaar(ਵਾਰ, وار‬) enjoy a rich oral tradition in Punjabi. Famous Vaars areChandi di Var (1666–1708), Nadir Shah
Nadir Shah
Di Vaar by Najabat,Jangnama of Shah Mohammad (1780–1862).[39]

British Raj era and post-independence period[edit]

Ghadar di Gunj
Ghadar di Gunj
1913, newspaper in Punjabi of Ghadar Party, US-based Indian revolutionary party.

The Victorian novel, Elizabethan drama, free verse and Modernism entered Punjabi literature
Punjabi literature
through the introduction of British education during the Raj. Nanak Singh (1897–1971), Vir Singh, Ishwar Nanda, Amrita Pritam (1919–2005), Puran Singh
Puran Singh
(1881–1931), Dhani Ram Chatrik (1876–1957), Diwan Singh (1897–1944) and Ustad Daman (1911–1984), Mohan Singh (1905–78) and Shareef Kunjahi are some legendary Punjabi writers of this period. After independence of Pakistan
Pakistan
and India
India
Najm Hossein Syed, Fakhar Zaman and Afzal Ahsan Randhawa, Shafqat Tanvir Mirza, Ahmad Salim, and Najm Hosain Syed, Munir Niazi, Pir Hadi abdul Mannan enriched Punjabi literature
Punjabi literature
in Pakistan, whereas Amrita Pritam (1919–2005), Jaswant Singh Rahi (1930–1996), Shiv Kumar Batalvi
Shiv Kumar Batalvi
(1936–1973), Surjit Patar (1944–) and Pash (1950–1988) are some of the more prominent poets and writers from India. In Pakistan[edit] When Pakistan
Pakistan
was created in 1947, although Punjabi was the majority language in West Pakistan
Pakistan
and Bengali the majority in East Pakistan and Pakistan
Pakistan
as whole, English and Urdu
Urdu
were chosen as the national languages. The selection of Urdu
Urdu
was due to its association with South Asian Muslim nationalism and because the leaders of the new nation wanted a unifying national language instead of promoting one ethnic group's language over another. Broadcasting in Punjabi language
Punjabi language
by Pakistan
Pakistan
Broadcasting Corporation decreased on TV and radio after 1947. Article 251 of the Constitution of Pakistan
Pakistan
declares that that these two languages would be the only official languages at the national level, while provincial governments would be allowed to make provisions for the use of other languages.[40] However, in the 1950s the constitution was amended to include the Bengali language. Eventually, Punjabi was granted status as a provincial language in Punjab Province, while the Sindhi language
Sindhi language
was given official status in 1972 after 1972 Language violence in Sindh. Despite gaining official recognition at the provincial level, Punjabi is not a language of instruction for primary or secondary school students in Punjab Province (unlike Sindhi and Pashto
Pashto
in other provinces).[41] Pupils in secondary schools can choose the language as an elective, while Punjabi instruction or study remains rare in higher education. One notable example is the teaching of Punjabi language
Punjabi language
and literature by the University of the Punjab
University of the Punjab
in Lahore
Lahore
which began in 1970 with the establishment of its Punjabi Department.[42][43] In the cultural sphere, there are many books, plays, and songs being written or produced in the Punjabi-language in Pakistan. Until the 1970s, there were a large number of Punjabi-language films being produced by the Lollywood film industry, however since then Urdu
Urdu
has become a much more dominant language in film production. Additionally, television channels in Punjab Province (centred on the Lahore
Lahore
area) are broadcast in Urdu. The preeminence of Urdu
Urdu
in both broadcasting and the Lollywood film industry is seen by critics as being detrimental to the health of the language.[44][45] Language demands in Punjab province[edit]

A demonstration by Punjabis
Punjabis
at Lahore, Pakistan, demanding to make Punjabi as official language of instruction in schools of the Punjab.

in Pakistan
Pakistan
a very small number of newspapers, magazines are published in Punjabi language. Front cover of a kid's Punjabi magazine from Pakistan, to make Punjabi popular among children

The use of Urdu
Urdu
and English as the near exclusive languages of broadcasting, the public sector, and formal education have led some to fear that Punjabi in Pakistan
Pakistan
is being relegated to a low-status language and that it is being denied an environment where it can flourish. Several prominent educational leaders, researchers, and social commentators have echoed the opinion that the intentional promotion of Urdu
Urdu
and the continued denial of any official sanction or recognition of the Punjabi language
Punjabi language
amounts to a process of "Urdu-isation" that is detrimental to the health of the Punjabi language[46][47][48] In August 2015, the Pakistan
Pakistan
Academy of Letters, International Writer’s Council (IWC) and World Punjabi Congress (WPC) organised the Khawaja Farid Conference and demanded that a Punjabi-language university should be established in Lahore
Lahore
and that Punjabi language
Punjabi language
should be declared as the medium of instruction at the primary level.[49][50] In September 2015, a case was filed in Supreme Court of Pakistan
Pakistan
against Government of Punjab, Pakistan
Pakistan
as it did not take any step to implement the Punjabi language
Punjabi language
in the province.[51][52] Additionally, several thousand Punjabis
Punjabis
gather in Lahore
Lahore
every year on International Mother Language Day. Hafiz Saeed, chief of Jama'at-ud-Da'wah (JuD) has questioned Pakistan's decision to adopt Urdu
Urdu
as its national language in a country where majority of people speak Punjabi language, citing his interpretation of Islamic doctrine as encouraging education in the mother-tongue.[53] The list of thinktanks, political organisations, cultural projects, and individuals that demand authorities at the national and provincial level to promote the use of the language in the public and official spheres includes:

Cultural and research institutes: Punjabi Adabi Board, the Khoj Garh Research Centre, Punjabi Prachar, Institute for Peace and Secular Studies, Adbi Sangat, Khaaksaar Tehreek, Saanjh, Maan Boli Research Centre, Punjabi Sangat Pakistan, Punjabi Markaz, Sver International Trade unions and youth groups: Punjabi Writers Forum, National Students Federation, Punjabi Union-Pakistan, Punjabi National Conference, National Youth Forum, Punjabi Writers Forum, National Students Federation, Punjabi Union, Pakistan, and the Punjabi National Conference. Notable activists include Tariq Jatala, Farhad Iqbal, Diep Saeeda, Khalil Ojla, Afzal Sahir, Jamil Ahmad Paul, Mazhar Tirmazi, Mushtaq Sufi, Biya Je, Tohid Ahmad Chattha and Bilal Shaker Kahaloon, Nazeer Kahut[54][55][56]

Choorian, released in 1998, became the highest-grossing domestic film of all-time, until 2007. It uses Punjabi as one of popular public languages of Pakistan.

In India[edit] At the federal level, Punjabi has official status via the Eighth Schedule to the Indian Constitution.[57] At the state level, Punjabi is the sole official language of the state of Punjab, while it has secondary official status in the states of Haryana
Haryana
and Delhi.[58] Both federal and state laws specify the use of Punjabi in the field of education. The state of Punjab uses the Three Language Formula, and Punjabi is required to be either the medium of instruction, or one of the three languages learnt in all schools in Punjab.[59] Punjabi is also a compulsory language in Haryana,[60] and other states with a significant Punjabi speaking minority are required to offer Punjabi medium education.[dubious – discuss] There is a vibrant Punjabi language
Punjabi language
movie industry in India, however Punjabi has a much smaller presence in television.[61] Despite Punjabi having far greater official recognition in India, attitudes of the Punjabi speaking elite towards the language are ambivalent as they are in neighboring Pakistan.[57]:37 There are also claims of state apathy towards the language in non-Punjabi majority states.[62][63][64] Institutes working for Punjabi[edit]

Punjabi University
Punjabi University
It was established on the 30 April 1962, and is only the second university in the world to be named after a language, after Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Research Centre for Punjabi Language Technology, Punjabi University, Patiala.[65] It is working for development of core technologies for Punjabi, Digitisation of basic materials, online Punjabi teaching, developing software for office use in Punjabi, provinding common platform to Punjabi cyber community.[66] Machine translation tool for Punjabi to Hindi, Punjabi to Urdu
Urdu
nad vice versa and machine transliteration system between Gurumukhi and Shahmukhi
Shahmukhi
scripts are very popular. Punjabipedia
Punjabipedia
an online encyclopaedia is also launched by Patiala university in 2014.[67][68]

The Dhahan Prize: The Dhahan Prize was created award literary works produced in Punjabi around the world. The Prize encourages new writing by awarding $25,000 CDN annually to one "best book of fiction" published in either of the two Punjabi scripts, Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
or Shahmukhi. Two second prizes of $5,000 CDN are also awarded, with the provision that both scripts are represented among the three winners. The Dhahan Prize is awarded by Canada
Canada
India
India
Education Society (CIES).[69]

Governmental academies and institutes[edit]

logo of academy Academy or institute and establishing year Government Note

Punjabi Sahit academy, Ludhiana,1954[70][71] Punjab, India It works exclusively for promotion of Punjabi language.

Punjabi academy, Delhi,1981-1982[72] Delhi, India This academy organise numerous activities and events and works exclusively for Punjabi language.

Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
academy of art, culture and literature[73] Jammu and Kashmir, India This academy works for Punjabi and other languages like Urdu, Dogri, Gojri etc.

Haryana
Haryana
sahitya sangam[74] Haryana, India It works for Punjabi and other languages like Hindi, Urdu
Urdu
also

Punjabi academy[75] Uttar Pradesh, India

Punjabi academy Uttarakhand, India

Punjabi academy,2 006[76] Rajasthan it was established in 2006

Pilac(Punjab Institute of Language, Art and Culture, Lahore,2004[77] Punjab, Pakistan It is works for patronage, promotion and development of Punjabi Language. PILAC also focuses on conservation, protection, promotion and enhancement of the art and cultural richness of Punjab.

Software[edit]

Software are available for Punjabi language
Punjabi language
for almost all platforms. These software are mainly in Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
script. Nowadays, nearly all Punjabi newspapers, magazines, journals, and periodicals are composed on computers via various Punjabi software programmes, the most widespread of which is InPage
InPage
Desktop Publishing package. Microsoft has included Punjabi language
Punjabi language
support in all new versions of Windows and both Windows Vista, Mircrsoft Office 2007, 2010 and 2013, are available in Punjabi through the Language Interface Pack[78] support. Most Linux
Linux
Desktop distributions allow the easy installation of Punjabi support and translations as well.[79] Apple implemented the Punjabi language
Punjabi language
keyboard across Mobile devices.[80] Google
Google
also provides many applications in Punjabi, like Google
Google
Search,[81] Google Translate[82] and Google
Google
Punjabi Input Tools.[83]

Gallery[edit]

Book about Punjabi in Shahmukhi

Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
in Gurmukhi

Punjabi Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
script

Punjabi Shahmukhi
Shahmukhi
script

Bhulay Shah poetry in Punjabi ( Shahmukhi
Shahmukhi
script)

Munir Niazi
Munir Niazi
poetry in Punjabi ( Shahmukhi
Shahmukhi
script)

Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
alphabet

Punjabi Bible New Testament, published in 1815

A book of poetry written by Bhai Vir Singh

A sign board in Punjabi language
Punjabi language
along with Hindi
Hindi
at Hanumangarh, Rajasthan, India

See also[edit]

Punjab portal Languages portal

Punjabi Languages of Pakistan Languages of India List of Indian languages by total speakers List of Punjabi-language newspapers Hindi-to-Punjabi Machine Translation
Translation
System Punjabi cinema

Notes[edit]

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3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh ^ Kachru, Braj B.; Kachru, Yamuna; Sridhar, S. N. (27 March 2008). Language in South Asia. Cambridge
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University Press. p. 128. ISBN 978-1-139-46550-2. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 24 October 2014. Sikhs often write Punjabi in Gurmukhi, Hindus in Devanagari, and Muslims in Perso-Arabic.  ^ "Världens 100 största språk 2010" [The world's 100 largest languages in 2010]. Nationalencyklopedin
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Punjabi language
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Gurmukhi
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Shiv Kumar Batalvi
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ਅਨੁਵਾਦ". translate.google.co.in. Archived from the original on 29 December 2016. Retrieved 13 January 2017.  ^ "Cloud ਇਨਪੁਟ ਔਜ਼ਾਰ ਔਨਲਾਈਨ ਅਜਮਾਓ – Google
Google
ਇਨਪੁਟ ਔਜ਼ਾਰ". google.com. Archived from the original on 12 January 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2017. 

Punjabi notes question answer References[edit]

Grierson, George A. 1904–1928. Grierson's Linguistic Survey of India. Calcutta. Masica, Colin. 1991. The Indo-Aryan languages. Cambridge
Cambridge
Univ. Press.

Further reading[edit]

Bhatia, Tej. 1993 and 2010. Punjabi : a cognitive-descriptive grammar. London: Routledge. Series: Descriptive grammars. Gill H.S. [Harjit Singh] and Gleason, H.A. 1969. A reference grammar of Punjabi. Revised edition. Patiala, Punjab, India: Languages Department, Punjab University. Shackle, C. 1972. Punjabi. London: English Universities Press. Chopra, R. M., Perso- Arabic
Arabic
Words in Punjabi, in: Indo-Iranica Vol.53 (1–4). Chopra, R. M.., The Legacy of The Punjab, 1997, Punjabee Bradree, Calcutta. Singh, Chander Shekhar (2004). Punjabi Prosody: The Old Tradition and The New Paradigm. Sri Lanka: Polgasowita: Sikuru Prakasakayo. Singh, Chander Shekhar (2014). Punjabi Intonation: An Experimental Study. Muenchen: LINCOM EUROPA.

External links[edit]

Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Punjabi

Eastern Punjabi edition of, the free encyclopedia

Western Punjabi edition of, the free encyclopedia

For a list of words relating to Punjabi language, see the Punjabi language category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Punjabi phrasebook.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Punjabi language.

Let's Learn Punjabi Animation Punjabi Film on YouTube English to Punjabi Dictionary Learn how to read Gurmukhi, Muharni and count in Gurmukhi/Punjabi Listen to some basic Punjabi words on WikiBabel Online Punjabi keyboard for typing in Punjabi website in Shahmukhi
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