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(97%) India: Sikhism
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(57.7%), Hinduism
Hinduism
(38.5%)[13] Minorities:

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The Punjabis
Punjabis
(Punjabi: پنجابی‬, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ), or Punjabi people, are an ethnic group associated with the Punjab region, who speak Punjabi, a language from the Indo-Aryan language family.[14] The name Punjab literally means the land of five waters in Persian: panj ("five") āb ("waters").[15] The name of the region was introduced by the Turko-Persian
Turko-Persian
conquerors[16] of South Asia. Punjab is often referred to as the breadbasket in both Pakistan
Pakistan
and India.[17][18] The coalescence of the various tribes, castes and the inhabitants of the Punjab into a broader common "Punjabi" identity initiated from the onset of the 18th century CE. Prior to that the sense and perception of a common "Punjabi" ethno-cultural identity and community did not exist, even though the majority of the various communities of the Punjab had long shared linguistic, cultural and racial commonalities.[19][20][21] Traditionally, Punjabi identity is primarily linguistic, geographical and cultural. Its identity is independent of historical origin or religion, and refers to those who reside in the Punjab region, or associate with its population, and those who consider the Punjabi language their mother tongue.[22] Integration and assimilation are important parts of Punjabi culture, since Punjabi identity is not based solely on tribal connections. More or less all Punjabis
Punjabis
share the same cultural background.[23][24] Historically, the Punjabi people
Punjabi people
were a heterogeneous group and were subdivided into a number of clans called biradari (literally meaning "brotherhood") or tribes, with each person bound to a clan. However, Punjabi identity also included those who did not belong to any of the historical tribes. With the passage of time, tribal structures are coming to an end and are being replaced with a more cohesive[25] and holistic society, as community building and group cohesiveness[26][27] form the new pillars of Punjabi society.[28] In relative contemporary terms, Punjabis
Punjabis
can be referred to in three most common subgroups; Punjabi Muslims, Punjabi Sikhs
Sikhs
and Punjabi Hindus.[29]

Contents

1 Geographic distribution

1.1 Sikh
Sikh
era Punjab 1.2 Partition of Punjab 1.3 Punjabis
Punjabis
in Pakistan 1.4 Punjabis
Punjabis
in India 1.5 Punjabi diaspora 1.6 Punjabi homeland

2 History of Punjab 3 Religions

3.1 Punjabi Muslims 3.2 Punjabi Hindus 3.3 Punjabi Sikhs 3.4 Punjabi Christians

4 Culture

4.1 Role of women 4.2 Language 4.3 Cuisine 4.4 Music 4.5 Dance 4.6 Wedding traditions 4.7 Folk tales 4.8 Festivals 4.9 Traditional dress 4.10 Sports

5 Notable people 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 References and further reading 10 External links

Geographic distribution[edit] Sikh
Sikh
era Punjab[edit] In the 19th century, Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
established a Punjabi kingdom[30] based around the Punjab. The main geographical footprint of the country was the Punjab region
Punjab region
to Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
in the west, to Kashmir
Kashmir
in the north, to Sindh
Sindh
in the south, and Tibet
Tibet
in the east. The religious demography of the Kingdom was Muslim
Muslim
(70%), Sikh
Sikh
(17%), Hindu
Hindu
(13%).[31] The population was 3.5 million, according to Amarinder Singh`s The Last Sunset: The Rise and Fall of the Lahore Durbar. In 1799 Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
moved the capital to Lahore
Lahore
from Gujranwala, where it had been established in 1763 by his grandfather, Charat Singh.[32] The Punjab region
Punjab region
was a region straddling India
India
and the Afghan Durrani Empire. The following modern-day political divisions made up the historical Punjabi kingdom:

Map showing the Punjabi Sikh
Sikh
Empire.

Punjab region
Punjab region
till Multan
Multan
in south

Panjab (Punjab), Pakistan, with the capital Lahaur (Lahore) Parts of Punjab, India Himachal Pradesh, India Haryana, India Jammu, India, annexed 1808 - 17 June 1822

Kashmir, conquered 5 July 1819 - 15 March 1846, India/Pakistan/China[33][34]

Gilgit, Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan. (Occupied from 1842 to 1846)[35] Ladakh, India

Khyber Pass, Afghanistan/Pakistan[36]

Peshawar, Pakistan[37] (taken in 1818, retaken in 1834) Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Pakistan
Pakistan
(documented from Hazara (taken in 1818, again in 1836) to Bannu)[38]

After Ranjit Singh's death in 1839, the empire was severely weakened by internal divisions and political mismanagement. This opportunity was used by the British East India
India
Company to launch the Anglo-Sikh Wars. The country was finally annexed and dissolved at the end of the Second Anglo-Sikh War
Second Anglo-Sikh War
in 1849 into separate princely states and the British province of Punjab. Eventually, a Lieutenant Governorship was formed in Lahore
Lahore
as a direct representative of the British Crown. Partition of Punjab[edit]

The Punjab region, with its rivers. The land of the Punjabi People

The 1947 independence of India
India
and Pakistan, and the subsequent partition of Punjab, is considered by historians to be the beginning of the end of the British Empire.[39] The UNHCR
UNHCR
estimates 14 million Hindus, Sikhs
Sikhs
and Muslims
Muslims
were displaced during the partition.[40] To date, this is considered the largest mass migration in human history.[41] Until 1947, the province of Punjab was ruled by a coalition comprising the Indian National Congress, the Sikh-led Shiromani Akali Dal
Shiromani Akali Dal
and the Unionist Muslim
Muslim
League. However, the growth of Muslim
Muslim
nationalism led to the All India
India
Muslim
Muslim
League becoming the dominant party in the 1946 elections. As Muslim
Muslim
separatism increased, the opposition from Punjabi Hindus
Hindus
and Sikhs
Sikhs
increased substantially. Communal violence on the eve of Indian independence led to the dismissal of the coalition government, although the succeeding League ministry was unable to form a majority. Along with the province of Bengal, Punjab was partitioned on religious lines – the Muslim-majority West becoming part of the new Muslim
Muslim
state of Pakistan, and the Hindu
Hindu
and Sikh
Sikh
East remaining in India. Partition was accompanied by massive violence on both sides, claiming the lives of hundreds of thousands of people.[42] West Punjab was virtually cleansed of its Hindu
Hindu
and Sikh
Sikh
populations, who were forced to leave for India, while East Punjab
East Punjab
and Delhi
Delhi
were virtually cleansed of their Muslim
Muslim
population. By the 1960s, Indian Punjab
Indian Punjab
underwent reorganisation as demands for a linguistic Punjabi state increased (in line with the policy of linguistic states that had been applied in the rest of India). The Hindi-speaking areas were formed into the states of Himachal Pradesh and Haryana
Haryana
respectively, leaving a Punjabi speaking majority in the state of Punjab. In the 1980s, Sikh
Sikh
separatism combined with popular anger against the Indian Army's counter-insurgency operations (especially Operation Bluestar) led to violence and disorder in Indian Punjab, which only subsided in the 1990s. Political power in Indian Punjab is contested between the secular Congress Party and the Sikh religious party Akali Dal and its allies, the Bharatiya Janata Party. Indian Punjab
Indian Punjab
remains one of the most prosperous of India's states and is considered the "breadbasket of India." Subsequent to partition, West Punjabis
Punjabis
made up a majority of the Pakistani population, and the Punjab province constituted 40% of Pakistan's total land mass. Today, Punjabis
Punjabis
continue to be the largest ethnic group in Pakistan, accounting for half of the country's population. They reside predominantly in the province of Punjab, neighboring Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
and in Islamabad Capital Territory. Punjabis are also found in large communities in the largest city of Pakistan, Karachi, located in the Sindh
Sindh
province. Punjabis
Punjabis
in India
India
can be found in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi
Delhi
and the Union Territory of Chandigarh. Large communities of Punjabis
Punjabis
are also found in the Jammu
Jammu
region of Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
and in Rajasthan, Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
and Uttar Pradesh. Punjabis
Punjabis
in Pakistan[edit] Punjabis
Punjabis
are numbered as 110,012,442, which make 55% of the population of Pakistan, and they are the largest ethnic group in Pakistan
Pakistan
by population. The Punjabis
Punjabis
found in Pakistan
Pakistan
belong to groups known as biradaris. In addition, Punjabi society is divided into two divisions, the zamindar groups or qoums, traditionally associated with farming and the moeens, who are traditionally artisans. Some zamindars are further divided into groups such as the Rajputs, Jats, Shaikhs or Muslim
Muslim
Khatris, Gujjars, Awans, Arains and Syeds. People from neighbouring regions, such as Kashmiris, Pashtuns
Pashtuns
and Baluch, also form sizeable portion of the Punjabi population. A large number of punjabis descend from the groups historically associated with skilled professions and crafts such as Sunar, Lohar, Kumhar, Tarkhan, Julaha, Mochi, Hajjam, Chhimba Darzi, Teli, Lalari[disambiguation needed], Qassab, Mallaah, Dhobi, Mirasi etc.[43][page needed] Punjabi people
Punjabi people
have traditionally and historically been farmers and soldiers,[citation needed] which has transferred into modern times with their dominance of agriculture and military fields in Pakistan. In addition, Punjabis
Punjabis
in Pakistan
Pakistan
have been quite prominent politically, having had many elected members of parliament. Punjabis in Pakistan
Pakistan
have shown a predilection towards the adoption of the Urdu language but nearly all speak Punjabi, and still identify themselves as ethnic Punjabis.[citation needed] Religious homogeneity remains elusive as a predominant Sunni
Sunni
population with Shia, Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
and Christian
Christian
minorities. A variety of related sub-groups exist in Pakistan
Pakistan
and are often considered by many Pakistani Punjabis
Punjabis
to be simply regional Punjabis
Punjabis
including the Seraikis (who overlap and are often considered transitional with the Sindhis). The recent definition of Punjabi people, in Pakistani Punjab, is not based on racial classification, common ancestry or endogamy, but based on geographical and cultural basis.[citation needed] Punjabis
Punjabis
in India[edit] The Punjabi-speaking people make 2.8% of India's population as of 2001.[44] The total number of Indian Punjabis
Punjabis
is unknown due to the fact that ethnicity is not recorded in the Census of India. The Sikhs are largely concentrated in the modern-day state of Punjab forming 60% of the population with Hindus
Hindus
forming 39%.[45] Ethnic Punjabis
Punjabis
are believed to account for at least 35% of Delhi's total population and are predominantly Hindi-speaking Punjabi Hindus.[46][47][48] In Chandigarh, 80.78% people of the population are Hindus, 13.11% are Sikhs, 4.87% are Muslims
Muslims
and minorities are Christians, Buddhists and Jains.[49] Like the Punjabi Muslim
Muslim
society, these various castes are associated with particular occupations or crafts. Indian Punjab
Indian Punjab
is also home to small groups of Muslims
Muslims
and Christians. Most of the East Punjab's Muslims
Muslims
(in today's states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi
Delhi
and Chandigarh) left for West Punjab in 1947. However, a small community still exists today, mainly in Qadian,and Malerkotla, the only Muslim
Muslim
princely state among the seven that formed the erstwhile Patiala
Patiala
and East Punjab
East Punjab
States Union (PEPSU). The other six (mostly Sikh) states were: Patiala, Nabha, Jind, Faridkot, Kapurthala
Kapurthala
and Kalsia. The Indian censuses record the native languages, but not the descent of the citizens. Linguistic data cannot accurately predict ethnicity: for example, Punjabis
Punjabis
make up a large portion of Delhi's population but many descendants of the Punjabi Hindu
Hindu
refugees who came to Delhi following the partition of India
India
now speak Hindi
Hindi
as their first language. Thus, there is no concrete official data on the ethnic makeup of Delhi
Delhi
and other Indian states.[48]:8–10 The Punjab region
Punjab region
within India
India
maintains a strong influence on the perceived culture of India
India
towards the rest of the world. Numerous Bollywood
Bollywood
film productions use the Punjabi language
Punjabi language
in their songs and dialogue as well as traditional dances such as bhangra. Bollywood
Bollywood
has been dominated by Punjabi artists including actors such as the Kapoor family, Dev Anand, Sunil Dutt, Pran, Prem Chopra, Manoj Kumar, Dharmendra, Rajesh Khanna, Vinod Khanna, Kabir Bedi, Vinod Mehra, Pankaj Kapur, Sunny Deol, Anil Kapoor, Poonam Dhillon, Juhi Chawla, Akshay Kumar, Hrithik Roshan, Arjun Kapoor, Sonam Kapoor, Ranbir Kapoor, Shahid Kapoor, Varun Dhawan, Priyanka Chopra, Parineeti Chopra and Sidharth Malhotra, singers Mohammed Rafi, Mahendra Kapoor, Narendra Chanchal, Sukhwinder Singh, Daler Mehndi, Mika Singh, Badshah, Yo Yo Honey Singh, and Kanika Kapoor. Punjabi Prime Ministers of India
India
include Gulzarilal Nanda, Inder Kumar Gujral
Inder Kumar Gujral
and Manmohan Singh. There are numerous players in the Indian cricket team both past and present including Lala Amarnath, Bishen Singh Bedi, Kapil Dev, Rajinder Singh Ghai, Yograj Singh, Mohinder Amarnath, Navjot Sidhu, Harbhajan Singh, Yuvraj Singh, Virat Kohli
Virat Kohli
and Shikhar Dhawan. Punjabi diaspora[edit] Main article: Punjabi diaspora The Punjabi people
Punjabi people
have emigrated in large numbers to many parts of the world. In the early 20th century, many Punjabis
Punjabis
began settling in the United States, including independence activists who formed the Ghadar Party. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
has a significant number of Punjabis from both Pakistan
Pakistan
and India. The most populous areas being London, Birmingham and Glasgow. In Canada
Canada
(specifically Vancouver
Vancouver
and Toronto) and the United States, (specifically California's Central Valley). In the 1970s, a large wave of emigration of Punjabis
Punjabis
(predominately from Pakistan) began to the Middle East, in places such as the UAE, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. There are also large communities in East Africa including the countries of Kenya, Uganda
Uganda
and Tanzania. Punjabis
Punjabis
have also emigrated to Australia, New Zealand
New Zealand
and Southeast Asia including Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore and Hong Kong. Of recent times many Punjabis
Punjabis
have also moved to Italy. Punjabi homeland[edit] According to Pippa Virdee, the 1947 partition of India
India
and Pakistan has shadowed the sense of loss of what used to be a homeland nation for the Punjabi people
Punjabi people
in South Asia
South Asia
and its diaspora.[50] Since the mid 1980s, there has been a drive for Punjabi cultural revival, consolidation of Punjabi ethnicity and a virtual Punjabi nation.[51] According to Giorgio Shani, this is predominantly a Sikh ethno-nationalism movement led by some Sikh
Sikh
organizations, and a view that is not shared by Punjabi people
Punjabi people
organizations belonging to other religions.[52] History of Punjab[edit] Main article: History of Punjab

One of the first known kings of ancient Punjab, King Porus
King Porus
who fought with Alexander

Indigenous population flourished in this region, leading to a developed civilisation in 5th to 4th millennium BC,[53] the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. Also Buddhism
Buddhism
remnants have been found like Mankiala
Mankiala
which corroborate the Buddhist background of this region as well.The remains of the ancient city of Taxila,[54] and many ornaments that have been found in this region, suggests that,[55] one of the centres of Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
was established at many parts of Punjab, most notably Taxila
Taxila
and Harappa,[56] Punjab became a center of early civilisation from around 3300 BC. During the Vedic Era The earliest text of Rigveda
Rigveda
were composed in greater Punjab (northwest India
India
and Pakistan) region.[57] According to Historians this region was ruled by many small kingdoms and tribes around 4th and 5th BCE. The earliest known notable local king of this region was known as King Porus[58][59] and he fought a famous Battle of the Hydaspes[60] against Alexander. His kingdom, known as Pauravas, was situated between Hydaspes (modern Jhelum) and Acesines (modern day Chenab).[58] These kings fought local battles to gain more ground. Taxiles or Omphis another local king from Punjab, wanted to defeat his eastern adversary Porus in a turf war and he invited Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
to defeat Porus. This marked the first intrusion of the West in the Indian subcontinent and Indus valley in general. But such was the valor of Porus and his kingdom forces in Punjab, that despite being defeated, he was appreciated by Alexander the Great for his skill and valor and he was granted further territories in the North.[citation needed] The other local kings did not like the fact that Porus was now an ally of Western forces. In less than ten years an Indian king Chandragupta Maurya[61] defeated the forces and conquered the Northern Indian regions up to the Kabul river (in modern-day Afghanistan). Alexander mostly ruled this land with the help of local allies like Porus.[62] Centuries later, areas of the Punjab region
Punjab region
were ruled by local kings followed by the Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Mughals, and others. Islam arrived in Punjab when the Muslim
Muslim
Umayyad
Umayyad
army led by Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh
Sindh
in 711 AD, by defeating Raja Dahir. Some of the Muslims
Muslims
are said to have settled in the region and adopted the local culture. Centuries later, the Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
introduced aspects of foreign Persian and Turkic culture in Punjab.

Map showing the sites and extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation. Harappa
Harappa
was the centre of one of the core regions of the Indus Valley Civilization, located in central Punjab. The Harappan architecture
Harappan architecture
and Harrapan Civilization was one of the most developed in the old Bronze Age.

The earliest written Punjabi dates back to the writing of Sufi
Sufi
Muslim poets of the 11th Century. Its literature spread Punjab's unique voice of peace and spirituality to the entire civilisation of the region. Regions of North India
India
and Punjab were annexed into the Afghan Durrani Empire later on in 1747, being a vulnerable target.[63] However, in 1758, the Marathas captured most of Punjab including Lahore
Lahore
during its northwest expansion campaign. After conquering Peshawar
Peshawar
and Attock, the Marathas defeated the Durrani Empire
Durrani Empire
in the Battle of Lahore fought in 1759.The region was lost to the Durranis, however, after the Third Battle of Panipat. The grandson of Ahmed Shah Durrani (Zaman Shah Durrani), lost it to Ranjit Singh, a Punjabi Sikh. He was born in 1780 to Maha Singh and Raj Kaur in Gujranwala, Punjab. Ranjit took a leading role in organising a Sikh
Sikh
militia and got control of the Punjab region
Punjab region
from Zaman Shah Durrani. Ranjit started a Punjabi military expedition to expand his territory.[64] Under his command the Sikh
Sikh
army began invading neighbouring territories outside of Punjab. The Jamrud Fort
Jamrud Fort
at the entry of Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
was built by Ranjit Singh.[65] The Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
slowly began to weaken after the death of Hari Singh Nalwa
Hari Singh Nalwa
at the Battle of Jamrud
Battle of Jamrud
in 1837. Two years later, in 1839, Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
died and his son took over control of the empire. By 1850 the British took over control of the Punjab region
Punjab region
after defeating the Sikhs
Sikhs
in the Anglo- Sikh
Sikh
wars,[66][67] establishing their rule over the region for around the next 100 years as a part of the British Raj. Many Sikhs
Sikhs
and Punjabis
Punjabis
later pledged their allegiance to the British, serving as sepoys (native soldiers) within the Raj. Religions[edit] Main articles: Sikhism
Sikhism
and Sufism In ancient and the medieval era, before the arrival of Islam
Islam
into the Indian subcontinent, Buddhism
Buddhism
and Hinduism
Hinduism
were the predominant religion in the Punjab region. After Islam
Islam
arrived, conversions began leading to a mixed population of Muslims
Muslims
and Hindus, and Buddhism vanished.[68][69][70] After Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
founded Sikhism
Sikhism
in the 15th century, the population increasingly became a mix of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs, as with the contemporary Punjabis.[13] The region of Punjab is the birthplace of one monotheistic religion that is known as Sikhism.[71][72] Also many well known followers of Sufism[73] were born in Punjab.[74]

Religion
Religion
in the Punjab Province (1941 Census of India)[75]

Religion

Percent

Islam

53.2%

Hinduism

29.1%

Sikhism

14.9%

Christianity

1.5%

Others

1.3%

Due to religious tensions, emigration between Punjabi people
Punjabi people
started far before the partition and dependable records.[76][77] Shortly prior to the Partition of British India, Punjab had a slight majority Muslim population at about 53.2% in 1941, which was an increase from the previous years.[78] With the division of Punjab and the subsequent independence of Pakistan
Pakistan
and later India, mass migrations of Muslims from Indian Punjab
Indian Punjab
to Pakistan, and those of Sikhs
Sikhs
and Hindus
Hindus
from Pakistan
Pakistan
to Indian Punjab
Indian Punjab
occurred. Today, the majority of Pakistani Punjabis
Punjabis
follow Islam
Islam
with a small Christian
Christian
minority, while the majority of Indian Punjabis
Punjabis
are either Sikhs
Sikhs
or Hindus
Hindus
with a Muslim minority. Punjab is also the birthplace of Sikhism
Sikhism
and the movement Ahmadiyya.[79] Following the independence of Pakistan
Pakistan
and the subsequent partition of British India, a process of population exchange took place in 1947 as Muslims
Muslims
began to leave India
India
and headed to the newly created Pakistan and Hindus
Hindus
and Sikhs
Sikhs
left Pakistan[80] for the newly created state of India.[81] As a result of these population exchanges, both parts are now relatively homogeneous, where religion is concerned.

Population trends for major religious groups in the Punjab Province of British India
India
(1881–1941)[75]

Religious group Population % 1881 Population % 1891 Population % 1901 Population % 1911 Population % 1921 Population % 1931 Population % 1941

Islam 47.6% 47.8% 49.6% 51.1% 51.1% 52.4% 53.2%

Hinduism 43.8% 43.6% 41.3% 35.8% 35.1% 30.2% 29.1%

Sikhism 8.2% 8.2% 8.6% 12.1% 12.4% 14.3% 14.9%

Christianity 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.8% 1.3% 1.5% 1.5%

Other religions / No religion 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 1.6% 1.3%

Punjabi Muslims[edit] See also: Punjabi Muslims In 2017 places the total population of Punjabi Muslims
Punjabi Muslims
to be 110,012,442 (~75% of all Punjabis), with 97% of Punjabis
Punjabis
who live in Pakistan
Pakistan
following Islam, in contrast to Punjabi Sikhs
Sikhs
and Punjabi Hindus
Hindus
who predominantly live in India.[13] A variety of Muslim
Muslim
dynasties and kingdoms ruled the Punjab region, including Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
under Mahmud of Ghazni,[82][83][84] the Delhi Sultanate, the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
and finally the Durrani Empire. The province became an important centre and Lahore
Lahore
was made into a second capital of the Ghaznavid Empire. The Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. Missionary
Missionary
Sufi
Sufi
saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region
Punjab region
also played the dominant role in bringing about conversion. Sufis
Sufis
also comprised the educated elites of the Punjab for many centuries. Early classical Punjabi epics, such as Heer Ranjha, Mirza Sahiban, etc. were written by the Sufis
Sufis
like Waris Shah.[85][self-published source] Muslims
Muslims
established Punjabi literature, utilised Shahmukhi
Shahmukhi
as the predominant script of the Punjab, as well as made major contributions to the music, art, cuisine and culture of the region. The Mughals
Mughals
controlled the region from 1524 until 1739 and would also lavish some parts of the province with building projects such as the Shalimar Gardens and the Badshahi Mosque, both situated in Lahore. The Muslim
Muslim
establishment in the Punjab occurred over a period of several centuries lasting until towards the end of the British Raj
British Raj
and the division of the Punjab province between Pakistan
Pakistan
and India
India
in August 1947. After the independence of Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1947, the minority Hindus
Hindus
and Sikhs migrated to India
India
while the Muslim
Muslim
refugees from India
India
settled in the Pakistan.[86][87] Today Muslims
Muslims
constitute only 1.53% of Eastern Punjab in India
India
as now the majority of Muslims
Muslims
live in Western Punjab in Pakistan. The vast majority of Pakistan's population are native speakers of the Punjabi language
Punjabi language
and it is the most spoken language in Pakistan. The majority of Pakistani Punjabis
Punjabis
speak the standard Punjabi dialect of Majhi, which is considered the Punjabi dialect of the educated class, as well as Lahnda (including Hindko
Hindko
and Saraiki). Muslim
Muslim
Punjabis
Punjabis
in Pakistan
Pakistan
use the Persian script to write the Punjabi language.[88] Punjabi Hindus[edit] See also: Punjabi Hindus Today Punjabi Hindus are mostly found in Indian Punjab
Indian Punjab
and in neighboring states like Haryana, Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
and Delhi, which together forms a part of the historical greater Punjab region. Many of the Hindu
Hindu
Punjabis
Punjabis
from the Indian capital Delhi
Delhi
are immigrants and their descendants, from various parts of Western Pakistani Punjab. Some Punjabi Hindus can also be found in the surrounding areas as well as the recent cosmopolitan migrants in other big cities like Mumbai. There has also been continuous migration of Punjabi Hindus to western countries like USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, European Union, UAE and UK. The Hindu
Hindu
Punjabis
Punjabis
speak different dialects including Lahnda, as well as Majhi (Standard Punjabi) and others like Doabi
Doabi
and Malwi. Some still have managed to retain the Punjabi dialects
Punjabi dialects
spoken in Western Punjab, but many have also adopted Hindi. The Hindu
Hindu
Punjabis
Punjabis
in India use the Gurmukhi or Nāgarī script
Nāgarī script
to write the Punjabi language.[88] Punjabi Sikhs[edit] See also: Sikhs Sikhi from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner", is a monotheistic religion and nation originated in the Punjab region
Punjab region
of South Asia
South Asia
during the 15th century.[89][90] The fundamental beliefs of Sikhi, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life.[91][92][93] Being one of the youngest amongst the major world religions, with 25-28 million adherents worldwide, Sikhi is the fifth- largest religion in the world. Sikhs
Sikhs
form a majority of close to 58% in the modern day Punjab, India. Gurmukhi is the writing script used by Sikhs
Sikhs
and for scriptures of Sikhism. It is used in official documents in parts of India
India
and elsewhere.[88] The tenth living Guru of Sikhs, Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
(1666 – 1708) established the Khalsa Brotherhood, and set for them a code of conduct.[94][95] Punjabi Christians[edit] See also: Christianity
Christianity
in Punjab, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Christianity
Christianity
in Punjab, India

Sadhu Sundar Singh, an influential Punjabi Christian
Christian
missionary from Ludhiana
Ludhiana
(1889–1929)

Missionaries
Missionaries
accompanied the colonising forces from Portugal, France, and Great Britain. Christianity
Christianity
was mainly brought by the British rulers of India
India
in the later 18th and 19th century[citation needed]. The total number of Punjabi Christians in Pakistan
Pakistan
is approximately 2,800,000 and 300,000 in Indian Punjab. Of these, approximately half are Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
and half Protestant. Many of the modern Punjabi Christians are descended from converts during British rule; initially, conversions to Christianity
Christianity
came from the "upper levels of Punjab society, from the privileged and prestigious", including "high caste" Hindu
Hindu
families, as well as Muslim
Muslim
families.[96][97][98] However, other modern Punjabi Christians have converted from Churas. The Churas were largely converted to Christianity
Christianity
in North India
India
during the British raj. The vast majority were converted from the Mazhabi
Mazhabi
Sikh communities of Punjab, and to a lesser extent Hindu
Hindu
Churas; under the influence of enthusiastic British army officers and Christian missionaries. Consequently, since the independence they are now divided between Pakistani Punjab
Pakistani Punjab
and Indian Punjab. Large numbers of Mazhabi
Mazhabi
Sikhs
Sikhs
were also converted in the Moradabad district
Moradabad district
and the Bijnor district[99] of Uttar Pradesh. Rohilkhand
Rohilkhand
saw a mass conversion of its entire population of 4500 Mazhabi
Mazhabi
Sikhs
Sikhs
into the Methodist Church.[100] Sikh
Sikh
organisations became alarmed at the rate of conversions among high caste Sikh
Sikh
families,[101] and as a result, they responded by immediately dispatching Sikh
Sikh
missionaries to counteract the conversions[citation needed]. Culture[edit] Main article: Punjabi culture Punjabi culture
Punjabi culture
is the culture of the Punjab region. It is one of the oldest and richest cultures in world history, dating from ancient antiquity to the modern era. The Punjabi culture
Punjabi culture
is the culture of the Punjabi people, who are now distributed throughout the world. The scope, history, sophistication and complexity of the culture are vast. Some of the main areas include Punjabi poetry, philosophy, spirituality, artistry, dance, music, cuisine, military weaponry, architecture, languages, traditions, values and history. Historically, the Punjab/Punjabis, in addition to their rural-agrarian lands and culture, have also enjoyed a unique urban cultural development in two great cities, Lahore[102] and Amritsar.[103] Role of women[edit]

Sophia Duleep Singh, a prominent British Punjabi Suffragette
Suffragette
and granddaughter of Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
of Punjab (1876–1948)

In the traditional Punjabi culture
Punjabi culture
women look after the household and children. Also women in general manage the finances of the household. Moreover, Punjabi women fought in the past along with the men when the time arose. Majority of Punjabi women were considered as warriors upon a time, they excelled in the art of both leadership and war. They are still considered and treated as leaders among many Punjabi villages. In Sikhism, it is stated that women are to be equal to men in all aspects of life. Mai Bhago
Mai Bhago
is a good example in this regard. Punjabi Sikh
Sikh
women also have a strong artistic tradition. Amrita Pritam was a notable poet in the 20th century. Amrita Shergill
Amrita Shergill
was a renowned painter. Rupi Kaur
Rupi Kaur
is a modern-day example of this as well.[104][105] She was followed by many other women of repute. Language[edit] Main article: Punjabi language Punjabi is the most spoken language in Pakistan
Pakistan
and eleventh most spoken language in India. According to the Ethnologue
Ethnologue
2005 estimate,[106] there are 130 million native speakers of the Punjabi language, which makes it the ninth most widely spoken language in the world. According to a 2008 estimate,[107][original research?] there are approximately 76,335,300 native speakers of Punjabi in Pakistan,[citation needed] and according to the Census of India, there are over 29,102,477 Punjabi speakers in India.[108] Punjabi is also spoken as a minority language in several other countries where Punjabis
Punjabis
have emigrated in large numbers, such as the United Kingdom (where it is the second most commonly used language[109]) and Canada, in which Punjabi has now become the fourth most spoken language after English, French and Chinese, due to the rapid growth of immigrants from Pakistan
Pakistan
and India.[110] There are also sizeable communities in the United States, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
countries, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, Australia
Australia
and New Zealand. Punjabis
Punjabis
are an ethno-linguistic group with Indo-Aryan roots,[111] and are culturally related to the other Indo-Aryan peoples
Indo-Aryan peoples
of South Asia. There are an estimated 102 million Punjabi speakers around the world.[112] If regarded as an ethnic group, they are among the world's largest. In South Asia, they are the second largest ethnic group after the Bengali People. The main language of the Punjabi people
Punjabi people
is Punjabi and its associated dialects, which differ depending on the region of Punjab the speaker is from; there are notable differences in the Lahnda languages, spoken in the Pakistani Punjab. In the Pakistani Punjab, the vast majority still speak Punjabi, even though the language has no governmental support. In the Indian Punjab, most people speak Punjabi. English is sometimes used, and older people who lived in the undivided Punjab may be able to speak and write in Urdu. The Punjabi languages have always absorbed numerous loanwords from surrounding areas and provinces (and from English). Cuisine[edit]

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Main article: Punjabi cuisine

Sarson da saag, popular vegetable dish of the Punjabi people.

Punjabi cuisine
Punjabi cuisine
has an immense range of dishes and has become world-leader in the field; so much so that many entrepreneurs that have invested in the sector have built large personal fortunes due to the popularity of Punjabi cuisine
Punjabi cuisine
throughout the world. Punjabi cuisine uses unique spices.[113] The Punjabi cuisine
Punjabi cuisine
has become popular in the world, not only due to its intrinsic quality but, due to the fact that the Punjabi diaspora
Punjabi diaspora
is very much visible in the western world especially, the UK, Canada
Canada
and the U.S. The popular dishes are Tandoori chicken, Dal makhni, chicken tikka lababdar, Saron da saag and stuffed or un stuffed naans (a type of unleavened bread). Music[edit] Main articles: Music of Punjab
Music of Punjab
and Folk music of Punjab Bhangra describes dance-oriented popular music with Punjabi rhythms, developed since the 1980s. The name refers to one of the traditional and folkloric Punjabi dances. Bhangra music is appreciated all over the globe. Sufi
Sufi
music and Qawali
Qawali
are other important genres in Punjab.[114][115] Dance[edit] Main article: Punjabi dance Owing to the long history of the Punjabi culture
Punjabi culture
and of the Punjabi people, there are a large number of dances normally performed at times of celebration, the time of festivals known as Melas and the most prominent dances are at Punjabi weddings, where the elation is usually particularly intense. Punjabi dances are performed either by men or by women. The dances range from solo to group dances and also sometimes dances are done along with musical instruments like Dhol, Flute, Supp, Dhumri, Chimta etc. Other common dances that both men and women perform are Karthi, Jindua, and Dandass.[116] "Bhangra" dance is the most famous aspect of Punjabi dance
Punjabi dance
tradition. Its popularity has attained a level where a music is produced with the intent of aiding people to carry out this form of dancing. Wedding traditions[edit] Main article: Punjabi wedding traditions Punjabi wedding traditions
Punjabi wedding traditions
and ceremonies are conducted in Punjabi, and are a strong reflection of Punjabi culture. Many local songs are a part of the wedding and are known as boliyan.[117] While the actual religious marriage ceremony among Muslims, Sikhs, Hindus, and Jains may be conducted in Arabic, Punjabi, Sanskrit, by the Kazi, Pandit or Granthi, there are also many commonalities in ritual, song, dance, food, make-up and dress. The Punjabi wedding has many rituals and ceremonies that have evolved since traditional times. Punjabi receptions of all sorts are known to be very energetic, filled with loud Bhangra music, people dancing, and a wide variety of Punjabi food. Folk tales[edit] Main article: Punjabi folklore The folk tales of Punjab include many stories[118] which are passing through generations and includes folk stories like Heer Ranjha, Mirza Sahiban,[119] Sohni Mahiwal
Sohni Mahiwal
etc. to name a few. Festivals[edit] Main articles: Punjabi festivals
Punjabi festivals
and Festivals in Lahore Vaisakhi, Jashan-e-Baharan, Basant, Kanak katai da mela ( Wheat cutting celebrations ) and many more. The jagrātā, also called jāgā or jāgran, means an all night vigil. This type of vigil is found throughout India
India
and is usually held to worship a deity with song and ritual. The goal is to gain the favour of the Goddess, to obtain some material benefit, or repay her for one already received. The Goddess is invoked by the devotees to pay them a visit at the location of the jagrātā, whether it be in their own homes or communities, in the form of a flame.[120] Traditional dress[edit]

Portrait of Jassa Singh Ahluwalia, dressed in the traditional male attire of Punjab (1718–1783)

Dastaar

Main article: Dastar A Dastaar is an item of headgear associated with Sikhi and is an important part of the Punjabi and Sikh
Sikh
culture. The symbolic article of the nation represents honour, self-respect, courage, spirituality, and piety. Wearing a Sikh
Sikh
dastaar, or turban, is mandatory for all Amritdhari
Amritdhari
(initiated) Sikh
Sikh
men and women. In ancient times, two Punjabis
Punjabis
would exchange their turbans to show friendship towards each other. Prior to Sikhi, only kings, royalty, and those of high stature wore turbans.[121]

Punjabi suit

Main article: Shalwar kameez A Punjabi suit that features three items - a qameez (top), salwar (bottom) and dupatta (scarf)[122] is the traditional female attire of the Punjabi people.[123] A qameez is a usually loose-fitted outer garment from upper thigh to mid-calf length. Along with the qameez, Punjabi women wear a salwaar that consists of long trousers drawn at the waist and tapered to the ankle.[124] The other complementary feature of the Punjabi suit is the dupatta; often used to cover the chest and head.[124] Among the Punjabi people, the dupatta has long been a symbol of modesty.[125]

Kurta
Kurta
Pajama

Main article: Kurta A Kurta
Kurta
pajama that comprises two items - a kurta (top) and pajama (bottom) is the traditional male attire of the Punjabi people. Sports[edit] Main article: Sports in Punjab Various types of sports are played in Punjab. They are basically divided into outdoor and indoor sports. Special
Special
emphasis is put to develop both the mental and physical capacity while playing sports. That is why recently sports like Speed reading, Mental abacus, historical and IQ tests are arranged as well. Indoor sports are specially famous during the long summer season in Punjab. Also indoor sports are played by children in homes and in schools. Gilli-danda
Gilli-danda
is vary famous indigenous sports among children along with Parcheesi. Pittu Garam
Pittu Garam
is also famous among children. Stapu is famous among young girls of Punjab. Also many new games are included with the passage of time. The most notable are Carrom, Ludo (board game), Scrabble, Chess, Draughts, Go Monopoly. The Tabletop games games include billiards and snooker. Backgammon
Backgammon
locally known as Dimaagi Baazi( Mental game) is famous in some regions as well. The outdoor sports include Kusti (a wrestling sport), Kabaddi, Rasa Kashi (Tug Of War), Patang (Kite Flying) and Naiza Baazi or Tent pegging (a cavalry sport).Gatka, is also taken as a form of sports. Punjab being part of South Asia, the sport of cricket is very popular. New forms of sports are also being introduced and adopted in particular by the large overseas Punjabis, such as Ice hockey, Soccer, Boxing, Mixed martial arts, Rugby union
Rugby union
as part of the globalisation of sports. Notable people[edit] Main articles: List of Punjabis, List of Punjabi authors, List of Punjabi-language poets, and List of Punjabi singers See also[edit]

Dialects of the Punjab Punjabi press Punjabi cuisine

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

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and Christianity: A Comparative Study (Themes in Comparative Religion). Wallingford, United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 117. ISBN 0333541073.  ^ Christopher Partridge (1 November 2013). Introduction to World Religions. Fortress Press. pp. 429–. ISBN 978-0-8006-9970-3.  ^ Sewa Singh Kalsi. Sikhism. Chelsea House, Philadelphia. pp. 41–50.  ^ William Owen Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (1995). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. p. 200.  ^ Teece, Geoff (2004). Sikhism: Religion
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in focus. Black Rabbit Books. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-58340-469-0.  ^ Cole, W. Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh (1978). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Routledge. p. 37. ISBN 0-7100-8842-6.  ^ John M Koller (2016). The Indian Way: An Introduction to the Philosophies & Religions of India. Routledge. pp. 312–313. ISBN 978-1-315-50740-8.  ^ Jones, Kenneth W. (1976). Arya Dharm: Hindu
Hindu
Consciousness in 19th-century Punjab. University of California Press. p. 12. ISBN 9780520029200. Christian
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conversion followed patterns of previous religious inroads, striking at the two sections of the social structure. Initial conversions came from the upper levels of Punjab society, from the privileged and prestigious. Few in number and won individually, high caste converts accounted for far more public attention and reaction to Christian
Christian
conversion than the numerically superior successes among the depressed. Repeatedly, conversion or the threat of conversion among students at mission schools, or members of the literate castes, produced a public uproar.  ^ Day, Abby (28 December 2015). Contemporary Issues in the Worldwide Anglican Communion: Powers and Pieties. Ashgate Publishing. p. 220. ISBN 9781472444158. The Anglican mission work in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent was primarily carried out by CMS and USPG in the Punjab Province (Gabriel 2007, 10), which covered most parts of the present state of Pakistan, particularly Lahore, Peshawar
Peshawar
and Karachi
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(Gibbs 1984, 178-203). A native subcontinental church began to take shape with people from humbler backgrounds, while converts from high social caste preferred to attend the worship with the English (Gibbs 1984, 284).  ^ Moghal, Dominic (1997). Human person in Punjabi society: a tension between religion and culture. Christian
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Study Centre. Those Christians who were converted from the "high caste" families both Hindus
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and Muslims
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look down upon those Christians who were converted from the low caste, specially from the untouchables.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Alter, J.P and J. Alter (1986) In the Doab and Rohilkhand: north Indian Christianity, 1815–1915. I.S.P.C.K publishing p183 ^ Alter, J.P and J. Alter (1986) In the Doab and Rohilkhand: north Indian Christianity, 1815–1915. I.S.P.C.K publishing p196 ^ Chadha, Vivek (23 March 2005). Low Intensity Conflicts in India: An Analysis. SAGE Publications. p. 174. ISBN 9780761933250. 'In 1881 there were 3,976 Christians in the Punjab. By 1891 their number had increased to 19,547, by 1901 to 37,980, by 1911 to 163,994 and by 1921 to 315,931 persons' (see Figure 8.1). However, the Sikhs
Sikhs
were more alarmed when some of the high caste families starting converting.  ^ For various notable Punjabis
Punjabis
belonging to this venerable city, please also see List of families of Lahore ^ Ian Talbot, 'Divided Cities: Lahore
Lahore
and Amritsar
Amritsar
in the aftermath of Partition', Karachi:OUP, 2006, pp.1–4 ISBN 0-19-547226-8 ^ "Piro Preman".  ^ Malhotra, Anshu. "Telling her tale? Unravelling a life in conflict in Peero’s Ik Sau Saṭh Kāfiaṅ. (one hundred and sixty kafis)." Indian Economic & Social History Review 46.4 (2009): 541–578. ^ Ethnologue. 15th edition (2005). ^ According to statpak.gov.pk Archived 17 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine. 44.15% of the Pakistani people are native Punjabi speakers. This gives an approximate number of 76,335,300 Punjabi speakers in Pakistan. ^ Census of India, 2001 ^ "Punjabi Community". The United Kingdom
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Parliament. ^ "Punjabi is 4th most spoken language in Canada" The Times of India ^ Jakob R. E. Leimgruber (2013). Singapore English: Structure, Variation, and Usage. Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-107-02730-5.  ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin. Asterisks mark the 2010 estimates for the top dozen languages. ^ http://www.vahrehvah.com/punjab : Website for the dishes of Punjab ^ Pande, Alka (1999). Folk music & musical instruments of Punjab : from mustard fields to disco lights. Ahmedabad [India]: Mapin Pub. ISBN 18-902-0615-6.  ^ Thinda, Karanaila Siṅgha (1996). Pañjāba dā loka wirasā (New rev. ed.). Paṭiālā: Pabalikeshana Biūro, Pañjābī Yūniwarasiṭī. ISBN 8173802238.  ^ Folk dances of Punjab ^ Boliyan book. Infinity Squared Books. 2010. ISBN 978-0-9567818-0-2.  ^ Tales of the Punjab. Digital.library.upenn.edu. ^ Peelu: The First Narrator of the Legend of Mirza-SahibaN. Hrisouthasian.org. ^ Erndl, Kathleen M. (1 June 1991). "Fire and wakefulness: the Devī jagrātā in contemporary Panjabi Hinduism". Journal of the American Academy of Religion: 339–360.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ " Sikh
Sikh
Theology Why Sikhs
Sikhs
Wear A Turban". The Sikh
Sikh
Coalition. Retrieved 13 November 2016.  ^ Rait, Satwant Kaur (Apr 14, 2005). Sikh
Sikh
Women In England: Religious, Social and Cultural Beliefs. Trent and Sterling: Trentham Book. p. 68. ISBN 1-85856-353-4.  ^ Dominique, Grele; Raimbault, Lydie (Mar 1, 2007). Discover Singapore on Foot (2 ed.). Singapore: Select Publishing. p. 35. ISBN 9789814022330.  ^ a b Akombo, David (26 January 2016). The Unity of Music and Dance in World Cultures. North Carolina: McFarland & Company. p. 155. ISBN 9781476622699.  ^ Mark Magnier (23 February 2010). "For Pakistani women, dupattas are more than a fashion statement". Los Angeles Times. 

References and further reading[edit]

Mohini Gupta, Encyclopaedia of Punjabi Culture & History – Vol. 1 (Window on Punjab) [Hardcover], ISBN 978-81-202-0507-9 Iqbal Singh Dhillion, Folk Dances of Punjab ISBN 978-81-7116-220-8 Punjabi Culture: Punjabi Language, Bhangra, Punjabi People, Karva Chauth, Kila Raipur Sports Festival, Lohri, Punjabi Dhabha, ISBN 978-1-157-61392-3 Kamla C. Aryan, Cultural Heritage of Punjab ISBN 978-81-900002-9-1 Shafi Aqeel, Popular Folk Tales from the Punjab ISBN 978-0-19-547579-1 Online Book of Punjabi Folk Tales, https://archive.org/stream/KamalKahanisaeedBhuttaABookOnPunjabiFolktales/KamalKahaniReviewByHassnainGhayoor#page/n0/mode/2up Colloquial Panjabi: The Complete Course for Beginners (Colloquial Series) ISBN 978-0-415-10191-2 Gilmartin, David. Empire and Islam: Punjab and the Making of Pakistan. Univ of California Press (1988), ISBN 0-520-06249-3. Grewal, J.S. and Gordon Johnson. The Sikhs
Sikhs
of the Punjab (The New Cambridge
Cambridge
History of India). Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press; Reprint edition (1998), ISBN 0-521-63764-3. Latif, Syed. History of the Panjab. Kalyani (1997), ISBN 81-7096-245-5. Sekhon, Iqbal S. The Punjabis : The People, Their History, Culture and Enterprise. Delhi, Cosmo, 2000, 3 Vols., ISBN 81-7755-051-9. Singh, Gurharpal. Ethnic Conflict in India : A Case-Study of Punjab. Palgrave Macmillan (2000). Singh, Gurharpal (Editor) and Ian Talbot (Editor). Punjabi Identity: Continuity and Change. South Asia
South Asia
Books (1996), ISBN 81-7304-117-2. Singh, Khushwant. A History of the Sikhs
Sikhs
– Volume 1.Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-562643-5 Steel, Flora Annie. Tales of the Punjab : Told by the People (Oxford in Asia Historical Reprints). Oxford University Press, USA; New Ed edition (2002), ISBN 0-19-579789-2. Tandon, Prakash and Maurice Zinkin. Punjabi Century 1857–1947, University of California Press
University of California Press
(1968), ISBN 0-520-01253-4.  This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/. Pakistan, India DNA boundaries in South and Southwest Asia, BMC Genetics 2004, 5:26 Ethnologue
Ethnologue
Eastern Panjabi Ethnologue
Ethnologue
Western Panjabi Pakistan
Pakistan
Census "The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations" (PDF). Am. J. Hum. Genet. 72: 313–332. 2003. doi:10.1086/346068. PMC 379225 . PMID 12536373. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 February 2006.  Talib, Gurbachan (1950). Muslim
Muslim
League Attack on Sikhs
Sikhs
and Hindus
Hindus
in the Punjab 1947. India: Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee. Online 1 Online 2 Online 3 (A free copy of this book can be read from any 3 of the included "Online Sources" of this free "Online Book") The Legacy of The Punjab by R. M. Chopra, 1997, Punjabee Bradree, Calcutta. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/2891/11/11_chapter%204.pdf

External links[edit]

Media related to Punjabi people
Punjabi people
(ethnic group) at Wikimedia Commons

v t e

Ethnic groups in Pakistan

Balti Baloch Brahui Burusho Hazaras Hindkowans Kalash Kashmiris Kho Muhajirs Pashtuns Punjabis Shina Siddi Sindhis Wakhis

v t e

Ethnic groups of India

This tree diagram depicts the relationships of the major ethnic, linguistic and religious groups in India. For example, an H under Gujarati implies a Hindu, Gujarati-speaking Indian of Indo-Aryan ancestry. This list excludes caste groups like the Dalits which is a socio-political identity across linguistic, religious and racial lines. In addition, it should be noted that the terms 'Indo-Aryan' and 'Dravidian' refer to linguistic differences that exist between both groups.

Indians

Indo-Aryans

Assamese (অসমীয়া)

Bengali (বাঙালী)

Dogra (डोगरा / ڈوگرا)

Gujarati (ગુજરાતી)

Hindi
Hindi
(हिन्दी)

Konkani (कोंकणे)

Marathi (मराठी माणसं)

Punjabi (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ / पंजाबी / پنجابی)

Odia (ଓଡିଆ)

H, M, C, S

H, M, A

H, S, M

H, M, J

H, M

HC

H, M, B, J

H, M, C, S

Dards

Brokpa (ब्रोक्पा)

Kashmiri (कॉशुर / کٲشُر)

Shina (षीना / شینا‎)

Kho (کھو)

B

H, M

B, H, M

Tibeto-Burmans

Arunachali (རྫོང་ཁ་)

Manipuri (মনিপুরি)

Bodo-Garo

Mizo

Naga

Sikkimese - Lepcha (Róng) (རྫོང)

Tripuri (ত্রিপুরা)

B, T, H

H, C

C, H, T

C, T

C, T

B, H

H, T

Dravidians

Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡಿಗ)

Malayali (മലയാളി)

Tamil (தமிழர்)

Telugu (తెలుగు)

H, C

H, C, M, A

H, C, M, A

H, C

Iranic

Parsi (પારસી)

Pathan
Pathan
(پٹھان / पठान)

Austroasians

Khasi (খাসি)

Nicobarese
Nicobarese
(निकोबारी)

Munda (मुण्डा)

C, T

C, M

S, T

v t e

Ethnic groups, social groups and tribes of the Punjab

Agrawal

Bansal

Arains

Dhankhar

Brahmins

Punjabi Brahmins Saraswat Brahmins Bali Chhibber Datt Mohan Mohyal

Scheduled Castes

Ad-Dharmi Balmiki Bazigar Chamar Khateek Mazhabi
Mazhabi
Sikh Mochi Mirasi Nat Ramdasia Sikh Ravidasi

Ahirs

Yaduvanshi Ahirs Ahirs Ghosi Hindu
Hindu
Ghosi Aharwar Ranghar

Gurjars

Gurjar
Gurjar
Parihar Bhati Baisla

Jats

Aulakh Bajwa Chaudhary Chohan Dhankhar Kharal Khokhar Khullar Randhawa Sandhu Sidhu Sial Sodhi Sohal Virk

Labana

Labana

Khatris

Ahuja Babbar Khukhrain Kohli Malhotra Malik Oberoi Roshan Sabharwal Sahni Sethi Sodhi Vohra

Rajputs

Awan Bais Butta Bhatti Janjua Mair Manhas Parmar Ranial Shaktawat

Tarkhans

Panesar Ramgharia Sohal

Arora Bagga Bakarwal Bania Kamboj Kumhar Sansi Sayyid

v t e

Province of Punjab topics

History

Harappa Punjab history History of Lahore

Government and politics

Provincial Assembly Chief Minister Governor

Culture and places

Punjabi people Saraiki people Punjabi tribes Language Saraiki language Saraiki Ajrak Saraiki Topi Cuisine Diaspora Music Archaeological sites and monuments Punjabi festivals
Punjabi festivals
(Pakistan)

Geography

List of cities Districts Punjab region

Education

University of the Punjab

Sport

Gaddafi Stadium

v t e

State of Punjab, India

Capital: Chandigarh

Topics

Demographics Economy Education History

King Porus

People Tourism Music

Administration

Government Legislative Assembly Chief Ministers Governors Raj Bhavan Police

Culture

Cinema Cuisine

Folk dances Bhangra Giddha Aawat pauni

Folklore Punjabi folk religion

Sanjhi Gugga Chhapar Mela Sakhi Sarwar Saint Punjabi fasts

Bhangala Language

Gurmukhī

Music

Bhangra Folk music

Dress

Salwar (Punjabi) Suit Punjabi ghagra Patiala
Patiala
salwar Punjabi Tamba and Kurta Phulkari Jutti

Calendars

Punjabi calendar Nanakshahi calendar Bikrami calendar

Fairs and Festival of Punjab India Punjabi festivals

Lohri Basant Kite Festival (Punjab) Maghi Holi, Punjab Teeyan Rakhri Vaisakhi

Religious festivals

Hindu
Hindu
Punjabi Festivals Sikh
Sikh
festivals

Sports

Kabaddi Kabaddi
Kabaddi
in India Kila Raipur Sports Festival Punjabi Kabaddi

Punjabi Suba movement

Regions

Majha Malwa Doaba Powadh

Districts

SAS Nagar Sri Amritsar Barnala Bathinda Faridkot Fatehgarh Sahib Fazilka Firozpur Gurdaspur Hoshiarpur Jalandhar Kapurthala Ludhiana Mansa Moga Pathankot Patiala Sri Muktsar Sahib Rupnagar Sangrur Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar Tarn Taran Sahib

Major Cities

Ludhiana Amritsar Jalandhar Patiala Bathinda Hoshiarpur Mohali Bat

.