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LanguageEastern dialects Doabi Majhi Malwai Puadhi Western dialects

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Punjab
Punjab
portalvte Punjabi (English: /pʌnˈdʒɑːbi/;[5] Punjabi: [pəɲˈdʒaːbi] ਪੰਜਾਬੀ / پنجابی pañjābī)[6] is an Indo-Aryan language with more than 100 million native speakers in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and around the world. It is the native language of the Punjabi people, an ethnolinguistic group of the cultural region called the Punjab, which encompasses northwest India
India
and eastern Pakistan. Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan,[3] the 11th most widely spoken language in India, and the third most-spoken native language in the Indian subcontinent. It is also the fifth most-spoken native language in Canada
Canada
after English, French, Mandarin and Cantonese. Punjabi is unusual among Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
in its use of lexical tone;[7][8][9] see § Tone below for examples. The Punjabi language
Punjabi language
is written in one of two alphabets: Shahmukhi
Shahmukhi
or Gurmukhi. In the Punjab, both writing systems are used (a rare occurrence called synchronic digraphia): Shahmukhi
Shahmukhi
is used mainly by Punjabi Muslims, Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
by Punjabi Sikhs
Punjabi Sikhs
and Devanagari
Devanagari
by Punjabi Hindus.[6] There are over 31 types of sub-accents in the Punjabi language.[10][full citation needed]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Etymology 1.2 Origin 1.3 Arabic
Arabic
and Persian influence on Punjabi 1.4 Modern times

2 Geographic distribution

2.1 Pakistan 2.2 India 2.3 Punjabi diaspora

3 Major dialects

3.1 Majhi (Standard Punjabi) 3.2 Shahpuri 3.3 Malwai 3.4 Doabi 3.5 Puadhi 3.6 Jhangochi/Changvi 3.7 Jangli/Rachnavi 3.8 Chenavari

4 Phonology

4.1 Tone

5 Grammar 6 Writing systems 7 Sample text 8 Literature development

8.1 Medieval era, Mughal and Sikh
Sikh
period 8.2 British Raj era and post-independence period

9 Status

9.1 In Pakistan

9.1.1 Language demands in Punjab
Punjab
province

9.2 In India

10 Advocacy

10.1 Governmental academies and institutes 10.2 Software

11 Gallery 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of the Punjabi language Etymology[edit] The word Punjabi (sometimes spelled Panjabi) has been derived from the word Panj-āb, Persian for "Five Waters", referring to the five major eastern tributaries of the Indus River. The name of the region was introduced by the Turko-Persian
Turko-Persian
conquerors[11] of South Asia and was a translation of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
name for the region, Panchanada, which means "Land of the Five Rivers".[12][13] Panj is cognate with Sanskrit
Sanskrit
पञ्च (pañca) and Greek πέντε (pénte) "five", and "āb" is cognate with Sanskrit
Sanskrit
अप् (áp) and with the Av- of Avon. The historical Punjab
Punjab
region, now divided between India
India
and Pakistan, is defined physiographically by the Indus River and these five tributaries. One of the five, the Beas River, is a tributary of another, the Sutlej.

Origin[edit] Tilla Jogian, district Jehlum, Punjab, Pakistan
Pakistan
a hilltop associated with many Nath
Nath
jogis (considered among compilers of earlier Punjabi works) Punjabi developed from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
through Prakrit languages and later Apabhraṃśa (Sanskrit: अपभ्रंश; corruption or corrupted speech)[14] From 600 BC Sanskrit
Sanskrit
gave birth to many regional languages in different parts of India. All these languages are called Prakrit (Sanskrit: प्राकृत prākṛta) collectively. Shauraseni Prakrit was one of these Prakrit languages, which was spoken in north and north-western India
India
and Punjabi and western dialects of Hindi
Hindi
developed from this Prakrit. Later in northern India
India
Shauraseni Prakrit gave rise to Shauraseni Aparbhsha, a descendant of Prakrit. Punjabi emerged as an Apabhramsha, a degenerated form of Prakrit, in the 7th century A.D. and became stable by the 10th century.[15][16][16][17][17] By the 10th century, many Nath
Nath
poets were associated with earlier Punjabi works.[citation needed]

Arabic
Arabic
and Persian influence on Punjabi[edit] Arabic
Arabic
and Persian influence in the historical Punjab
Punjab
region began with the late first millennium Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent.[18] The Persian language
Persian language
was introduced in the subcontinent a few centuries later by various Turko-Persian
Turko-Persian
dynasties. Many Persian and Arabic
Arabic
words were incorporated in Punjabi.[19][20] It is noteworthy that the Hindustani language is divided into Hindi, with more Sanskritisation, and Urdu, with more Persianisation, but in Punjabi both Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Persian words are used with a liberal approach to language. Later, it was influenced by Portuguese and English, though these influences have been minor in comparison to Persian and Arabic. However, in India, English words in the official language are more widespread than Hindi.[21]

English

Gurmukhi-based (Punjab, India)

Shahmukhi-based (Punjab, Pakistan)

President

ਰਾਸ਼ਟਰਪਤੀ (rāshtarpatī)

صدرمملک ت (sadar-e mumlikat)

Article

ਲੇਖ (lēkh)

مضمو ن (mazmūn)

Prime Minister

ਪਰਧਾਨ ਮੰਤਰੀ (pardhān mantarī)*

وزیراعظ م (wazīr-e aʿzam)

Family

ਪਰਵਾਰ (parvār)* ਟੱਬਰ (ṭabbar) ਲਾਣਾ (lāṇā)

خاندا ن (kḥāndān) ٹبّ ر (ṭabbar)

Philosophy

ਫ਼ਲਸਫ਼ਾ (falsafā) ਦਰਸ਼ਨ (darshan)

فلسفہ (falsafā)

Capital

ਰਾਜਧਾਨੀ (rājdhānī)

دارالحکوم ت (dārul hakūmat)

Viewer

ਦਰਸ਼ਕ (darshak)

ناظری ن (nāzarīn)

Listener

ਸਰੋਤਾ (sarotā)

سام ع (sāma')

Note: In more formal contexts, hypercorrect Sanskritized versions of these words (ਪ੍ਰਧਾਨ pradhān for ਪਰਧਾਨ pardhān and ਪਰਿਵਾਰ parivār for ਪਰਵਾਰ parvār) may be used. Modern times[edit] Punjabi is spoken in many dialects in an area from Islamabad
Islamabad
to Delhi. The Majhi dialect
Majhi dialect
has been adopted as standard Punjabi in Pakistan
Pakistan
and India
India
for education, media etc. The Majhi dialect
Majhi dialect
originated in the Majha
Majha
region of the Punjab. The Majha
Majha
region consists of several eastern districts of Pakistani Punjab
Punjab
and in India
India
around Amritsar, Gurdaspur, and surrounding districts. The two most important cities in this area are Lahore
Lahore
and Amritsar. In India
India
technical words in Standard Punjabi are loaned from Sanskrit similarly to other major Indian languages, but it generously uses Arabic, Persian, and English words also in the official language. In India, Punjabi is written in the Gurmukhī
Gurmukhī
script in offices, schools, and media. Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
is the official standard script for Punjabi, though it is often unofficially written in the Devanagari
Devanagari
or Latin scripts due to influence from Hindi
Hindi
and English, India's two primary official languages at the Union-level. In Pakistan, Punjabi is generally written using the Shahmukhī script, created from a modification of the Persian Nastaʿlīq script. In Pakistan, Punjabi loans technical words from Persian and Arabic languages, just like Urdu
Urdu
does. Geographic distribution[edit] Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan, the eleventh -most widely spoken in India
India
and spoken Punjabi diaspora
Punjabi diaspora
in various countries.

Pakistan[edit] Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan, being the native language of 44% of its population. It is the provincial language in the Punjab
Punjab
Province.

Census history of Punjabi speakers in Pakistan[22]

Year Population of Pakistan Percentage Punjabi speakers

1951 33,740,167 57.08% 22,632,905

1961 42,880,378 56.39% 28,468,282

1972 65,309,340 56.11% 43,176,004

1981 84,253,644 48.17% 40,584,980

1998 132,352,279 44.15% 58,433,431

Beginning with the 1981 census, speakers of Saraiki and Hindko
Hindko
were no longer included in the total numbers for Punjabi, which could explain the apparent decrease.

India[edit] See also: States of India
India
by Punjabi speakers "Jallianwala Bagh" written in Hindi, Punjabi, and English in Amritsar, India. Punjabi is spoken as a native language, second language, or third language by about 30 million people in India. Punjabi is the official language of the Indian state of Punjab. It is additional official in Haryana
Haryana
and Delhi. Some of its major urban centres in northern India
India
are Ambala, Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Chandigarh, Jalandhar, Bathinda
Bathinda
and Delhi.

Census history of Punjabi speakers in India[23]

Year Population of India Punjabi speakers in India Percentage

1971 548,159,652 14,108,443 2.57%

1981 665,287,849 19,611,199 2.95%

1991 838,583,988 23,378,744 2.79%

2001 1,028,610,328 29,102,477 2.83%

Punjabi diaspora[edit] Main article: Punjabi diaspora Signs in Punjabi (along with English and Chinese) of New Democratic Party of British Columbia, Canada
Canada
during 2009 elections Punjabi is also spoken as a minority language in several other countries where Punjabi people
Punjabi people
have emigrated in large numbers, such as the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, and Canada, where it is the fourth-most-commonly used language.[24] There were 76 million Punjabi speakers in Pakistan
Pakistan
in 2008,[25] 33 million in India
India
in 2011,[26] 368,000 in Canada
Canada
in 2006,[27] and smaller numbers in other countries.

Major dialects[edit] Majhi (Standard Punjabi)[edit] Punjabi dialects The Majhi (ماجھ ی ਮਾਝੀ /'má:d͡ʒi:/) dialect spoken around Amritsar
Amritsar
and Lahore
Lahore
is Punjabi's prestige dialect. Majhi is spoken in the heart of Punjab
Punjab
in the region of Majha, which spans Lahore, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Kasur, Tarn Taran, Faisalabad, Nankana Sahib, Pathankot, Okara, Pakpattan, Sahiwal, Narowal, Sheikhupura, Sialkot, Chiniot, Gujranwala and Gujrat districts. Majhi retains the nasal consonants /ŋ/ and /ɲ/, which have been superseded elsewhere by non-nasals /ɡ/ and /d͡ʒ/ respectively.[citation needed]

Shahpuri[edit] Shahpuri dialect (also known as Sargodha
Sargodha
dialect) is mostly spoken in Pakistani Punjab. Its name is derived from former Shahpur District (now Shahpur Tehsil, being part of Sargodha
Sargodha
District). It is spoken throughout a widespread area, spoken in Sargodha
Sargodha
and Khushab Districts and also spoken in neighbouring Mianwali
Mianwali
and Bhakkar
Bhakkar
Districts. It is mainly spoken on western end of Sindh
Sindh
River to Chennab river crossing Jehlam river.[28]

Malwai[edit] Malwai is spoken in the southern part of Indian Punjab
Punjab
and also in Bahawalnagar
Bahawalnagar
and Vehari
Vehari
districts of Pakistan. Main areas are Barnala, Ludhiana, Patiala, Ambala, Bathinda, Sangrur,[Mansa , Malerkotla, Fazilka, Ferozepur, Moga. Malwa
Malwa
is the southern and central part of present-day Indian Punjab. It also includes the Punjabi speaking northern areas of Haryana, viz. Ambala, Hissar], Narnaul
Narnaul
etc. Not to be confused with the Malvi language, which shares its name.

Doabi[edit] Doabi
Doabi
is spoken in both the Indian Punjab
Punjab
as well as parts of Pakistan Punjab
Punjab
owing to post-1947 migration of Muslim populace from East Punjab. The word "Do Aabi" means "the land between two rivers" and this dialect was historically spoken between the rivers of the Beas and the Sutlej
Sutlej
in the region called Doaba. Regions it is presently spoken includes the Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur and Kapurthala districts in Indian Punjab, specifically in the areas known as the Dona and Manjki, as well as the Toba Tek Singh and Faisalabad districts in Pakistan Punjab
Punjab
where the dialect is known as Faisalabadi Punjabi.

Puadhi[edit] Main article: Puadhi dialect Puadh
Puadh
is a region of Punjab
Punjab
and parts of Haryana
Haryana
between the Satluj and Ghaggar rivers. The part lying south, south-east and east of Rupnagar
Rupnagar
adjacent to Ambala
Ambala
District (Haryana) is Puadhi. The Puadh extends from that part of the Rupnagar
Rupnagar
District which lies near Satluj to beyond the Ghaggar river in the east up to Kala Amb, which is at the border of the states of Himachal pradesh and Haryana. Parts of Fatehgarh Sahib
Fatehgarh Sahib
district, and parts of Patiala
Patiala
districts like Rajpura are also part of Puadh. The Puadhi dialect
Puadhi dialect
is spoken over a large area in present Punjab
Punjab
as well as Haryana. In Punjab, Kharar, Kurali, Ropar, Nurpurbedi, Morinda, Pail, Rajpura and Samrala are areas where Puadhi is spoken and the dialect area also includes Pinjore, Kalka, Ismailabad, Pehowa to Bangar area in Fatehabad district.

Jhangochi/Changvi[edit] Jhangochi (جھنگوچی) dialect is spoken in Pakistani Punjab throughout a widespread area, starting from Khanewal
Khanewal
and Jhang
Jhang
at both ends of Ravi and Chenab to Hafizabad district.

Jangli/Rachnavi[edit] Jangli is a dialect of former nomad tribes of areas whose names are often suffixed with 'Bar' derived from jungle bar before irrigation system arrived in the start of the 20th century, for example, Sandal Bar, Kirana Bar, Neeli Bar, Ganji Bar. Former Layllpur and western half of Montgomary district used to speak this dialect.

Chenavari[edit] West of Chenaab river in Jhang
Jhang
district of Pakistani Punjab
Punjab
the dialect of Jhangochi merges with Thalochi and resultant dialect is Chenavari. Name is derived from Chenaab river.

Phonology[edit] Punjabi has a distinction between peripheral vowels, /i e ɛ a ɔ o u/, which in Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
script are written as if they were long (and are thus sometimes mistakenly called 'long' vowels), and centralized vowels, /ɪ ə ʊ/, which are written as if they were short.

Vowels

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back

Close

i ਈ

u ਊ

Near-close

ɪ ਇ

ʊ ਉ

Close-mid

e ਏ

o ਓ

Mid

ə ਅ

Open-mid

ɛ ਐ

ɔ ਔ

Open

a ਆ

The peripheral vowels have nasal analogues.

Consonants

Labial

Dental/Alveolar

Retroflex

Palatal

Velar

Glottal

Nasal

m ਮ

n̪ ਨ

ɳ ਣ

ɲ ਞ

ŋ ਙ

Stop/Affricate

tenuis

p ਪ

t̪ ਤ

ʈ ਟ

t͡ʃ ਚ

k ਕ

aspirated

pʰ ਫ

t̪ʰ ਥ

ʈʰ ਠ

t͡ʃʰ ਛ

kʰ ਖ

voiced

b ਬ

d̪ ਦ

ɖ ਡ

d͡ʒ ਜ

ɡ ਗ

Fricative

voiceless

f ਫ਼

s ਸ

ʃ ਸ਼

(x ਖ਼)

voiced

z ਜ਼

(ɣ ਗ਼)

Rhotic

ɾ~r ਰ

ɽ ੜ

Approximant

ʋ ਵ

l ਲ

ɭ ਲ਼[29][30][31]

j ਯ

ɦ ਹ

Tone[edit] Punjabi is a tonal language and in any word there is a choice of three tones, high-falling, low-rising, and level (neutral):[32][33][34]

Word

Transliteration

Tone

Meaning

ਘਰ

kàr

high-falling

house

ਕਰ੍ਹ

kár

low-rising

dandruff

ਕਰ

kar

level

do

ਘੋੜਾ

kòṛā

high-falling

horse

ਕੋੜ੍ਹਾ

kóṛā

low-rising

leper

ਕੋੜਾ

koṛā

level

whip

Level tone is found in about 75% of words and is described by some as absence of tone.[32] There are also some words which are said to have rising tone in the first syllable and falling in the second. (Some writers describe this as a fourth tone.)[32] However, a recent acoustic study of six Punjabi speakers in America found no evidence of a separate falling tone following a medial consonant.[35]

ਮੋਢਾ móḍà (rising-falling) "shoulder" Some Punjabi distinct tones for gh, jh, ḍh, dh, bh It is considered that these tones arose when voiced aspirated consonants (gh, jh, ḍh, dh, bh) lost their aspiration. At the beginning of a word they became voiceless unaspirated consonants (k, c, ṭ, t, p) followed by a high-falling tone; medially or finally they became voiced unaspirated consonants (g, j, ḍ, d, b), preceded by a low-rising tone. (The development of a high-falling tone apparently did not take place in every word, but only in those which historically had a long vowel.)[34] The presence of an [h] (although the [h] is now silent or very weakly pronounced except word-initially) word-finally (and sometimes medially) also often causes a rising tone before it, for example cá(h) "tea".[36] The Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
script which was developed in the 16th century has separate letters for voiced aspirated sounds, so it is thought that the change in pronunciation of the consonants and development of tones may have taken place since that time.[34] Some other languages in Pakistan
Pakistan
have also been found to have tonal distinctions, including Burushaski, Gujari, Hindko, Kalami, Shina, and Torwali.[37]

Grammar[edit] Main article: Punjabi grammar Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
alphabet including vowels Punjabi has a canonical word order of SOV (subject–object–verb).[38] It has postpositions rather than prepositions.[39] Punjabi distinguishes two genders, two numbers, and five cases of direct, oblique, vocative, ablative, and locative/instrumental. The ablative occurs only in the singular, in free variation with oblique case plus ablative postposition, and the locative/instrumental is usually confined to set adverbial expressions.[40] Adjectives, when declinable, are marked for the gender, number, and case of the nouns they qualify.[41] There is also a T-V distinction. Upon the inflectional case is built a system of particles known as postpositions, which parallel English's prepositions. It is their use with a noun or verb that is what necessitates the noun or verb taking the oblique case, and it is with them that the locus of grammatical function or "case-marking" then lies. The Punjabi verbal system is largely structured around a combination of aspect and tense/mood. Like the nominal system, the Punjabi verb takes a single inflectional suffix, and is often followed by successive layers of elements like auxiliary verbs and postpositions to the right of the lexical base.[42] The grammar of the Punjabi language
Punjabi language
concerns the word order, case marking, verb conjugation, and other morphological and syntactic structures of the Punjabi language.

Writing systems[edit] Main articles: Gurmukhi, Shahmukhi
Shahmukhi
alphabet, and Punjabi braille Shahmukhi
Shahmukhi
alphabet ا
ا
ب
ب
پ ت ٹ ث
ث
ج
ج
چ
چ
ح خ د
د
ڈ
ڈ
ذ
ذ
ر ڑ
ڑ
ز ژ س
س
ش
ش
ص ض
ض
ط ظ ع غ ف ق
ق
ک گ
گ
ل م ن و
و
ه
ه
ھ
ھ
ء
ء
ی ے
ے

Extended Perso- Arabic
Arabic
script History Transliteration Diacritics Hamza Numerals Numeration vte Punjabi has two major writing systems in use: Gurmukhī, which is a Brahmic script derived from the Laṇḍā script,[43] and Shahmukhi, which is an Arabic
Arabic
script. The term Gurmukhī
Gurmukhī
derives from the term for the followers of Sikhism
Sikhism
attested in Sikh
Sikh
scriptures, Gurmukhs (literally, those with their faces (mukh) toward the Guru, as opposed to a Manmukh, or facing base desires); the script thus came to be known as Gurmukhī, "the script of those guided by the Guru."[44] The word Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
is often also held to mean "from the Guru's mouth",[45] and following this precedent, Shahmukhi means "from the King's mouth".[46] In the Punjab
Punjab
province of Pakistan, the script used is Shahmukhī and differs from the Urdu
Urdu
alphabet in having four additional letters.[47] In the Indian states of Punjab, Haryana
Haryana
and Delhi and other parts of India, the Gurmukhī
Gurmukhī
script is generally used for writing Punjabi.[47] Historically, various local Brahmic scripts including Laṇḍā were also in use.[48]

Sample text[edit] This sample text was taken from the Punjabi article on Lahore. Gurmukhi: ਲਹੌਰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨੀ ਪੰਜਾਬ ਦੀ ਰਾਜਧਾਨੀ ਹੈ । ਲੋਕ ਗਿਣਤੀ ਦੇ ਨਾਲ ਕਰਾਚੀ ਤੋਂ ਬਾਅਦ ਲਹੌਰ ਦੂਜਾ ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਵੱਡਾ ਸ਼ਹਿਰ ਹੈ । ਲਹੌਰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਦਾ ਸਿਆਸੀ, ਰਹਤਲੀ ਅਤੇ ਪੜ੍ਹਾਈ ਦਾ ਗੜ੍ਹ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਇਸੇ ਲਈ ਇਹਨੂੰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਦਾ ਦਿਲ ਵੀ ਕਿਹਾ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ । ਲਹੌਰ ਰਾਵੀ ਦਰਿਆ ਦੇ ਕੰਢੇ 'ਤੇ ਵਸਦਾ ਹੈ । ਇਸਦੀ ਲੋਕ ਗਿਣਤੀ ਇੱਕ ਕਰੋੜ ਦੇ ਨੇੜੇ ਹੈ

Shahmukhi:لہو ر پاکستان ی پنجا ب
ب
دا دارالحکوم ت اے۔ لوک گنت ی د ے
ے
نا ل کراچی توں بع د
د
لہو ر دوج ا
ا
سب ھ
ھ
توں وڈ ا
ا
شہ ر اے۔ لہو ر پاکستا ن د ا
ا
سیاسی، رہتل ی اتے پڑھائ ی د ا
ا
گڑ ھ
ھ
ا ے
ے
اتے، اس ے
ے
لئ ی ایھنوں پاکستا ن د ا
ا
د ل و ی کیھ ا
ا
جاند ا
ا
اے۔ لہور راو ی دری ا
ا
د ے
ے
کنڈھ ے
ے
ت ے
ے
وسد ا
ا
۔ اسد ی لوک گنت ی اک کرو ڑ
ڑ
د ے
ے
نیڑ ے
ے
ا ے
ے
۔ Transliteration: lahaur pākistānī panjāb dī rājtā̀ni ài. lok giṇtī de nāḷ karācī tõ bāad lahaur dūjā sáb tõ vaḍḍā šáir ài. lahaur pākistān dā siāsī, rátalī ate paṛā̀ī dā gáṛ ài te ise laī ínū̃ pākistān dā dil vī kihā jāndā ài. lahaur rāvī dariā de káṇḍè te vasdā ài. isdī lok giṇtī ikk karoṛ de neṛe ài. IPA: [ləɦɔːɾᵊ paːkɪst̪aːniː pənd͡ʒaːbᵊ d̪iː ɾaːd͡ʒᵊt̪àːni: ɦɛ̀ː ‖ lo:kᵊ ɡɪɳᵊt̪iː d̪e naːlᵊ kəɾaːt͡ʃiː t̪õ: baːəd̪ᵊ ləɦɔːɾᵊ d̪uːd͡ʒaː sə́bᵊ t̪õ: ʋːəɖ:aː ʃəɦɪɾ ɦɛ̀ː ‖ ləɦɔːɾᵊ paːkɪst̪aːnᵊ d̪aː sɪaːsiː ɾə́ɦt̪əliː ət̪e: pəɽàːiː d̪aː ɡə́ɽ ɦɛ̀ː ət̪e: ɪse: ləiː ɪ́ɦnū̃ paːkɪst̪aːnᵊ d̪aː d̪ɪlᵊ ʋiː kɪɦaː d͡ʒa:nd̪aː ɛ̀ː ‖ ləɦɔːɾᵊ ɾaːʋiː d̪əɾɪa: d̪e: kə́ɳɖe: t̪e: ʋəsᵊd̪iː ɛ̀ː ‖ ɪsᵊd̪iː lo:kᵊ ɡɪɳᵊt̪iː ɪkːᵊ kəɾo:ɽᵊ d̪e: ne:ɽe: ɛ̀ː ‖] Translation: Lahore
Lahore
is the capital city of Pakistani Punjab. After Karachi, Lahore
Lahore
is the second largest city. Lahore
Lahore
is Pakistan's political, cultural, and educational hub, and so it is also said to be the heart of Pakistan. Lahore
Lahore
lies on the bank of the Ravi River. Its population is close to ten million people.

Literature development[edit] Main article: Punjabi literature Medieval era, Mughal and Sikh
Sikh
period[edit] The earliest Punjabi literature
Punjabi literature
is found in the fragments of writings of the 11th Nath
Nath
yogis (ਨਾਥਯੋਗੀ, ناتھیوگی) Gorakshanath and Charpatnah which is primarily spiritual and mystical in tone.[citation needed] Fariduddin Ganjshakar
Fariduddin Ganjshakar
(1179-1266) is generally recognised as the first major poet of the Punjabi language.[49] Roughly from the 12th century to the 19th century, many great Sufi saints and poets preached in the Punjabi language, the most prominent being Bulleh Shah. Punjabi Sufi poetry also developed under Shah Hussain
Shah Hussain
(1538–1599), Sultan Bahu (1630–1691), Shah Sharaf (1640–1724), Ali Haider (1690–1785), Waris Shah
Waris Shah
(1722–1798), Saleh Muhammad Safoori (1747-1826), Mian Muhammad Baksh (1830-1907) and Khwaja Ghulam Farid (1845-1901). Sufi poets have enriched Punjabi literature The Sikh
Sikh
religion originated in the 15th century in the Punjab
Punjab
region and Punjabi is the predominant language spoken by Sikhs.[50] Most portions of the Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
use the Punjabi language written in Gurmukhi, though Punjabi is not the only language used in Sikh
Sikh
scriptures. Varan Gyan Ratnavali by 16th-century historian Bhai Gurdas. The Janamsakhis
Janamsakhis
(ਜਨਮਸਾਖੀ, جن م ساکھی), stories on the life and legend of Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
(1469–1539), are early examples of Punjabi prose literature.

The Punjabi language
Punjabi language
is famous for its rich literature of qisse (ਕਿੱਸੇ, قصّے), most of the which are about love, passion, betrayal, sacrifice, social values and a common man's revolt against a larger system. The qissa of Heer Ranjha
Heer Ranjha
by Waris Shah (1706–1798) is among the most popular of Punjabi qissas. Other popular stories include Sohni Mahiwal
Sohni Mahiwal
by Fazal Shah, Mirza Sahiban by Hafiz Barkhudar (1658–1707), Sassui Punnhun by Hashim Shah (c. 1735–c. 1843), and Qissa Puran Bhagat by Qadaryar (1802–1892).[citation needed] Heroic ballads known as Vaar (ਵਾਰ, وار) enjoy a rich oral tradition in Punjabi. Famous Vaars are Chandi di Var (1666–1708), Nadir Shah Di Vaar by Najabat and the Jangnama of Shah Mohammad (1780–1862).[51] British Raj era and post-independence period[edit] Ghadar di Gunj
Ghadar di Gunj
1913, newspaper in Punjabi of Ghadar Party, US-based Indian revolutionary party. The Victorian novel, Elizabethan drama, free verse and Modernism entered Punjabi literature
Punjabi literature
through the introduction of British education during the Raj. Nanak Singh (1897–1971), Vir Singh, Ishwar Nanda, Amrita Pritam (1919–2005), Puran Singh
Puran Singh
(1881–1931), Dhani Ram Chatrik (1876–1957), Diwan Singh (1897–1944) and Ustad Daman (1911–1984), Mohan Singh (1905–78) and Shareef Kunjahi are some legendary Punjabi writers of this period. After independence of Pakistan
Pakistan
and India
India
Najm Hossein Syed, Fakhar Zaman and Afzal Ahsan Randhawa, Shafqat Tanvir Mirza, Ahmad Salim, and Najm Hosain Syed, Munir Niazi, Pir Hadi abdul Mannan enriched Punjabi literature in Pakistan, whereas Amrita Pritam (1919–2005), Jaswant Singh Rahi (1930–1996), Shiv Kumar Batalvi
Shiv Kumar Batalvi
(1936–1973), Surjit Patar (1944–) and Pash (1950–1988) are some of the more prominent poets and writers from India.

Status[edit] Despite Punjabi's rich literary history, it was not until 1947 that it would be recognized as an official language. Previous governments in the area of the Punjab
Punjab
had favoured Persian, Hindustani, or even earlier standardised versions of local registers as the language of the court or government. After the annexation of the Sikh
Sikh
Empire by the British East India
India
Company following the Second Anglo- Sikh
Sikh
War in 1849, the British policy of establishing a uniform language for administration was expanded into the Punjab. The British Empire employed Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu
Urdu
in its administration of North-Central and North-West India, while in the North-East of India, Bengali was used as the language of administration. Despite its lack of official sanction, the Punjabi language
Punjabi language
continued to flourish as an instrument of cultural production, with rich literary traditions continuing until modern times. The Sikh
Sikh
religion, with its Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
script, played a special role in standardising and providing education in the language via Gurdwaras, while writers of all religions continued to produce poetry, prose, and literature in the language. In India, Punjabi is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. It is the first official language of the Indian State of Punjab. Punjabi also has second language official status in Delhi
Delhi
along with Urdu, and in Haryana. In Pakistan, no regional ethnic language has been granted official status at the national level, and as such Punjabi is not an official language at the national level, even though it is the most spoken language in Pakistan
Pakistan
after Urdu, the national language of Pakistan. It is, however, the official provincial language of Punjab, Pakistan, the second largest and the most populous province of Pakistan
Pakistan
as well as in Islamabad
Islamabad
Capital Territory. The only two official national languages in Pakistan
Pakistan
are Urdu
Urdu
and English, which are considered the lingua francas of Pakistan.

In Pakistan[edit] When Pakistan
Pakistan
was created in 1947, although Punjabi was the majority language in West Pakistan
Pakistan
and Bengali the majority in East Pakistan and Pakistan
Pakistan
as whole, English and Urdu
Urdu
were chosen as the national languages. The selection of Urdu
Urdu
was due to its association with South Asian Muslim nationalism and because the leaders of the new nation wanted a unifying national language instead of promoting one ethnic group's language over another. Broadcasting in Punjabi language
Punjabi language
by Pakistan
Pakistan
Broadcasting Corporation decreased on TV and radio after 1947. Article 251 of the Constitution of Pakistan
Pakistan
declares that these two languages would be the only official languages at the national level, while provincial governments would be allowed to make provisions for the use of other languages.[52] However, in the 1950s the constitution was amended to include the Bengali language. Eventually, Punjabi was granted status as a provincial language in Punjab
Punjab
Province, while the Sindhi language
Sindhi language
was given official status in 1972 after 1972 Language violence in Sindh. Despite gaining official recognition at the provincial level, Punjabi is not a language of instruction for primary or secondary school students in Punjab
Punjab
Province (unlike Sindhi and Pashto
Pashto
in other provinces).[53] Pupils in secondary schools can choose the language as an elective, while Punjabi instruction or study remains rare in higher education. One notable example is the teaching of Punjabi language
Punjabi language
and literature by the University of the Punjab
Punjab
in Lahore
Lahore
which began in 1970 with the establishment of its Punjabi Department.[54][55] In the cultural sphere, there are many books, plays, and songs being written or produced in the Punjabi-language in Pakistan. Until the 1970s, there were a large number of Punjabi-language films being produced by the Lollywood film industry, however since then Urdu
Urdu
has become a much more dominant language in film production. Additionally, television channels in Punjab
Punjab
Province (centred on the Lahore
Lahore
area) are broadcast in Urdu. The preeminence of Urdu
Urdu
in both broadcasting and the Lollywood film industry is seen by critics as being detrimental to the health of the language.[56][57]

Language demands in Punjab
Punjab
province[edit] A demonstration by Punjabis
Punjabis
at Lahore, Pakistan, demanding to make Punjabi as official language of instruction in schools of the Punjab. The use of Urdu
Urdu
and English as the near exclusive languages of broadcasting, the public sector, and formal education have led some to fear that Punjabi in Pakistan
Pakistan
is being relegated to a low-status language and that it is being denied an environment where it can flourish. Several prominent educational leaders, researchers, and social commentators have echoed the opinion that the intentional promotion of Urdu
Urdu
and the continued denial of any official sanction or recognition of the Punjabi language
Punjabi language
amounts to a process of "Urdu-isation" that is detrimental to the health of the Punjabi language[58][59][60] In August 2015, the Pakistan
Pakistan
Academy of Letters, International Writer’s Council (IWC) and World Punjabi Congress (WPC) organised the Khawaja Farid Conference and demanded that a Punjabi-language university should be established in Lahore
Lahore
and that Punjabi language
Punjabi language
should be declared as the medium of instruction at the primary level.[61][62] In September 2015, a case was filed in Supreme Court of Pakistan
Pakistan
against Government of Punjab, Pakistan
Pakistan
as it did not take any step to implement the Punjabi language
Punjabi language
in the province.[63][64] Additionally, several thousand Punjabis
Punjabis
gather in Lahore
Lahore
every year on International Mother Language Day. Hafiz Saeed, chief of Jama'at-ud-Da'wah (JuD) has questioned Pakistan's decision to adopt Urdu
Urdu
as its national language in a country where majority of people speak Punjabi language, citing his interpretation of Islamic doctrine as encouraging education in the mother-tongue.[65] The list of thinktanks, political organisations, cultural projects, and individuals that demand authorities at the national and provincial level to promote the use of the language in the public and official spheres includes:

Cultural and research institutes: Punjabi Adabi Board, the Khoj Garh Research Centre, Punjabi Prachar, Institute for Peace and Secular Studies, Adbi Sangat, Khaaksaar Tehreek, Saanjh, Maan Boli Research Centre, Punjabi Sangat Pakistan, Punjabi Markaz, Sver International Trade unions and youth groups: Punjabi Writers Forum, National Students Federation, Punjabi Union-Pakistan, Punjabi National Conference, National Youth Forum, Punjabi Writers Forum, National Students Federation, Punjabi Union, Pakistan, and the Punjabi National Conference. Notable activists include Tariq Jatala, Farhad Iqbal, Diep Saeeda, Khalil Ojla, Tajammul Kaleem, Afzal Sahir, Jamil Ahmad Paul, Mazhar Tirmazi, Mushtaq Sufi, Biya Je, Tohid Ahmad Chattha and Bilal Shaker Kahaloon, Nazeer Kahut[66][67][68] In India[edit] At the federal level, Punjabi has official status via the Eighth Schedule to the Indian Constitution,[69] earned after the Punjabi Suba movement
Punjabi Suba movement
of the 1950s.[70] At the state level, Punjabi is the sole official language of the state of Punjab, while it has secondary official status in the states of Haryana
Haryana
and Delhi.[71] Both federal and state laws specify the use of Punjabi in the field of education. The state of Punjab
Punjab
uses the Three Language Formula, and Punjabi is required to be either the medium of instruction, or one of the three languages learnt in all schools in Punjab.[72] Punjabi is also a compulsory language in Haryana,[73] and other states with a significant Punjabi speaking minority are required to offer Punjabi medium education.[dubious – discuss] There are vibrant Punjabi language
Punjabi language
movie and news industries in India, however Punjabi serials have had a much smaller presence within the last few decades in television due to market forces.[74] Despite Punjabi having far greater official recognition in India, "where the Punjabi language
Punjabi language
is officially admitted in all necessary social functions, while in Pakistan
Pakistan
it is used only in a few radio and TV programs," attitudes of the English-educated elite towards the language are ambivalent as they are in neighboring Pakistan.[69]:37 There are also claims of state apathy towards the language in non-Punjabi majority areas like Haryana
Haryana
and Delhi.[75][76][77]

Advocacy[edit] Punjabi University, It was established on the 30 April 1962, and is only the second university in the world to be named after a language, after Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The Research Centre for Punjabi Language Technology, Punjabi University, Patiala.[78] It is working for development of core technologies for Punjabi, Digitisation of basic materials, online Punjabi teaching, developing software for office use in Punjabi, provinding common platform to Punjabi cyber community.[79] Punjabipedia, an online encyclopaedia was also launched by Patiala
Patiala
university in 2014.[80][81] The Dhahan Prize was created award literary works produced in Punjabi around the world. The Prize encourages new writing by awarding $25,000 CDN annually to one "best book of fiction" published in either of the two Punjabi scripts, Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
or Shahmukhi. Two second prizes of $5,000 CDN are also awarded, with the provision that both scripts are represented among the three winners. The Dhahan Prize is awarded by Canada
Canada
India
India
Education Society (CIES).[82] Governmental academies and institutes[edit] The Punjabi Sahit academy, Ludhiana, established in 1954[83][84] is supported by the Punjab
Punjab
state government and works exclusively for promotion of the Punjabi language, as does the Punjabi academy in Delhi.[85] The Jammu and Kashmir academy of art, culture and literature[86] in Jammu and Kashmir, India
India
works for Punjabi and other regional languages like Urdu, Dogri, Gojri etc. Institutions in neighboring states[87] as well as in Lahore, Pakistan[88] also advocate for the language.

Punjabi Sahit academy, Ludhiana,1954

Punjabi academy, Delhi,1981-1982

Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
academy of art, culture and literature

Pilac( Punjab
Punjab
Institute of Language, Art and Culture, Lahore,2004

Software[edit] Software are available for Punjabi language
Punjabi language
for almost all platforms. These software are mainly in Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
script. Nowadays, nearly all Punjabi newspapers, magazines, journals, and periodicals are composed on computers via various Punjabi software programmes, the most widespread of which is InPage
InPage
Desktop Publishing package. Microsoft has included Punjabi language
Punjabi language
support in all new versions of Windows and both Windows Vista, Mircrsoft Office 2007, 2010 and 2013, are available in Punjabi through the Language Interface Pack[89] support. Most Linux
Linux
Desktop distributions allow the easy installation of Punjabi support and translations as well.[90] Apple implemented the Punjabi language
Punjabi language
keyboard across Mobile devices.[91] Google
Google
also provides many applications in Punjabi, like Google
Google
Search,[92] Google
Google
Translate[93] and Google
Google
Punjabi Input Tools.[94] Gallery[edit]

Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
in Gurmukhi

Punjabi Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
script

Punjabi Shahmukhi
Shahmukhi
script

Bhulay Shah poetry in Punjabi ( Shahmukhi
Shahmukhi
script)

Munir Niazi
Munir Niazi
poetry in Punjabi ( Shahmukhi
Shahmukhi
script)

Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
alphabet

A sign board in Punjabi language
Punjabi language
along with Hindi
Hindi
at Hanumangarh, Rajasthan, India

See also[edit]

Punjab
Punjab
portal Languages portal Punjabi Languages of Pakistan Languages of India List of Indian languages by total speakers List of Punjabi-language newspapers Hindi-to-Punjabi Machine Translation
Translation
System Punjabi cinema Notes[edit]

^ Punjabi language
Punjabi language
at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(21st ed., 2018)

^ Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2019. Full report available at http://censusindia.gov.in/2011Census/Language_MTs.html

^ a b " Pakistan
Pakistan
Census". Census.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 12 September 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2014..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Eastern Panjabi". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.

^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh

^ a b Kachru, Braj B.; Kachru, Yamuna; Sridhar, S. N. (27 March 2008). Language in South Asia. Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. p. 128. ISBN 978-1-139-46550-2. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 24 October 2014. Sikhs often write Punjabi in Gurmukhi, Hindus in Devanagari, and Muslims in Perso-Arabic.

^ Bhatia, Tej (1999). "Lexican Anaphors and Pronouns in Punjabi". In Lust, Barbara; Gair, James (eds.). Lexical Anaphors and Pronouns in Selected South Asian Languages. Walter de Gruyter. p. 637. ISBN 978-3-11-014388-1. Other tonal Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
include Lahnda and Western Pahari.

^ Phonemic Inventory of Punjabi Archived 16 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine[failed verification]

^ Geeti Sen. Crossing Boundaries. Orient Blackswan, 1997. ISBN 978-81-250-1341-9. Page 132. Quote: "Possibly, Punjabi is the only major South Asian language that has this kind of tonal character. There does seem to have been some speculation among scholars about the possible origin of Punjabi's tone-language character but without any final and convincing answer..."

^ Sub accents in Punjabi language
Punjabi language
in both Indian and Pakistani Punjab

^ Canfield, Robert L. (1991). Persia in Historical Perspective. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. p. 1 ("Origins"). ISBN 978-0-521-52291-5.

^ Sir, Yule, Henry, (13 August 2018). "Hobson-Jobson: A glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases, and of Kindred Terms, Etymological, Historical, Geographical and Discursive". dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu.

^ Macdonell, Arthur Anthony (13 August 2018). "A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary with Transliteration, Accentuation, and Etymological Analysis Throughout".

^ .https://books.google.com/books?id=gqIbJz7vMn0C&pg=PA166&dq=punjabi+prakrit+language&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwie9PGZnrzQAhXMtI8KHay-AfwQ6AEIKTAD#v=onepage&q=punjabi%20prakrit%20language&f=false Archived 21 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine

^ India's culture through the ages by Mohan Lal Vidyarthi. Published by Tapeshwari Sahitya Mandir, 1952. Page 148: "From the apabhramsha of Sauraseni are derived Punjabi, Western Hindi, Rajasthani and Gujerati [sic]..."

^ a b National Communication and Language Policy in India
India
By Baldev Raj Nayar. Published by F. A. Praeger, 1969. Page 35. "...Sauraseni Aprabhramsa from which have emerged the modern Western Hindi
Hindi
and Punjabi."

^ a b The Sauraseni Prākrit Language Archived 23 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. "This Middle Indic language originated in Mathura, and was the main language used in drama in Northern India
India
in the mediaeval era. Two of its descendants are Hindi
Hindi
and Punjabi."

^ Brard, G.S.S. (2007). East of Indus: My Memories of Old Punjab. Hemkunt Publishers. p. 81. ISBN 9788170103608. Archived from the original on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2017.

^ Mir, F. (2010). The Social Space of Language: Vernacular Culture in British Colonial Punjab. University of California Press. p. 35. ISBN 9780520262690. Archived from the original on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2017.

^ Schiffman, H. (2011). Language Policy and Language Conflict in Afghanistan and Its Neighbors: The Changing Politics of Language Choice. Brill. p. 314. ISBN 9789004201453. Archived from the original on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2017.

^ Menon, A.S.; Kusuman, K.K. (1990). A Panorama of Indian Culture: Professor A. Sreedhara Menon Felicitation Volume. Mittal Publications. p. 87. ISBN 9788170992141. Archived from the original on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2017.

^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 September 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

^ "Growth of Scheduled Languages-1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001". Census of India. Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Archived from the original on 20 February 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2015.

^ "Punjabi is 4th most spoken language in Canada". The Times of India. 14 February 2008. Archived from the original on 14 November 2016.

^ Pakistan
Pakistan
1998 census – Population by mother tongue Archived 17 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine

^ "Indian Census". Censusindia.gov.in. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2014.

^ "Population by mother tongue in Canada". 0.statcan.gc.ca. 13 February 2013. Archived from the original on 14 January 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2014.

^ "The Art and Culture of the Diaspora | Mother Tongue: The Many Dialects of Punjabi". Sikhchic.com. Retrieved 2 February 2016.

^ Masica (1991:97)

^ Arora, K. K.; Arora, S.; Singla, S. R.; Agrawal, S. S. (2007). "SAMPA for Hindi
Hindi
and Punjabi based on their Acoustic and Phonetic Characteristics". Proceedings Oriental COCOSDA: 4–6.

^ Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 190–191. ISBN 978-0631198154.

^ a b c Bailey, T.Grahame (1919), English-Punjabi Dictionary, introduction.

^ Singh, Sukhvindar, "Tone Rules and Tone Sandhi in Punjabi".

^ a b c Bowden, A.L. (2012). "Punjabi Tonemics and the Gurmukhi Script: A Preliminary Study".

^ Kanwal, J.; Ritchart, A.V (2015) "An experimental investigation of tonogenesis in Punjabi". Proceedings of the 18th International of Phonetic Sciences, 2015

^ Lata, Swaran; Arora, Swati (2013) "Laryngeal Tonal characteristics of Punjabi: An Experimental Study"

^ Baart, J.L.G. "Tonal features in languages of northern Pakistan"

^ Gill, Harjeet Singh and Gleason Jr, Henry A. (1969). A Reference Grammar of Panjabi. Patiala: Department of Linguistics, Punjabi University

^ Wals.info

^ Shackle (2003:599)

^ Shackle (2003:601)

^ Masica (1991:257)

^ " Punjabi language
Punjabi language
and the Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
and Shahmuhi scripts and pronunciation". www.omniglot.com. Archived from the original on 25 November 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2016.

^ George Cardona and Danesh Jain (2003), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415772945, page 594

^ Khalsa, Sukhmandir. "Introduction to Gurmukhi". About.com. Archived from the original on 17 March 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2013.

^ Saini, Tejinder, Lehal Gurpreet, and Kalra Virinder (2008). Shahmukhi
Shahmukhi
to Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
Transliteration
Transliteration
System. p. 177.

^ a b "Punjabi". University of California, Los Angeles. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 30 July 2013.

^ Shackle, Christopher (2003). "Panjabi". In George Cardona; Dhanesh Jain (eds.). The Indo-Aryan languages. Routledge language family series. Y. London: Routledge. p. 594. ISBN 978-0-7007-1130-7.

^ Shiv Kumar Batalvi
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References[edit] Grierson, George A. 1904–1928. Grierson's Linguistic Survey of India. Calcutta. Masica, Colin (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2. Shackle, Christopher (2003), "Panjabi", in Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh (eds.), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, pp. 581–621, ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5. Further reading[edit] Bhatia, Tej. 1993 and 2010. Punjabi : a cognitive-descriptive grammar. London: Routledge. Series: Descriptive grammars. Gill H.S. [Harjit Singh] and Gleason, H.A. 1969. A reference grammar of Punjabi. Revised edition. Patiala, Punjab, India: Languages Department, Punjab
Punjab
University. Chopra, R. M., Perso- Arabic
Arabic
Words in Punjabi, in: Indo-Iranica Vol.53 (1–4). Chopra, R. M.., The Legacy of The Punjab, 1997, Punjabee Bradree, Calcutta. Singh, Chander Shekhar (2004). Punjabi Prosody: The Old Tradition and The New Paradigm. Sri Lanka: Polgasowita: Sikuru Prakasakayo. Singh, Chander Shekhar (2014). Punjabi Intonation: An Experimental Study. Muenchen: LINCOM EUROPA. External links[edit]

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