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Punjab portalvte The Punjab (/pʌnˈdʒɑːb/ (listen), /-ˈdʒæb/, /ˈpʌndʒɑːb/, /-dʒæb/; native pronunciation: [pənˈdʒaːb]), also spelled and romanised as Panjāb,[a] is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India. The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. Until the Partition of Punjab in 1947, the British Punjab Province encompassed the present-day Indian states and union territories of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh, and Delhi; and the Pakistani provinces of Punjab and Islamabad Capital Territory. It bordered the Balochistan and Pashtunistan regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, and Rajasthan and Sindh to the south. The Partition of Punjab divided the Land of the Five Rivers between India and Pakistan, yet, geographically, it stands as one indivisible unit. The people of the Punjab today are called Punjabis, and their principal language is Punjabi. The main religions of the Indian Punjab region are Sikhism and Hinduism. The main religion of the Pakistani Punjab region is Islam. Other religious groups are Christianity, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, and Ravidassia. The Punjab region has been inhabited by the Indus Valley Civilisation, Indo-Aryan peoples, and Indo-Scythians, and has seen numerous invasions by the Persians, Greeks, Kushans, Ghaznavids, Timurids, Mughals, Pashtuns, British, and others. Historic foreign invasions mainly targeted the most productive central region of the Punjab known as the Majha region, which is also the bedrock of Punjabi culture and traditions. The Punjab region is often referred to as the breadbasket in both India and Pakistan.
1 Etymology 2 Political geography
2.1 1947 definition
2.1.1 Present day maps 2.1.2 Major cities
2.2 Older 1846–1849 definition
2.2.1 Major cities
2.3 Greater Punjab
3 Climate 4 History
5.1 Ethnic background 5.2 Languages 5.3 Religions 5.4 Punjabi festivals 5.5 Punjabi clothing
6 Economy 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links
Etymology The region was originally called Sapta Sindhu, the Vedic land of the seven rivers flowing into the ocean. The origin of the word Punjab can probably be traced to the Sanskrit "panca-nada" [pɐntʃɐnɐd̪ɐ], which literally means "five rivers", and is used as the name of a region in Mahabharata. The later name of the region, Punjab, is a compound of two Persian words: پنج panj [pændʒ]—meaning "five"—and آب âb [ɒːb]—meaning "water", introduced to the region by the Turko-Persian conquerors of India, and more formally popularised during the Mughal Empire. Punjab thus means "[The Land of] Five Waters", referring to the rivers Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, and Beas. All are tributaries of the Indus River, the Sutlej being the largest. The Greeks referred to the region as Pentapotamía (Greek: Πενταποταμία), which has the same etymology as the original Persian word, but is otherwise known as Pantzáb (Παντζάμπ)—a transliteration of the original word.
Political geography There are two main definitions of the Punjab region: the 1947 definition and the older 1846–1849 definition. A third definition incorporates both the 1947 and the older definitions but also includes northern Rajasthan on a linguistic basis and ancient river movements.
1947 definition The 1947 definition defines the Punjab region with reference to the dissolution of British India whereby the then British Punjab Province was partitioned between India and Pakistan. In Pakistan, the region now includes the Punjab province and Islamabad Capital Territory. In India, it includes the Punjab state, Chandigarh, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh. Using the 1947 definition, the Punjab borders the Balochistan and Pashtunistan regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, and Rajasthan and Sindh to the south. Accordingly, the Punjab region is very diverse and stretches from the hills of the Kangra Valley to the plains and to the Cholistan Desert.
Present day maps
Punjab, India, 2014
Himachal Pradesh, India
Major cities Main article: List of cities in the Punjab region by population
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
Golden Temple, Amritsar
Clock Tower, Faisalabad
Aerial view of Multan Ghanta Ghar chawk
Open Hand monument, Chandigarh
Faisal Masjid (Margalla Hills)
Using the 1947 definition of the Punjab region, some of the major cities of the area include Lahore, Faisalabad and Ludhiana.
Older 1846–1849 definition The Punjab, 1849 The Punjab, 1880 Punjab Province (British India), 1909 The older definition of the Punjab region focuses on the collapse of the Sikh Empire and the creation of the British Punjab province between 1846 and 1849. According to this definition, the Punjab region incorporates, in Pakistan, Azad Kashmir including Bhimber and Mirpur and parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (especially Peshawar known in the Punjab region as Pishore). In India the wider definition includes parts of Delhi and Jammu Division. Using the older definition of the Punjab region, the Punjab region covers a large territory and can be divided into five natural areas:
the eastern mountainous region including Jammu Division and Azad Kashmir; the trans-Indus region including Peshawar; the central plain with its five rivers; the north-western region, separated from the central plain by the Salt Range between the Jhelum and the Indus rivers; the semi-desert to the south of the Sutlej river. The formation of the Himalayan Range of mountains to the east and north-east of the Punjab is the result of a collision between the north-moving Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. The plates are still moving together, and the Himalayas are rising by about 5 millimetres (0.2 in) per year. The upper regions are snow-covered the whole year. Lower ranges of hills run parallel to the mountains. The Lower Himalayan Range runs from north of Rawalpindi through Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and further south. The mountains are relatively young, and are eroding rapidly. The Indus and the five rivers of the Punjab have their sources in the mountain range and carry loam, minerals and silt down to the rich alluvial plains, which consequently are very fertile.
Major cities According to the older definition, some of the major cities include Jammu, Peshawar and parts of Delhi.
Bahu Fort, Jammu, India
Jama Masjid, Delhi
City view, Mirpur
Greater Punjab The third definition of the Punjab region adds to the definitions cited above and includes parts of Rajasthan on linguistic lines and takes into consideration the location of the Punjab rivers in ancient times. In particular, the Sri Ganganagar and Hanumangarh districts are included in the Punjab region.
Anupgarh fort in Anupgarh city
Bhatner fort in Hanumangarh city
Climate The snow-covered HimalayasThe climate is a factor contributing to the economy of the Punjab. It is not uniform over the whole region, with the sections adjacent to the Himalayas receiving heavier rainfall than those at a distance. There are three main seasons and two transitional periods. During the hot season from mid-April to the end of June, the temperature may reach 49 °C (120 °F). The monsoon season, from July to September, is a period of heavy rainfall, providing water for crops in addition to the supply from canals and irrigation systems. The transitional period after the monsoon is cool and mild, leading to the winter season, when the temperature in January falls to 5 °C (41 °F) at night and 12 °C (54 °F) by day. During the transitional period from winter to the hot season, sudden hailstorms and heavy showers may occur, causing damage to crops.
History Main article: History of the Punjab Taxila in Pakistan is a World Heritage Site The Punjab region of India and Pakistan has a historical and cultural link to Indo-Aryan peoples as well as partially to various indigenous communities. As a result of several invasions from Central Asia and the Middle East, many ethnic groups and religions make up the cultural heritage of the Punjab. In prehistoric times, one of the earliest known cultures of South Asia, the Indus Valley civilisation was located in the region. The epic battles described in the Mahabharata are described as being fought in what is now the State of Haryana and historic Punjab. The Gandharas, Kambojas, Trigartas, Andhra, Pauravas, Bahlikas (Bactrian settlers of the Punjab), Yaudheyas and others sided with the Kauravas in the great battle fought at Kurukshetra. According to Dr Fauja Singh and Dr L. M. Joshi: "There is no doubt that the Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Andhra, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas, Saindhavas and Kurus had jointly contributed to the heroic tradition and composite culture of ancient Punjab".
Menander I Soter (165/155 –130 BCE), conqueror of the Punjab, carved out a Greek kingdom in the Punjab and ruled the Punjab until his death in 130 BC.In 326 BCE, Alexander the Great invaded Pauravas and defeated King Porus. His armies entered the region via the Hindu Kush in northwest Pakistan and his rule extended up to the city of Sagala (present-day Sialkot in northeast Pakistan). In 305 BCE the area was ruled by the Maurya Empire. In a long line of succeeding rulers of the area, Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka stand out as the most renowned. The Maurya presence in the area was then consolidated in the Indo-Greek Kingdom in 180 BCE. Menander I Soter "The Saviour" (known as Milinda in Indian sources) is the most renowned leader of the era, he conquered the Punjab and made Sagala the capital of his Empire. Menander carved out a Greek kingdom in the Punjab and ruled the region till his death in 130 BCE. The neighbouring Seleucid Empire rule came to an end around 12 BCE, after several invasions by the Yuezhi and the Scythian people. In 711–713 CE, the 18-year-old Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim of Taif, a city in what is now Saudi Arabia, came by way of the Arabian Sea with Arab troops to defeat Raja Dahir. Bin Qasim then led his troops to conquer the Sindh and Punjab regions for the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate, making him the first to bring Islam to the region.
A section of the Lahore Fort built by the Mughal emperor Akbar During the establishment and consolidation of the Muslim Turkic Mughal Empire prosperity, growth, and relative peace were established, particularly under the reign of Jahangir. Muslim empires ruled the Punjab for approximately 1,000 years. The period was also notable for the emergence of Guru Nanak (1469–1539), the founder of Sikhism. The Afghan forces of Durrani Empire also known as Afghan Empire under the command of Ahmad Shah Durrani entered Punjab in 1749, and captured Punjab, with Lahore being governed by Pashtuns, and Kashmir regions. In 1758, Punjab came under the rule of Marathas, who captured the region by defeating the Afghan forces of Ahmad Shah Abdali. Following Third Battle of Panipat against Marathas, Durranis reconsolidated its power and dominion over Punjab, Kashmir regions. Abdali's Indian invasion weakened the Maratha influence. After the death of Ahmad Shah, the Punjab was freed from the Afghan rule by Sikhs for a brief period between 1773 and 1818. At the time of the formation of the Dal Khalsa in 1748 at Amritsar, the Punjab had been divided into 36 areas and 12 separate Sikh principalities, called misl. From this point onward, the beginnings of a Punjabi Sikh Empire emerged. Out of the 36 areas, 22 were united by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The other 14 accepted British sovereignty. After Ranjit Singh's death, assassinations and internal divisions severely weakened the empire. Six years later the British East India Company was given an excuse to declare war, and in 1849, after two Anglo-Sikh wars, the Punjab was annexed by the British. In the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Sikh rulers backed the East India Company, providing troops and support, but in Jhelum 35 British soldiers of HM XXIV regiment were killed by the local resistance, and in Ludhiana a rebellion was crushed with the assistance of the Punjab chiefs of Nabha and Malerkotla. The British Raj had political, cultural, philosophical, and literary consequences in the Punjab, including the establishment of a new system of education. During the independence movement, many Punjabis played a significant role, including Madan Lal Dhingra, Sukhdev Thapar, Ajit Singh Sandhu, Bhagat Singh, Udham Singh, Kartar Singh Sarabha, Bhai Parmanand, Muhammad Iqbal, Chaudhary Rehmat Ali, and Lala Lajpat Rai. At the time of partition in 1947, the province was split into East and West Punjab. East Punjab (48%) became part of India, while West Punjab (52%) became part of Pakistan. The Punjab bore the brunt of the civil unrest following the end of the British Raj, with casualties estimated to be in the millions.
Timeline 3300–1500 BCE: Indus Valley Civilisation 1500–1000 BCE: (Rigvedic) Vedic civilisation 1000–500 BCE: Middle and late Vedic Period 599 BCE: Birth of Mahavira 567–487 BCE: Time of Gautama Buddha 550 BCE – 600 CE: Buddhism remained prevalent 326 BCE: Alexander's Invasion of Punjab 322–298 BCE: Chandragupta I, Maurya period 273–232 BCE: Reign of Ashoka 125–160 BCE: Rise of the Sakas 2 BCE: Beginning of Rule of the Sakas 45–180: Rule of the Kushans 320–550: Gupta Empire 500: Hunnic Invasion 510–650: Vardhana's Era 711–713: Muhammad bin Qasim conquers Sindh and small part of Punjab region 713–1200: Rajput states, Kabul Shahi & small Muslim kingdoms 1206–1290: Mamluk dynasty established by Mohammad Ghori 1290–1320: Khalji dynasty established by Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji 1320–1413: Tughlaq dynasty established by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq 1414–1451: Sayyid dynasty established by Khizr Khan 1451–1526: Lodhi dynasty established by Bahlul Khan Lodhi 1469–1539: Guru Nanak 1526–1707: Mughal rule 1526–1530: Zaheeruddin Muhammad Babur 1530–1540: Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun 1540–1545: Sher Shah Suri of Afghanistan 1545–1554: Islam Shah Suri 1555–1556: Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun 1556–1556: Hem Chandra Vikramaditya 1556–1605: Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar 1605–1627: Nooruddin Muhammad Jahangir 1627–1658: Shahaabuddin Muhammad Shah Jahan 1658–1707: Mohiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir 1539–1675: Period of 8 Sikh Gurus from Guru Angad Dev to Guru Tegh Bahadur 1675–1708: Guru Gobind Singh (10th Sikh Guru) 1699: Birth of the Khalsa 1708–1713: Conquests of Banda Bahadur 1722: Birth of Ahmed Shah Durrani, either in Multan in Mughal Empire or Herat in Afghanistan 1714–1759: Sikh chiefs (Sardars) war against Afghans & Mughal Governors 1739: Invasion by Nader Shah and defeat of weakened Mughal Empire 1747–1772: Durrani Empire led by Ahmad Shah Durrani 1756–1759: Sikh and Maratha Empire cooperation in the Punjab 1761: The Third Battle of Panipat, between the Durrani Empire against the Maratha Empire. 1762: 2nd massacre (Ghalughara) from Ahmed Shah's 2nd invasion 1765–1801: Rise of the Sikh Misls which gained control of significant swathes of Punjab 1801–1839: Sikh Empire also known as Sarkar Khalsa, Rule by Maharaja Ranjit Singh 1845–1846: First Anglo-Sikh War 1846: Jammu joined with the new state of Jammu and Kashmir 1848–1849: Second Anglo-Sikh War 1849: Complete annexation of Punjab into British India 1849–1947: British rule 1901: Peshawar and adjoining districts separated from the Punjab Province 1911: Parts of Delhi separated from Punjab Province 1947: The Partition of India divided Punjab into two parts. The Eastern part (with two rivers) became the Indian Punjab and the Western part (three rivers) the Pakistan Punjab 1966: Indian Punjab divided into three parts: Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh 1973–1995: Punjab insurgency People Main article: Punjabis Ethnic Punjabis in Pakistan Ethnic background Punjabi Folk danceEthnic ancestries of modern Punjabis include a mixture of Indo-Aryan and Indo-Scythian. Semitic ancestries can also be found in lesser numbers. With the advent of Islam, settlers from Turkestan, Afghanistan, and Kashmir have also integrated into the Muslim Punjabi society. However, the majority of Punjab is still made up of the Arains, Dalits, Gujjars, Jats, Khatris, Tarkhans, Brahmins, Bhats, Awans, Kambojs, Rajputs Sainis, Kumhars, and others. In the past, the most densely populated area has been the Majha region of Punjab. Languages Dialects of Punjabi Main article: Punjabi languageThe major language spoken in the Punjab is Punjabi. In the Indian Punjab this is written in the Gurmukhi script. Pakistan uses the Shahmukhi script, that is closer to Urdu script. Hindi, written in the Devanagri script, is used widely in the Indian states of Himanchal Pradesh and Haryana. Several dialects of Punjabi are spoken in the different regions. The Majhi dialect is considered to be textbook Punjabi and is shared by both countries. Religions The vast majority of Pakistani Punjabis are Sunni Muslim by faith, but also include large minority faiths mostly Shia Muslim, Ahmadis and Christians. Sikhism, founded by Guru Nanak is the main religion practised in the post-1966 Indian Punjab state. About 57.7% of the population of Punjab state is Sikh, 38.5% is Hindu, and the rest are Muslims, Christians, and Jains. Punjab state contains the holy Sikh cities of Amritsar, Anandpur Sahib, Tarn Taran Sahib, Fatehgarh Sahib and Chamkaur Sahib. The Indian states of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh are mostly Hindu-majority. The Punjab was home to several Sufi saints, and Sufism is well established in the region. Also, Kirpal Singh revered the Sikh Gurus as saints.
Population trends for major religious groups in the Punjab Province of British India (1881–1941)
Population % 1881
Population % 1891
Population % 1901
Population % 1911
Population % 1921
Population % 1931
Population % 1941
47.6% 47.8% 49.6% 51.1% 51.1% 52.4% 53.2%
43.8% 43.6% 41.3% 35.8% 35.1% 30.2% 29.1%
8.2% 8.2% 8.6% 12.1% 12.4% 14.3% 14.9%
0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.8% 1.3% 1.5% 1.5%
Other religions / No religion
0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 1.6% 1.3%
Religion in Punjab Region (2011)
Punjab, India Punjab, Pakistan Haryana Himachal Pradesh Chandigarh Islam (64.8%) Hinduism (19.05%) Sikhism (15.4%) Others (0.75%)
Punjabi festivals See also: Punjabi festivals, List of Sikh festivals, Hindu Punjabi Festivals, and Festivals in Lahore Punjabis celebrate the following cultural, seasonal and religious festivals:
Maghi Lohri Maha Shivratri Holi Vaisakhi Teeyan Raksha Bandhan Shab-e-Miraj Diwali Gurpurab Hola Mohalla Mela Chiraghan Bandi Chhor Divas Dussehra Karwa Chauth Eid Christmas Navratri
Punjabi clothing Traditional Punjabi clothing includes the following:
Salwar Patiala salwar Punjabi Tamba and Kurta Phulkari Punjabi ghagra Shalwar kameez Kurta
Economy Phulkari embroidery from Patiala Main articles: Economy of Punjab, Pakistan and Economy of Punjab, India The historical region of Punjab is considered to be one of the most fertile regions on Earth. Both east and west Punjab produce a relatively high proportion of India and Pakistan's food output respectively. The region has been used for extensive wheat farming, in addition rice, cotton, sugarcane, fruit, and vegetables are also grown. The agricultural output of the Punjab region in Pakistan contributes significantly to Pakistan's GDP. Both Indian and Pakistani Punjab are considered to have the best infrastructure of their respective countries. Indian Punjab has been estimated to be the second richest state in India. Pakistani Punjab produces 68% of Pakistan's food grain production. Its share of Pakistan's GDP has historically ranged from 51.8% to 54.7%. Called "The Granary of India" or "The Bread Basket of India", Indian Punjab produces 1% of the world's rice, 2% of its wheat, and 2% of its cotton. In 2001, it was recorded that farmers made up 39% of Indian Punjab's workforce.
Punjab portal Chak (village) Dhani (settlement type) Music of Punjab Punjabi culture Punjabi language Punjabi cuisine Punjabi dance Sikhism Jallianwala bagh Notes
^ From Persian پنج panj—meaning "five"—and آب âb—meaning "water" or "river". Thus, پنجاب translates as "five rivers".
^ a b c H K Manmohan Siṅgh. "The Punjab". The Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Editor-in-Chief Harbans Singh. Punjabi University, Patiala. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help).mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em Cite error: The named reference "EoS" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
^ Singh, Mohinder (1988). History and Culture of Panjab. Atlantic Publishers & Distri.
^ Jatiinder Aulakh. Archaeological History of Majha: Research Book about Archaeology and Mythology with Rare Photograph. Createspace Independent Pub, 2014
^ Arrain, Anabasis, V.22, p.115
^ "Punjab, bread basket of India, hungers for change". Reuters. 30 January 2012.
^ "Columbia Water Center Released New Whitepaper: "Restoring Groundwater in Punjab, India's Breadbasket" – Columbia Water Center". Water.columbia.edu. 7 March 2012. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
^ "Pakistan flood: Sindh braces as water envelops southern Punjab". Guardian. 6 August 2010. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
^ D. R. Bhandarkar, 1989, Some Aspects of Ancient Indian Culture: Sir WIlliam Meyers Lectures, 1938–39, Asia Educational Services, p. 2.
^ A.S. valdiya, "River Sarasvati was a Himalayn-born river", Current Science, vol 104, no.01, ISSN 0011-3891.
^ Kenneth Pletcher, ed. (2010). The Geography of India: Sacred and Historic Places. Britannica Educational Publishing. p. 199. ISBN 978-1-61530-202-4. The word's origin can perhaps be traced to panca nada, Sanskrit for “five rivers” and the name of a region mentioned in the ancient epic the Mahabharata.
^ Rajesh Bala (2005). "Foreign Invasions and their Effect on Punjab". In Sukhdial Singh (ed.). Punjab History Conference, Thirty-seventh Session, March 18-20, 2005: Proceedings. Punjabi University. p. 80. ISBN 978-81-7380-990-3. The word Punjab is a compound of two words-Panj (Five) and aab (Water), thus signifying the land of five watrers or rivers. This origin can perhaps be traced to panch nada, Sanskrit for 'Five rivers' the word used before the advent of Muslims with a knowledge of Persian to describe the meeting point of the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej rivers, before they joined the Indus.
^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (2013). Punjab: A History from Aurangzeb to Mountbatten. New Delhi, India, Urbana, Illinois: Aleph Book Company. p. 1 ("Introduction"). ISBN 978-93-83064-41-0.
^ Canfield, Robert L. (1991). Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 1 ("Origins"). ISBN 978-0-521-52291-5.
^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (2013). Punjab: A History from Aurangzeb to Mountbatten. New Delhi, India, Urbana, Illinois: Aleph Book Company. ISBN 978-93-83064-41-0.
^ Shimmel, Annemarie (2004). The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture. London, United Kingdom: Reaktion Books Ltd. ISBN 1-86189-1857.
^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed., vol. 20, Punjab, p.107
^ Lassen, Christian (1827). Commentatio Geographica atque Historica de Pentapotamia Indica [A Geographical and Historical Commentary on Indian Pentapotamia]. Weber. p. 4. Pars ea indiae, quam hodie Persico nomine Penjab vocamus, lingua Indorum sacra Panchanada appellatur; utrumque nomen Graece reddi potest per Πενταποταμια. Prioris nominis origo Persica haud est dubia, quanquam vocabula, ex quibus est compositum, aeque Indica sunt ac Persica ... At vero postremum hoc vocabulum ab Indis nunquam, quod sciam, in nominibus propriis hunc in modium componendis usurpatur; nomina contra Persica exstant permulta, quae vocabulo isto terminantur, ex. gr. Doab, Nilab, alia. Unde probabile fit, Penjabi nomen, quod hodie in omnibus libris geographicis obtinet, recentioris esse originis atque regibus Indiae Moslemiticis, quibus maxime in usu fuit lingua Persica, tribuendum. Nomen Panchanada Indicum esse priscum et genuinum, inde patet, quod in Rameïde et Bharatea, carminibus Indorum antiquissimis, iam legitur, nec praeter hoc aliud apud Indos exstat; Panchála enim, quod per Penjab reddunt interpretes Rameïdos Angli ... nomen est alius regionis, a Pentapotamia prorsus diversae, ut infra videbimus. That part of India which today we call by the Persian name Penjab is named Panchanada in the sacred language of the Indians; either of which names may be rendered in Greek by Πενταποταμια. The Persian origin of the former name is not at all in doubt, although the words of which it is composed are both Indian and Persian ... But, in truth, that final word is never, to my knowledge, used by the Indians in proper names compounded in this way; on the other hand, there exist multiple Persian names which end with that word, e.g., Doab and Nilab. Therefore it is probable that the name Penjab, which is today found in all geographical books, is of more recent origin and is to be attributed to the Muslim kings of India, among whom the Persian language was mostly in use. That the Indian name Panchanada is ancient and genuine is evident from the fact that it is already seen in the Ramayana and Mahabharata, the most ancient Indian poems, and that no other exists in addition to it among the Indians; for Panchála, which English translations of the Ramayana render with Penjab, ... is the name of another region, entirely distinct from Pentapotamia, as we shall see below.[whose translation?]
^ Latif, Syad Muhammad (1891). History of the Panjáb from the Remotest Antiquity to the Present Time. Calcultta Central Press Company. p. 1. The Panjáb, the Pentapotamia of the Greek historians, the north-western region of the empire of Hindostán, derives its name from two Persian words, panj (five), an áb (water, having reference to the five rivers which confer on the country its distinguishing features."
^ Khalid, Kanwal (2015). "Lahore of Pre Historic Era" (PDF). Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan. 52 (2): 73. The earliest mention of five rivers in the collective sense was found in Yajurveda and a word Panchananda was used, which is a Sanskrit word to describe a land where five rivers meet. [...] In the later period the word Pentapotamia was used by the Greeks to identify this land. (Penta means 5 and potamia, water ___ the land of five rivers) Muslim Historians implied the word "Punjab " for this region. Again it was not a new word because in Persian speaking areas, there are references of this name given to any particular place where five rivers or lakes meet.
^ Darpan, Pratiyogita (1 October 2009). "Pratiyogita Darpan". Pratiyogita Darpan. Archived from the original on 20 September 2016 – via Google Books. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
^ History of Panjab Hill States, Hutchison, Vogel 1933 Mirpur was made a part of Jammu and Kashmir in 1846
^ Changes in the Socio-economic Structures in Rural North-West Pakistan By Mohammad Asif Khan  Archived 14 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine Peshawar was separated from Punjab Province in 1901.
^ Nadiem, Ihsan H. (2007). Peshawar: heritage, history, monuments. Sang-e-Meel Publications. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 13 September 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
^ "Jammu and Kashmir". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 10 March 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
^ "Epilogue, Vol 4, Issue 11". Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
^ Pritam Singh Gill (1978). History of Sikh nation: foundation, assassination, resurrection. University of Michigan: New Academic Pub. Co. p. 380.
^ G. S. Gosal. "Physical Geography of the Punjab" (PDF). University of California, Santa Barbara. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 June 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
^ The Times Atlas of the World, Concise Edition. London: Times Books. 1995. p. 36. ISBN 0 7230 0718 7.
^ Grewal, J S (2004). Historical Geography of the Punjab (PDF). Punjab Research Group, Volume 11, No 1. Journal of Punjab Studies. pp. 4, 7, 11. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
^ see the Punjab Doabs
^ Pritam Singh and Shinder S. Thandi, ed. (1996). Globalisation and the region: explorations in Punjabi identity. Coventry Association for Punjab Studies, Coventry University. p. 361.
^ Balder Raj Nayat (1966). Minority Politics in the Punjab. Archived from the original on 5 February 2016. Retrieved 13 September 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
^ Maps of India, Climate of Punjab Archived 30 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
^ Royal Geographical Society Climate and Landscape of the Punjab Archived 30 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine
^ Buddha Parkash, Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Panjab, p 36.
^ History of Panjab, Vol I, p. 4, Dr L. M. Joshi, Dr Fauja Singh.
^ a b Hazel, John (2013). Who's Who in the Greek World. Routledge. p. 155. ISBN 9781134802241. Menander king in India, known locally as Milinda, born at a village named Kalasi near Alasanda (Alexandria-in-the-Caucasus), and who was himself the son of a king. After conquering the Punjab, where he made Sagala his capital, he made an expedition across northern India and visited Patna, the capital of the Mauraya empire, though he did not succeed in conquering this land as he appears to have been overtaken by wars on the north-west frontier with Eucratides.
^ a b Ahir, D. C. (1971). Buddhism in the Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh. Maha Bodhi Society of India. p. 31. OCLC 1288206. Demetrius died in 166 B.C., and Apollodotus, who was a near relation of the King died in 161 B.C. After his death, Menander carved out a kingdom in the Punjab. Thus from 161 B.C. onward Menander was the ruler of Punjab till his death in 145 B.C. or 130 B.C.
^ Ganda Singh (August 2004). "The Truth about the Indian Mutiny". Sikh Spectrum. Archived from the original on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 February 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link). Daily Times (10 May 2012). Retrieved 12 July 2013.
^ "Census Reference Tables, C-Series Population by religious communities". Census of India. 2001. Archived from the original on 1 July 2010. Retrieved 25 July 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
^ "Sufi Saints of the Punjab". Punjabics.com. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help); Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |website= (help)
^ Kirpal Singh, Sant. "The Punjab – Home of Master Saints". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
^ Gopal Krishan. "Demography of the Punjab (1849–1947)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
^ "Population by religion community – 2011". Census of India, 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015.
^ "Punjab second richest state in country: CII", The Times of India, 8 April 2004.
^ Pakistani government statistics Archived 8 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 14 April 2007.
^ Provincial Accounts of Pakistan: Methodology and Estimates 1973–2000 Template:Date=June 2016
^ Yadav, Kiran (11 February 2013). "Punjab". Agropedia. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
Further reading .mw-parser-output .refbegin font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul list-style-type:none;margin-left:0 .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none .mw-parser-output .refbegin-100 font-size:100% Narang, K.S.; Gupta, Dr H.R. (1969). History of the Punjab 1500–1858 (PDF). U. C. Kapur & Sons, Delhi. Retrieved 22 January 2014. [Quraishee 73] Punjabi Adab De Kahani, Abdul Hafeez Quaraihee, Azeez Book Depot, Lahore, 1973. [Chopra 77] Punjab as a Sovereign State, Gulshan Lal Chopra, Al-Biruni, Lahore, 1977. Patwant Singh. 1999. The Sikhs. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-50206-0. The Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Panjab, 1971, Buddha Parkash. Social and Political Movements in ancient Panjab, Delhi, 1962, Buddha Parkash. History of Porus, Patiala, Buddha Parkash. History of the Panjab, Patiala, 1976, Fauja Singh, L. M. Joshi (Ed). The Legacy of the Punjab, 1997, R. M. Chopra. The Rise Growth and Decline of Indo-Persian Literature, R. M. Chopra, 2012, Iran Culture House, New Delhi. 2nd revised edition, published in 2013. Sims, Holly. "The State and Agricultural Productivity: Continuity versus Change in the Indian and Pakistani Punjabs." Asian Survey, 1 April 1986, Vol. 26(4), pp. 483–500.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Punjab region.
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Punjab.
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vte Province of Punjab topicsHistory Harappa Punjab history History of Lahore Governmentand politics Provincial Assembly Chief Minister Governor Culture andplaces Punjabi people Saraiki people Punjabi tribes Language Saraiki language Saraiki Ajrak Saraiki Topi Cuisine Diaspora Music Archaeological sites and monuments Punjabi festivals (Pakistan) Geography List of cities Districts Punjab region Education University of the Punjab Sport Gaddafi Stadium
vteEthnic groups, social groups and tribes of the PunjabAgrawal Bansal Arains Dhankhar Rayeen Brahmins Punjabi Brahmins Saraswat Brahmins Bali Chhibber Datt Mohyal Scheduled Castes Ad-Dharmi Balmiki Bazigar Chamar Khatik Mazhabi Sikh Mochi Mirasi Nat Ramdasia Sikh Ravidasi Ahirs Yaduvanshi Ahirs Ahirs Ghosi Hindu Ghosi Aharwar Ranghar Gurjars Gurjar Parihar Bhati Baisla Jats Aulakh Bajwa Chaudhary Chohan Dhankhar Jaswal Kharal Khokhar Khullar Randhawa Sandhu Sidhu Sial Sodhi Sohal Virk Labana Labana Khatris Ahuja Khukhrain Kohli Malhotra Malik Oberoi Roshan Sabharwal Sahni Sethi Sodhi Vohra Rajputs Bhatti Janjua Manhas Ranial Tarkhans Panesar Ramgharia Sohal
Arora Bagga Bakarwal Bania Kamboj Kumhar Sansi Sayyid
Coordinates: 31°N 74°E / 31°N 74°E / 31; 74
Authority control LCCN: n80152695 NDL: 00629038 NKC: ge130346 VIAF: 126673119 WorldCat Identities (via