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Punjab
Punjab
(Urdu, Punjabi: پنجاب‬, panj-āb, "five waters":  listen (help·info)) is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and its most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.[1] This also makes it the most populous first-level administrative subdivision of any country other than India, as its population is surpassed only by those of the Indian states of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Uttar Pradesh[4]. It is bordered by the Pakistan
Pakistan
provinces of Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the enclave of Islamabad, and Azad Kashmir. It also shares borders with the Indian states of Punjab, Rajasthan
Rajasthan
and Jammu and Kashmir. The provincial capital of Punjab
Punjab
is the city Lahore, a cultural, historical, economic and cosmopolitan centre of Pakistan where the country's cinema industry, and much of its fashion industry, are based.[5][6] Punjab
Punjab
has been inhabited since ancient times. The Indus
Indus
Valley Civilization, dating to 2600 BCE, was first discovered at Harappa.[7] Punjab
Punjab
features heavily in the Hindu
Hindu
epic poem, the Mahabharata, and is home to Taxila, site of what is considered by many to be the oldest university in the world.[8][9][10][11][12] In 326 BCE, Alexander the Great defeated King Porus
King Porus
at the Battle of the Hydaspes
Battle of the Hydaspes
near Mong, Punjab. The Umayyad
Umayyad
empire conquered Punjab
Punjab
in the 8th century CE. Punjab
Punjab
was later invaded by Tamerlane, Babur, and Nader Shah. Punjab reached the height of its splendour during the reign of the Mughal Empire, which for a time ruled from Lahore. Following a successful rebellion, Sikh-led armies claimed Lahore
Lahore
in 1759. The administration of the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
was based out of Lahore, until its defeat by the British. Punjab
Punjab
was central to the independence movements of both India
India
and Pakistan, with Lahore
Lahore
being site of both the Declaration of Indian Independence, and the resolution calling for the establishment of Pakistan. The province was formed when the Punjab
Punjab
province of British India
India
was divided along religious boundaries in 1947 by the Radcliffe Line
Radcliffe Line
after Partition.[13] Punjab
Punjab
is Pakistan's most industrialised province with the industrial sector making up 24% of the province's gross domestic product.[14] Punjab
Punjab
is known in Pakistan
Pakistan
for its relative prosperity,[15] and has the lowest rate of poverty amongst all Pakistani provinces.[16][17] A clear divide is present between the northern and southern portions of the province;[15] with poverty rates in prosperous northern Punjab amongst the lowest in Pakistan,[18] while some in south Punjab
Punjab
are amongst the most impoverished.[19] Punjab
Punjab
is also one of South Asia's most urbanized regions with approximately 40% of people living in urban areas.[20] Its human development index rankings are high relative to the rest of Pakistan. Punjab
Punjab
is known in Pakistan
Pakistan
for its relatively liberal social attitudes.[21] The province has been strongly influenced by Sufism, with numerous Sufi
Sufi
shrines spread across Punjab
Punjab
which attract millions of devotees annually.[22] The founder of the Sikh
Sikh
faith, Guru
Guru
Nanak, was born in the Punjab
Punjab
town of Nankana Sahib
Nankana Sahib
near Lahore.[23][24][25] Punjab
Punjab
is also the site of the Katasraj Temple, which features prominently in Hindu
Hindu
mythology.[26] Several UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites are located in Punjab, including the Shalimar Gardens, the Lahore
Lahore
Fort, the archeological excavations at Taxila, and the Rohtas Fort.[27]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Ancient history 2.2 Gandhara
Gandhara
civilisation 2.3 Central Asian, Greek and Persian Empires 2.4 Indo-Greek Kingdom 2.5 Indo-Scythians 2.6 Indo-Parthian Kingdom 2.7 Muslim
Muslim
Rulers

2.7.1 Arrival of Islam 2.7.2 Mughal Empire 2.7.3 Afghan Durrani Empire

2.8 Maratha Empire 2.9 Sikh
Sikh
Empire 2.10 British Empire 2.11 Pakistani Independence 2.12 Recent history

3 Geography

3.1 Topography 3.2 Climate

4 Population and society

4.1 Demographics 4.2 Languages 4.3 Religions

5 Provincial government

5.1 Divisions 5.2 Districts

6 Major cities 7 Economy 8 Education

8.1 Public universities 8.2 Private universities

9 Culture 10 Fairs and festivals

10.1 Religious and seasonal fairs and festivals 10.2 Devotional fairs (Urs) 10.3 Industrial and commercial fairs 10.4 Other festivals

11 Arts and crafts 12 Major attractions 13 Music and dance 14 Folklore 15 Social issues 16 Notable people 17 Gallery 18 See also 19 References 20 Bibliography 21 External links

Etymology[edit] The region was known to the Greeks
Greeks
as Pentapotamia, meaning the region of five rivers.[28] The word Punjab
Punjab
was formally introduced in the early 17th century CE as an elision of the Persian words panj (five) and āb (water), thus meaning the (land of) five rivers, similar in meaning to the Greek name for the region.[29] The five rivers, namely Chenab, Jhelum, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej, flow via the Panjnad River
Panjnad River
into the Indus River
Indus River
and eventually into the Arabian Sea. Of the five great rivers of Punjab, four course through Pakistan's Punjab
Punjab
province. History[edit] Main article: History of Punjab Due to its location, the Punjab
Punjab
region came under constant attack and witnessed centuries of foreign invasions by the Persians, Greeks, Kushans, Scythians, Turks and Afghans. The northwestern part of South Asia, including Punjab, was repeatedly invaded or conquered by various foreign empires, including those of Tamerlane, Alexander the Great, and Genghis Khan. Ancient history[edit]

Location of Punjab, Pakistan
Pakistan
and the extent of the Indus
Indus
Valley Civilisation sites in and around it

Soanian culture
Soanian culture
first flourished in the soan valley of northern Punjab.Tools up to two million years old have been recovered in potohar plateau. In the Soan River, many fossil bearing rocks are exposed on the surface. 14 million year old fossils of gazelle, rhinoceros, crocodile, giraffe and rodents have been found there. Punjab
Punjab
during Mahabharata
Mahabharata
times was known as Panchanada.[30][31] Punjab
Punjab
was part of the Indus
Indus
Valley Civilization, more than 4000 years ago.[32] The main site in Punjab
Punjab
was the city of Harrapa. The Indus Valley Civilization spanned much of what is today Pakistan
Pakistan
and eventually evolved into the Indo-Aryan civilization. The Vedic civilisation flourished along the length of the Indus
Indus
River. This civilization shaped subsequent cultures in South Asia
South Asia
and Afghanistan. Although the archaeological site at Harappa
Harappa
was partially damaged in 1857 when engineers constructing the Lahore- Multan
Multan
railroad used brick from the Harappa
Harappa
ruins for track ballast, an abundance of artefacts have nevertheless been found. Punjab
Punjab
was part of the great ancient empires including the Gandhara
Gandhara
Mahajanapadas, Achaemenids, Macedonians, Mauryas, Kushans, Guptas
Guptas
and Hindu
Hindu
Shahi. It also comprised the Gujar empire for a period of time, otherwise known as the Gurjara-Pratihara
Gurjara-Pratihara
empire.[33][34][35] Agriculture flourished and trading cities (such as Multan
Multan
and Lahore) grew in wealth.

Punjab
Punjab
was part of the Vedic Civilization

The city of Taxila, founded by son of Taksh the son Bharat who was the brother of Ram. It was reputed to house the oldest university in the world,[citation needed] Takshashila University. One of the teachers was the great Vedic thinker and politician Chanakya. Taxila
Taxila
was a great centre of learning and intellectual discussion during the Maurya Empire. It is a UN World Heritage site, valued for its archaeological and religious history. Gandhara
Gandhara
civilisation[edit] Gandhāra
Gandhāra
was an ancient kingdom situated in the northwestern region of Pakistan, in the Peshawar valley
Peshawar valley
and Potohar plateau
Potohar plateau
with its capital at Taxila. Gandhara
Gandhara
existed since the time of the Rigveda
Rigveda
(c. 1500–1200 BC),[36][37] as well as the Zoroastrian Avesta, which mentions it as Vaēkərəta, the sixth most beautiful place on earth, created by Ahura Mazda. Gandhara
Gandhara
was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC. Conquered by Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in 327 BC, it subsequently became part of the Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
and then the Indo-Greek Kingdom.The name of the Gandhāris is attested in the Rigveda
Rigveda
(RV 1.126.7[36]) and in ancient inscriptions dating back to Achaemenid
Achaemenid
Persia.The primary cities of Gandhara
Gandhara
were Puruṣapura (Peshawar), Takṣaśilā (Taxila), and Pushkalavati (Charsadda). Gandhara's language was a Prakrit
Prakrit
or "Middle Indo-Aryan" dialect, usually called Gāndhārī. The language used the Kharosthi script, which died out about the 4th century. However, Punjabi, Kohistani, and Hindko
Hindko
are derived from the Indo-Aryan Prakrits that were spoken in Gandhara
Gandhara
and surrounding areas.

Casket of Kanishka the Great, with Buddhist
Buddhist
motifs

The Parthian dynasty fell about 75 to another group from Central Asia. The Kushans, moved from Central Asia to Bactria, where they stayed for a century. Around 75, one of their tribes, the Kushan (Kuṣāṇa), under the leadership of Kujula Kadphises gained control of Gandhara and other parts of what is now Pakistan.The Kushan period is considered the Golden Period of Gandhara. Gandhara's culture peaked during the reign of the great Kushan king Kanishka the Great (128–151). The cities of Taxila
Taxila
(Takṣaśilā) at Sirsukh and Peshawar
Peshawar
were built.Kanishka was a great patron of the Buddhist
Buddhist
faith; Buddhism spread to Central Asia and the Far East across Bactria
Bactria
and Sogdia, where his empire met the Han Empire of China. Buddhist
Buddhist
art spread from Gandhara
Gandhara
to other parts of Asia. Under Kanishka, Gandhara became a holy land of Buddhism and attracted Chinese pilgrims eager to view the monuments associated with many Jatakas.The Hephthalite
Hephthalite
Huns captured Gandhara
Gandhara
around 451, and did not adopt Buddhism, but in fact "perpetrated frightful massacres." Mihirakula
Mihirakula
became a "terrible persecutor" of the Buddhist
Buddhist
religion.[38] During their rule, Hinduism revived itself and the Buddhist
Buddhist
Gandharan civilization declined. Central Asian, Greek and Persian Empires[edit] The Achaemenid
Achaemenid
Persian empire included Pujab west of the Indus. Having conquered Drangiana, Arachosia, Gedrosia
Gedrosia
and Seistan
Seistan
in ten days, Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
(locally known as 'Iskander') crossed the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
and was thus fully informed of the magnificence of the country and its riches in gold, gems and pearls. However, Alexander had to encounter and reduce the tribes on the border of Punjab
Punjab
before entering the luxuriant plains. Having taken a northeasterly direction, he marched against the Aspii (mountaineers), who offered vigorous resistance, but were subdued.[citation needed] Alexander then marched through Ghazni, blockaded Magassa, and then marched to Ora and Bazira. Turning to the northeast, Alexander marched to Pucela, the capital of the district now known as Pakhli. He entered Western Punjab, where the ancient city of Nysa (at the site of modern-day Mong) was situated. A coalition was formed against Alexander by the Cathians, the people of Multan, who were very skilful in war. Alexander invested many troops, eventually killing seventeen thousand Cathians in this battle, and the city of Sagala (present-day Sialkot) was razed to the ground. Alexander left Punjab
Punjab
in 326 B.C. and took his army to the heartlands of his empire.[citation needed] Indo-Greek Kingdom[edit] The Indo-Greek Kingdom
Indo-Greek Kingdom
or Graeco-Indian Kingdom was a Hellenistic kingdom covering most of the Punjab.The kingdom was founded when the Graeco-Bactrian king Demetrius
Demetrius
invaded the subcontinent early in the 2nd century BC.The city of Sirkap
Sirkap
founded by Demetrius
Demetrius
combines Greek and Indian influences without signs of segregation between the two cultures. The most famous Indo-Greek ruler was Menander
Menander
(Milinda).He had his capital at Sakala in the Punjab
Punjab
(present-day Sialkot).The Indo- Greeks
Greeks
were involved with local faiths, particularly with Buddhism, but also with Hinduism'.Buddhism flourished under the Indo-Greek kings, and their rule, especially that of Menander, has been remembered as benevolent. Indo-Scythians[edit] The Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
king Maues
Maues
invaded Indo-Greek territories in Punjab and established an Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
empire. Maues
Maues
first conquered Gandhara
Gandhara
and Taxila
Taxila
around 80 BCE, but his kingdom disintegrated after his death. The Indo- Scythians
Scythians
ultimately established a kingdom in the northwest south Asia, based near Taxila, with two great Satraps, one in Mathura
Mathura
in the east, and one in Surastrene (Gujarat) in the southwest. The Indo- Scythians
Scythians
seem to have been followers of Buddhism, and many of their practices apparently continued those of the Indo-Greeks. Indo-Parthian Kingdom[edit] The Indo-Parthian Kingdom was ruled by the Gondopharid dynasty with its capital at Taxila
Taxila
,Punjab. Gondophares, founder of Indo Parthia kingdom, was a ruler of Seistan
Seistan
in what is today eastern Iran, probably a vassal or relative of the Apracarajas. Around 20–10 BCE, he made conquests in the former Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
kingdom, perhaps after the death of the important ruler Azes. Gondophares
Gondophares
became the ruler of areas comprising Arachosia, Seistan, Sindh, Punjab, and the Kabul valley. The temple of Jandial, Taxila
Taxila
is usually interpreted as a Zoroastrian fire temple from the period of the Indo-Parthians. Muslim
Muslim
Rulers[edit] Arrival of Islam[edit]

Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. Mahmud of Ghazni
Ghazni
appointed Malik Ayaz as the ruler of Lahore, Punjab
Punjab
during the Ghaznavid era.

Bulleh Shah
Bulleh Shah
(1680–1757), a Muslim
Muslim
Sufi
Sufi
poet

The Punjabis
Punjabis
followed a diverse plethora of faiths, mainly comprising Hinduism[citation needed], when the Muslim
Muslim
Umayyad
Umayyad
army led by Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim
conquered Sindh
Sindh
and Southern Punjab
Punjab
in 712, by defeating Raja Dahir. The Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate
Caliphate
was the second Arab, Islamic
Islamic
caliphate established after the death of Muhammad. It was ruled by the Umayyad
Umayyad
dynasty, whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad
Umayyad
caliph. Although the Umayyad
Umayyad
family originally came from the city of Mecca, their capital was Damascus. Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim
was the first to bring message of Islam
Islam
to the population of Punjab.[citation needed] Punjab
Punjab
was part of different Muslim
Muslim
Empires consisting of Afghans and Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
in co-operation with local Punjabi tribes and others.[39] In the 11th century, during the reign of Mahmud of Ghazni, the province became an important centre, with Lahore
Lahore
as its second capital[citation needed] of the Ghaznavid Empire based out of Afghanistan. The Punjab
Punjab
region became predominantly Muslim
Muslim
due to missionary Sufi
Sufi
saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region. The area subsequently came under various other Muslim
Muslim
rulers until finally becoming part of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
in 1526. Mughal Empire[edit] The Punjab
Punjab
region rose to significance in the Hindustani empire when Lahore
Lahore
became a seat for royal family in 1584,[40] the legacy of which is seen today in its rich display of Mughal architecture. The Mughals
Mughals
controlled the region from 1524 until around 1739 and implemented building projects such as the Shalimar Gardens[41] and the Badshahi Mosque, both situated in Lahore. Padshah
Padshah
(emperor) Akbar established two of his original twelve subahs (imperial top-level provinces) in Punjab :

(northern) Lahore
Lahore
Subah, bordering Kabul (Afghanistan), (later) split-off Kashmir, (Old) Delhi and Multan
Multan
subahs (southern) Multan
Multan
Subah, bordering Kabul, Lahore, (Old) Delhi, Ajmer, Thatta (Sindh) subahs, the Persian Safavid empire[citation needed] and shortly Qandahar subah.

Muslim
Muslim
soldiers, traders, architects, theologians and Sufis
Sufis
(Muslim mystics) came from the rest of the Muslim
Muslim
world to the Islamic Sultanate
Sultanate
in South Asia. Afghan Durrani Empire[edit] Swaths of what is now Punjab
Punjab
were annexed by the Afghan conqueror Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani
in 1747 as he made the Punjab
Punjab
a part of his Durrani Empire, lasting until 1762.[42] Maratha Empire[edit] Main article: Maratha conquest of North-west India In 1758 Raghunath Rao, the general of the Hindu
Hindu
Maratha Empire, conquered Lahore
Lahore
and Attock. Timur Shah Durrani, the son and viceroy of Duranni Monarch Ahmad Shah Abdali, was driven out of Punjab. Lahore, Multan, Dera Ghazi Khan, Kashmir
Kashmir
and other subahs (ex-Mughal provinces) on the south and eastern side of Peshawar
Peshawar
were under the Maratha rule for the most part.[43] In Punjab
Punjab
and Kashmir, the Marathas were now major players.[44][45] The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 1761, Ahmad Shah Abdali
Ahmad Shah Abdali
invaded the Maratha territory of Punjab
Punjab
and captured remnants of the Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
in Punjab
Punjab
and Kashmir
Kashmir
regions and re-consolidated control over them.[46] Sikh
Sikh
Empire[edit] Main article: Sikh
Sikh
Empire

Badshahi Mosque
Badshahi Mosque
with damaged minarets during Sikh
Sikh
rule

Ranjit Singh's Empire

In the mid-fifteenth century, the religion of Sikhism
Sikhism
was born. During the Mughal empire, many Hindus
Hindus
increasingly adopted Sikhism. These became a formidable military force against the Mughals
Mughals
and later against the Afghan Empire. After fighting Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani
in the later eighteenth century, the Sikhs
Sikhs
took control of Punjab
Punjab
and managed to establish the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
under Maharaja Ranjit Singh, which lasted from 1799 to 1849. The capital of Ranjit Singh's empire was Lahore, and the empire also extended into Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Kashmir. Bhangi Misl was the first Sikh
Sikh
band to conquer Lahore
Lahore
and other towns of Punjab. Syed Ahmad Barelvi a Muslim, waged jihad and attempted to create an Islamic
Islamic
state with strict enforcement of Islamic
Islamic
law.[47] Syed Ahmad Barelvi in 1821 with many supporters and spent two years organising popular and material support for his Punjab
Punjab
campaign. He carefully developed a network of people through the length and breadth of India to collect funds and encourage volunteers, travelling widely throughout India
India
attracting a following among pious Muslims. In December 1826 Sayyid Ahmad and his followers clashed with Sikh
Sikh
troops at Akora Khattak, but with no decisive result. In a major battle near the town of Balakot
Balakot
in 1831, Sayyid Ahmad and Shah Ismail Shaheed
Shah Ismail Shaheed
with volunteer Muslims were defeated by the professional Sikh
Sikh
Army.[48] British Empire[edit]

The Faisalabad Clock Tower
Faisalabad Clock Tower
was built during the rule of the British Empire

Main article: Punjab
Punjab
Province (British India) Maharaja Ranjit Singh's death in the summer of 1839 brought political chaos and the subsequent battles of succession and the bloody infighting between the factions at court weakened the state. Relationships with neighbouring British territories then broke down, starting the First Anglo- Sikh
Sikh
War; this led to a British official being resident in Lahore
Lahore
and the annexation in 1849 of territory south of the Satluj to British India. After the Second Anglo-Sikh War
Second Anglo-Sikh War
in 1849, the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
became the last territory to be merged into British India. In Jhelum
Jhelum
35 British soldiers of the HM XXIV regiment were killed by the local resistance during the Indian Rebellion of 1857.[49] Pakistani Independence[edit] In 1947 the Punjab
Punjab
province of British India
India
was divided along religious lines into West Punjab
Punjab
and East Punjab. Western Punjab
Punjab
was assimilated into the new country of Pakistan, while East Punjab
Punjab
became a part of modern-day India. This led to massive rioting as both sides committed atrocities against fleeing refugees. The part of the Punjab
Punjab
now in Pakistan
Pakistan
once formed a major region of British Punjab, and was home to a large minority population of Punjabi Sikhs
Sikhs
and Hindus
Hindus
up to 1947 apart from the Muslim
Muslim
majority.[50] Migration between Eastern and Western Punjab
Punjab
was continuous before independence. By the 1900s Western Punjab
Punjab
was predominantly Muslim
Muslim
and supported the Muslim
Muslim
League and Pakistan
Pakistan
Movement. After independence, the minority Hindus
Hindus
and Sikhs
Sikhs
migrated to India
India
while Muslim
Muslim
refugees from India
India
settled in the Western Punjab
Punjab
and across Pakistan.[51] Recent history[edit]

At the Wagah
Wagah
border ceremony

Since the 1950s, Punjab
Punjab
industrialised rapidly. New factories were established in Lahore, Sargodha, Multan, Gujrat, Gujranwala, Sialkot and Wah. In the 1960s the new city of Islamabad
Islamabad
north of Rawalpindi. Agriculture continues to be the largest sector of Punjab's economy. The province is the breadbasket of the country as well as home to the largest ethnic group in Pakistan, the Punjabis. Unlike neighbouring India, there was no large-scale redistribution of agricultural land. As a result, most rural areas are dominated by a small set of feudalistic land-owning families. In the 1950s there was tension between the eastern and western halves of Pakistan. To address the situation, a new formula resulted in the abolition of the province status for Punjab
Punjab
in 1955. It was merged into a single province West Pakistan. In 1972, after East Pakistan seceded and became Bangladesh, Punjab
Punjab
again became a province. Punjab
Punjab
witnessed major battles between the armies of India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
in the wars of 1965 and 1971. Since the 1990s Punjab
Punjab
hosted several key sites of Pakistan's nuclear program such as Kahuta. It also hosts major military bases such as at Sargodha
Sargodha
and Rawalpindi. The peace process between India
India
and Pakistan, which began in earnest in 2004, has helped pacify the situation. Trade and people-to-people contacts through the Wagah
Wagah
border are now starting to become common. Indian Sikh
Sikh
pilgrims visit holy sites such as Nankana Sahib. Starting in the 1980s, large numbers of Punjabis
Punjabis
migrated to the Middle East, Britain, Spain, Canada and the United States for economic opportunities, forming the large Punjabi diaspora. Business and cultural ties between the United States and Punjab
Punjab
are growing. Geography[edit] Punjab
Punjab
is Pakistan's second largest province by area after Balochistan with an area of 205,344 square kilometres (79,284 square miles).[52] It occupies 25.8% of the total landmass of Pakistan.[52] Punjab province is bordered by Sindh
Sindh
to the south, the province of Balochistan
Balochistan
to the southwest, the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
to the west, and the Islamabad Capital Territory
Islamabad Capital Territory
and Azad Kashmir
Azad Kashmir
in the north. Punjab
Punjab
borders Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
in the north, and the Indian states of Punjab
Punjab
and Rajasthan
Rajasthan
to the east. The capital and largest city is Lahore
Lahore
which was the historical capital of the wider Punjab
Punjab
region. Other important cities include Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Gujranwala, Sargodha, Multan, Sialkot, Bahawalpur, Gujrat, Sheikhupura, Jhelum
Jhelum
and Sahiwal. The undivided Punjab
Punjab
region was home to six rivers, of which five flow through Pakistan's Punjab
Punjab
province. From west to east, the rivers are: the Indus, Jhelum, Beas, Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej. Nearly 60% of Pakistan's population lives in the Punjab. It is the nation's only province that touches every other province; it also surrounds the federal enclave of the national capital city at Islamabad. In the acronym P-A-K-I-S-T-A-N, the P is for Punjab.[53][54] Topography[edit]

Punjab
Punjab
features mountainous terrain near the hill station of Murree.

Punjab's landscape consists mostly consists of fertile alluvial plains of the Indus River
Indus River
and its four major tributaries in Pakistan, the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, and Sutlej
Sutlej
rivers which traverse Punjab
Punjab
north to south – the fifth of the "five waters" of Punjab, the Beas River, lies exclusively in the Indian state of Punjab. The landscape is amongst the most heavily irrigated on earth and canals can be found throughout the province. Punjab
Punjab
also includes several mountainous regions, including the Sulaiman Mountains
Sulaiman Mountains
in the southwest part of the province, the Margalla Hills
Margalla Hills
in the north near Islamabad, and the Salt Range which divides the most northerly portion of Punjab, the Pothohar Plateau, from the rest of the province. Sparse deserts can be found in southern Punjab
Punjab
near the border with Rajasthan
Rajasthan
and near the Sulaiman Range. Punjab
Punjab
also contains part of the Thal and Cholistan deserts. In the South, Punjab's elevation reaches 2,327 metres (7,635 ft)[citation needed] near the hill station of Fort Munro in Dera Ghazi Khan. Climate[edit]

Sunset in Punjab, during summer

Most areas in Punjab
Punjab
experience extreme weather with foggy winters, often accompanied by rain. By mid-February the temperature begins to rise; springtime weather continues until mid-April, when the summer heat sets in.

The route from Dera Ghazi Khan
Dera Ghazi Khan
to Fort Munro

The onset of the southwest monsoon is anticipated to reach Punjab
Punjab
by May, but since the early 1970s the weather pattern has been irregular. The spring monsoon has either skipped over the area or has caused it to rain so hard that floods have resulted. June and July are oppressively hot. Although official estimates rarely place the temperature above 46 °C, newspaper sources claim that it reaches 51 °C and regularly carry reports about people who have succumbed to the heat. Heat records were broken in Multan
Multan
in June 1993, when the mercury was reported to have risen to 54 °C. In August the oppressive heat is punctuated by the rainy season, referred to as barsat, which brings relief in its wake. The hardest part of the summer is then over, but cooler weather does not come until late October. Recently the province experienced one of the coldest winters in the last 70 years.[55] Punjab's region temperature ranges from −2° to 45 °C, but can reach 50 °C (122 °F) in summer and can touch down to −10 °C in winter. Climatically, Punjab
Punjab
has three major seasons:[56]

Hot weather (April to June) when temperature rises as high as 110 °F. Rainy season (July to September). Average rainfall annual ranges between 96 cm sub-mountain region and 46 cm in the plains. Cooler/ Foggy / mild weather (October to March). Temperature goes down as low as 40 °F.

. Weather extremes are notable from the hot and barren south to the cool hills of the north. The foothills of the Himalayas
Himalayas
are found in the extreme north as well, and feature a much cooler and wetter climate, with snowfall common at higher altitudes. Population and society[edit] See also: Punjabi Muslims
Punjabi Muslims
and List of populated places in Punjab Demographics[edit]

Historical population figures[57]

Census Population Urban Rural

1951 20,540,762 3,568,076 16,972,686

1961 25,463,974 5,475,922 19,988,052

1972 37,607,423 9,182,695 28,424,728

1981 47,292,441 13,051,646 34,240,795

1998 73,621,290 23,019,025 50,602,265

2017 110,012,615 70,008,451 40,401,164

The province is home to over half the population of Pakistan. Punjabis are a heterogeneous group comprising different tribes, clans (Urdu: برادری‬‎) and communities. In Pakistani Punjab, non-tribal social distinctions are primarily based on traditional occupations such as blacksmiths or artisans, as opposed to rigid social stratifications.[58] Punjab
Punjab
has the lowest poverty rates in Pakistan, although a divide is present between the northern and southern parts of the province.[15] Sialkot
Sialkot
District in the prosperous northern part of the province has a poverty rate of 5.63%,[59] while Rajanpur District
Rajanpur District
in the poorer south has a poverty rate of 60.05%.[19] Languages[edit] See also: Languages of Pakistan Further information: Punjabi dialects
Punjabi dialects
and Punjabi Language Movement

First languages of Punjab (according to 1998 Census)[60]

Punjabi

75.2%

Saraiki

17.4%

Urdu

4.5%

Pashto

1.2%

Balochi

0.7%

Sindhi

0.1%

Others

0.9%

The major and native language spoken in the Punjab
Punjab
is Punjabi (which is written in a Shahmukhi script
Shahmukhi script
in Pakistan) and Punjabis
Punjabis
comprise the largest ethnic group in country. Punjabi is the provincial language of Punjab, but is not given any official recognition in the Constitution of Pakistan
Pakistan
at the national level. Saraiki is mostly spoken in south Punjab,[61] and Pashto, spoken in some parts of north west Punjab, especially in Attock
Attock
District and Mianwali District
Mianwali District
near Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
province. Religions[edit] See also: Christianity in Punjab, Pakistan

Religions in Punjab

Religion

Percent

Islam

97.21%

Christianity

2.31%

Others†

0.48%

Distribution of religions †Includes Sikhs, Parsis, Hindus
Hindus
.

The population of Punjab
Punjab
(Pakistan) is estimated to be 97.21% Muslim with a Sunni
Sunni
Hanafi
Hanafi
majority and Shia
Shia
Ithna 'ashariyah
Ithna 'ashariyah
minority. The largest non- Muslim
Muslim
minority is Christians and make up 2.31% of the population. The other minorities include Ahmadiyya, Hindus, Sikhs, Parsis
Parsis
and Bahá'í.[citation needed] Provincial government[edit] Main article: Government of Punjab
Punjab
(Pakistan) See also: Provincial Assembly of the Punjab; Chief Minister of Punjab, Pakistan; and Governor of Punjab, Pakistan The Government of Punjab
Punjab
is a provincial government in the federal structure of Pakistan, is based in Lahore, the capital of the Punjab Province. The Chief Minister of Punjab
Punjab
(CM) is elected by the Provincial Assembly of the Punjab
Punjab
to serve as the head of the provincial government in Punjab, Pakistan. The current Chief Minister is Shahbaz Sharif, who became the Chief Minister of Punjab
Punjab
as being restored after Governor's rule starting from 25 February 2009 to 30 March 2009. Thereafter got re-elected as a result of 11 May 2013 elections. The Provincial Assembly of the Punjab
Punjab
is a unicameral legislature of elected representatives of the province of Punjab, which is located in Lahore
Lahore
in eastern Pakistan. The Assembly was established under Article 106 of the Constitution of Pakistan
Pakistan
as having a total of 371 seats, with 66 seats reserved for women and eight reserved for non-Muslims. There are 48 departments in Punjab
Punjab
government. Each Department is headed by a Provincial Minister (Politician) and a Provincial Secretary (A civil servant of usually BPS-20 or BPS-21). All Ministers report to the Chief Minister, who is the Chief Executive. All Secretaries report to the Chief Secretary of Punjab, who is usually a BPS-22 Civil Servant. The Chief Secretary in turn reports to the Chief Minister. In addition to these departments, there are several Autonomous Bodies and Attached Departments that report directly to either the Secretaries or the Chief Secretary. Divisions[edit] Main article: Divisions of Pakistan

Map of the Pakistani Punjab
Punjab
divisions

Sr. No. Division Headquarters Area (km²) Population (2017)

1 Bahawalpur Bahawalpur 45,588 11,464,031

2 Dera Ghazi Khan Dera Ghazi Khan 38,778 11,014,398

3 Faisalabad Faisalabad 17,917 14,177,081

4 Gujranwala Gujranwala 17,206 16,123,984

5 Lahore Lahore 16,104 19,398,081

6 Multan Multan 21,137 12,265,161

7 Rawalpindi Rawalpindi 22,255 10,007,821

8 Sahiwal Sahiwal 10,302 7,380,386

9 Sargodha Sargodha 26,360 8,181,499

When the divisions were restored as a tier of government in 2008, a tenth division – Sheikhupura
Sheikhupura
Division – was created from part of Lahore
Lahore
Division. Districts[edit] Main article: Districts of Pakistan

Sr. No. District Headquarters Area (km²) Population (2017) Density (people/km²) Division

1 Attock Attock 6,858 1,883,556 274 Rawalpindi

2 Bahawalnagar Bahawalnagar 8,878 2,981,919 335 Bahawalpur

3 Bahawalpur Bahawalpur 24,830 3,668,106 147 Bahawalpur

4 Bhakkar Bhakkar 8,153 1,650,518 202 Sargodha

5 Chakwal Chakwal 6,524 1,495,982 229 Rawalpindi

6 Chiniot Chiniot 2,643 1,369,740 518 Faisalabad

7 Dera Ghazi Khan Dera Ghazi Khan 11,922 2,872,201 240 Dera Ghazi Khan

8 Faisalabad Faisalabad 5,856 7,873,910 1344 Faisalabad

9 Gujranwala Gujranwala 3,622 5,014,196 1384 Gujranwala

10 Gujrat Gujrat 3,192 2,756,110 863 Gujranwala

11 Hafizabad Hafizabad 2,367 1,156,957 488 Gujranwala

12 Jhang Jhang 8,809 2,743,416 311 Faisalabad

13 Jhelum Jhelum 3,587 1,222,650 340 Rawalpindi

14 Kasur Kasur 4,796 3,454,996 720 Lahore

15 Khanewal Khanewal 4,349 2,921,986 671 Multan

16 Khushab Khushab 6,511 1,281,299 196 Sargodha

17 Lahore Lahore 1,772 11,126,285 6278 Lahore

18 Layyah Layyah 6,291 1,824,230 290 Dera Ghazi Khan

19 Lodhran Lodhran 2,778 1,700,620 612 Multan

20 Mandi Bahauddin Mandi Bahauddin 2,673 1,593,292 596 Gujranwala

21 Mianwali Mianwali 5,840 1,546,094 264 Sargodha

22 Multan Multan 3,720 4,745,109 1275 Multan

23 Muzaffargarh Muzaffargarh 8,249 4,322,009 523 Dera Ghazi Khan

24 Narowal Narowal 2,337 1,709,757 731 Gujranwala

25 Nankana Sahib[62] Nankana Sahib 2,960 1,356,374 458 Lahore

26 Okara Okara 4,377 3,039,139 694 Sahiwal

27 Pakpattan Pakpattan 2,724 1,823,687 669 Sahiwal

28 Rahim Yar Khan Rahim Yar Khan 11,880 4,814,006 405 Bahawalpur

29 Rajanpur Rajanpur 12,319 1,995,958 162 Dera Ghazi Khan

30 Rawalpindi Rawalpindi 5,286 5,405,633 1322 Rawalpindi

31 Sahiwal Sahiwal 3,201 2,517,560 786 Sahiwal

32 Sargodha Sargodha 5,854 3,703,588 632 Sargodha

33 Sheikhupura Sheikhupura 5,960 3,460,426 580 Lahore

34 Sialkot Sialkot 3,016 3,893,672 1291 Gujranwala

35 Toba Tek Singh Toba Tek Singh 3,252 2,190,015 673 Faisalabad

36 Vehari Vehari 4,364 2,897,446 663 Multan

v t e

Districts of Punjab, Pakistan

Provincial capital: Lahore

Bahawalpur

Bahawalnagar Bahawalpur Rahim Yar Khan

Dera Ghazi Khan

Dera Ghazi Khan Layyah Muzaffargarh Rajanpur

Faisalabad

Chiniot Faisalabad Jhang Toba Tek Singh

Gujranwala

Gujranwala Gujrat Hafizabad Mandi Bahauddin Narowal Sialkot

Lahore

Kasur Lahore

Multan

Khanewal Lodhran Multan Vehari

Rawalpindi

Attock Chakwal Jhelum Rawalpindi

Sargodha

Bhakkar Khushab Mianwali Sargodha

Sahiwal

Sahiwal Okara Pakpattan

Sheikhupura

Sheikhupura Nankana Sahib

See also: Districts of Punjab, India

Major cities[edit] Main article: List of cities in Punjab
Punjab
(Pakistan)

List of major cities in Punjab

Rank City District Population

1 Lahore Lahore 14,500,000

2 Faisalabad Faisalabad 7,380,000

3 Rawalpindi Rawalpindi 5,891,656

4 Multan Multan 5,206,481

5 Gujranwala Gujranwala 4,769,090

6 Sargodha Sargodha 4,557,514

7 Bahawalpur Bahawalpur 2,443,929

8 Sialkot Sialkot 1,910,863

9 Sheikhupura Sheikhupura 426,980

10 Jhang Jhang 372,645

11 Gujrat Gujrat 530,645

12 D.G.Khan D.G.Khan 630,645

Source: World Gazetteer 2010[63]

This is a list of each city's urban populations and does not indicate total district populations

Economy[edit]

GDP by Province

Punjab
Punjab
has the largest economy in Pakistan, contributing most to the national GDP. The province's economy has quadrupled since 1972.[64] Its share of Pakistan's GDP was 54.7% in 2000 and 59% as of 2010. It is especially dominant in the service and agriculture sectors of Pakistan's economy. With its contribution ranging from 52.1% to 64.5% in the Service Sector and 56.1% to 61.5% in the agriculture sector. It is also major manpower contributor because it has largest pool of professionals and highly skilled (technically trained) manpower in Pakistan. It is also dominant in the manufacturing sector, though the dominance is not as huge, with historical contributions raging from a low of 44% to a high of 52.6%.[65] In 2007, Punjab
Punjab
achieved a growth rate of 7.8%[66] and during the period 2002–03 to 2007–08, its economy grew at a rate of between 7% to 8% per year.[67] and during 2008–09 grew at 6% against the total GDP growth of Pakistan
Pakistan
at 4%. Despite the lack of a coastline, Punjab
Punjab
is the most industrialised province of Pakistan;[14] its manufacturing industries produce textiles, sports goods, heavy machinery, electrical appliances, surgical instruments, vehicles, auto parts, metals, sugar mill plants, aircraft, cement, agricultural machinery, bicycles and rickshaws, floor coverings, and processed foods. In 2003, the province manufactured 90% of the paper and paper boards, 71% of the fertilizers, 69% of the sugar and 40% of the cement of Pakistan.[68]

Industrial Zones Punjab, Source:[69]

Former administrative divisions of Punjab

Despite its tropical wet and dry climate, extensive irrigation makes it a rich agricultural region. Its canal-irrigation system established by the British is the largest in the world. Wheat and cotton are the largest crops. Other crops include rice, sugarcane, millet, corn, oilseeds, pulses, vegetables, and fruits such as kinoo. Livestock and poultry production are also important. Despite past animosities, the rural masses in Punjab's farms continue to use the Hindu
Hindu
calendar for planting and harvesting. Punjab
Punjab
contributes about 76% to annual food grain production in the country. Cotton and rice are important crops. They are the cash crops that contribute substantially to the national exchequer. Attaining self-sufficiency in agriculture has shifted the focus of the strategies towards small and medium farming, stress on barani areas, farms-to-market roads, electrification for tube-wells and control of water logging and salinity. Punjab
Punjab
has also more than 68 thousand industrial units. There are 39,033 small and cottage industrial units. The number of textile units is 14,820. The ginning industries are 6,778. There are 7,355 units for processing of agricultural raw materials including food and feed industries. Lahore
Lahore
and Gujranwala
Gujranwala
Divisions have the largest concentration of small light engineering units. The district of Sialkot
Sialkot
excels in sports goods, surgical instruments and cutlery goods. Punjab
Punjab
is also a mineral-rich province with extensive mineral deposits of coal, iron, gas, petrol, rock salt (with the second largest salt mine in the world), dolomite, gypsum, and silica-sand. The Punjab Mineral Development Corporation is running over a hundred economically viable projects. Manufacturing includes machine products, cement, plastics, and various other goods. The incidence of poverty differs between the different regions of Punjab. With Northern and Central Punjab
Punjab
facing much lower levels of poverty than Western and Southern Punjab. Those living in Southern and Western Punjab
Punjab
are also a lot more dependent on agriculture due to lower levels of industrialisation in those regions. As of June 2012[update], Pakistan's electricity problems were so severe that violent riots were taking place across Punjab. According to protesters, load shedding was depriving the cities of electricity 20–22 hours a day, causing businesses to go bust and making living extremely hard. Gujranwala, Toba Tek Singh, Faisalabad, Sialkot, Bahawalnagar
Bahawalnagar
and communities across Khanewal District
Khanewal District
saw widespread rioting and violence on Sunday 17 June 2012, with the houses of several members of parliament being attacked as well as the offices of regional energy suppliers Fesco, Gepco and Mepco being ransacked or attacked.[70] Education[edit]

Government College University, Lahore

The literacy rate has increased greatly over the last 40 years (see the table below). Punjab
Punjab
has the highest Human Development Index out of all of Pakistan's provinces at 0.670.[71]

Year Literacy Rate

1972 20.7%

1981 27.4%

1998 46.56%

2009 59.6%

2015 58%[72]

Sources:[73][74] This is a chart of the education market of Punjab
Punjab
estimated by the government in 1998.

Qualification Urban Rural Total Enrollment Ratio(%)

– 23,019,025 50,602,265 73,621,290 —

Below Primary 3,356,173 11,598,039 14,954,212 100.00

Primary 6,205,929 18,039,707 24,245,636 79.68

Middle 5,140,148 10,818,764 15,958,912 46.75

Matriculation 4,624,522 7,119,738 11,744,260 25.07

Intermediate 1,862,239 1,821,681 3,683,920 9.12

BA, BSc... degrees 110,491 96,144 206,635 4.12

MA, MSc... degrees 1,226,914 764,094 1,991,008 3.84

Diploma, Certificate... 418,946 222,649 641,595 1.13

Other qualifications 73,663 121,449 195,112 0.26

Public universities[edit]

Main entrance to The University of Sargodha

A women's college in Rawalpindi

University of the Punjab

University of Agriculture, Faisalabad

King Edward Medical University, Lahore

Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi Ghazi University D.G.Khan, D.G.Khan Government College University, Lahore Government College University, Faisalabad Gujranwala
Gujranwala
Medical College, Gujranwala The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur King Edward Medical College, Lahore Kinnaird College for Women, Lahore Lahore
Lahore
College for Women University, Lahore National College of Arts, Lahore National Textile University, Faisalabad Sargodha
Sargodha
Medical College, Sargodha University of Agriculture, Faisalabad University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi University College of Agriculture, Sargodha University of Education, Lahore University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila University of Gujrat, Gujrat University of Health Sciences, Lahore University of the Punjab, Lahore CMH Institute Of Medical And Health Sciences, Multan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore University of Sargodha, Sargodha Virtual University of Pakistan, Lahore Muhammad
Muhammad
Nawaz Sharif University of Agriculture, Multan NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology, Multan Muhammad
Muhammad
Nawaz Sharif University of Engineering & Technology, Multan Women University Multan, Multan Nishtar Medical College, Multan Khawaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology, Rahim Yar Khan Bahadur University, Layyah Government Collage University, Layyah
Layyah
Campus

Private universities[edit]

Badshahi Masjid
Badshahi Masjid
in Lahore

Beaconhouse National University, Lahore Forman Christian College, Lahore GIFT University, Gujranwala Hajvery University, Lahore Imperial College of Business Studies, Lahore Institute of Management Sciences, Lahore, Pak-AIMS, Lahore Lahore
Lahore
School of Economics, Lahore Lahore
Lahore
University of Management Sciences, Lahore Minhaj International University, National University of Computer & Emerging Sciences, Lahore Pakistan
Pakistan
Institute of Fashion and Design, Lahore Rai Medical College, Sargodha Sargodha
Sargodha
Institute of Technology, Sargodha University of Central Punjab, Lahore University of Faisalabad, Faisalabad University of Health Sciences, Lahore University of Lahore, Lahore University of Management and Technology, Lahore University of South Asia, Lahore University College Lahore, Lahore University of Wah, Wah
Wah
Cantonment HITEC UNIVERSITY, TAXILA CANTONMENT Institute of Southern Punjab, Multan Pakistan
Pakistan
Institute of Engineering and Technology, Multan Multan
Multan
Medical and Dental College, Multan

Culture[edit]

Mausoleum of Sheikh Rukh-e-Alam, Multan
Multan
(1320 AD)

Punjab
Punjab
has been the cradle of civilisation since times immemorial. The ruins of Harappa
Harappa
show an advanced urban culture that flourished over 8000 years ago. Ancient Taxila, another historic landmark also stands out as a proof of the achievements of the area in learning, arts and crafts. The ancient Hindu
Hindu
Katasraj temple
Katasraj temple
and the Salt Range
Salt Range
temples are regaining attention and much-needed repair. The structure of a mosque is simple and it expresses openness. Calligraphic inscriptions from the Quran decorate mosques and mausoleums in Punjab. The inscriptions on bricks and tiles of the mausoleum of Shah Rukn-e-Alam (1320 AD) at Multan
Multan
are outstanding specimens of architectural calligraphy. The earliest existing building in South Asia
South Asia
with enamelled tile-work is the tomb of Shah Yusuf Gardezi (1150 AD) at Multan. A specimen of the sixteenth century tile-work at Lahore
Lahore
is the tomb of Sheikh Musa Ahangar, with its brilliant blue dome. The tile-work of Emperor Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
is of a richer and more elaborate nature. The pictured wall of Lahore
Lahore
Fort is the last line in the tile-work in the entire world. Fairs and festivals[edit] Main article: Punjabi festivals (Pakistan) The culture of Punjab
Punjab
derives its basis from the institution of Sufi saints, who spread Islam
Islam
and preached and lived the Muslim
Muslim
way of life. People have festivities to commemorate these traditions. The fairs and festivals of Punjab
Punjab
reflect the entire gamut of its folk life and cultural traditions. These mainly fall in the following categories: Religious and seasonal fairs and festivals[edit] Religious fairs are held on special days of Islamic
Islamic
significance like Eid ul-Adha, Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-e-Milad-un-Nabi, Shahb-e-Barat, Ashura, Laylat al-Qadr
Laylat al-Qadr
and Jumu'ah-tul-Wida. The main activities on these special occasions are confined to congregational prayers and rituals. Melas are also held to mark these occasions. Devotional fairs (Urs)[edit]

Punjab
Punjab
is famous for various shrines of Sufi
Sufi
saints and Data durbar
Data durbar
in particular

The fairs held at the shrines of Sufi
Sufi
saints are called urs. They generally mark the death anniversary of the saint. On these occasions devotees assemble in large numbers and pay homage to the memory of the saint. Soul inspiring music is played and devotees dance in ecstasy. The music on these occasions is essentially folk and appealing. It forms a part of the folk music through mystic messages. The most important urs are: urs of Data Ganj Buksh at Lahore, urs of Hazrat Sultan Bahu
Sultan Bahu
at Jhang, urs of Hazrat Shah Jewna at Jhang, urs of Hazrat Mian Mir
Mian Mir
at Lahore, urs of Baba Farid
Baba Farid
Ganj Shakar at Pakpattan, urs of Hazrat Bahaudin Zakria at Multan, urs of Sakhi Sarwar Sultan at Dera Ghazi Khan, urs of Shah Hussain
Shah Hussain
at Lahore, urs of Hazrat Bulleh Shah at Kasur, urs of Hazrat Imam Bari (Bari Shah Latif) at Rawalpindi- Islamabad
Islamabad
and urs of Shah Inayat Qadri (the murrshad of Bulleh Shah) in Lahore. A big fair/mela is organised at Jandiala Sher Khan in district Sheikhupura
Sheikhupura
on the mausoleum of Syed Waris Shah
Waris Shah
who is the most loved Sufi
Sufi
poet of Punjab
Punjab
due to his classic work, Heer Ranjha. The shrine of Heer Ranjha
Heer Ranjha
in Jhang
Jhang
is one of the most visited shrines in Punjab.

Badshahi Mosque, built by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
at Lahore

Industrial and commercial fairs[edit] Exhibitions and annual horse shows in all districts and a national horse and cattle show at Lahore
Lahore
are held with the official patronage. The national horse and cattle show at Lahore
Lahore
is the biggest festival where sports, exhibitions, and livestock competitions are held. It not only encourages and patronises agricultural products and livestock through the exhibitions of agricultural products and cattle but is also a colourful documentary on the rich cultural heritage of the province with its strong rural roots. Other festivals[edit] Vaisakhi, also called Besakhi, is a harvest festival to celebrate harvesting the wheat crop. Colourful festivals are held at the time of Besakhi when farmers are free to enjoy their leisure time.[75] Various literary festivals and fairs are organised in many places.[76] [77][78] Basant is a seasonal festival and is celebrated as a spring festival of kites.[79] The day is marked by wearing yellow, eating food with yellow colouring such as potatoes with turmeric and saffron rice, and holding parties.[80] Arts and crafts[edit] The crafts in the Punjab
Punjab
are of two types: the crafts produced in the rural areas and the royal crafts. Major attractions[edit]

The Lahore
Lahore
Fort, a landmark built during the Mughal era, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site

The province is home to several historical sites, including the Shalimar Gardens, the Lahore
Lahore
Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Rohtas Fort and the ruins of the ancient city of Harrapa. The Anarkali
Anarkali
Market and Jahangir's Tomb are prominent in the city of Lahore
Lahore
as is the Lahore
Lahore
Museum, while the ancient city of Taxila
Taxila
in the northwest was once a major centre of Buddhist
Buddhist
and Hindu
Hindu
influence. Several important Sikh
Sikh
shrines are in the province, including the birthplace of the first Guru, Guru
Guru
Nanak. (born at Nankana Sahib). There are a few famous hill stations, including Murree, Bhurban, Patriata
Patriata
and Fort Munro. Katasraj Mandir is a Hindu
Hindu
temple complex situated in Katas village near Choa Saidanshah in the Chakwal
Chakwal
district. Dedicated to Shiva, the temple has, according to Hindu
Hindu
legend, existed since the days of Mahābhārata
Mahābhārata
and the Pandava
Pandava
brothers spent a substantial part of their exile at the site and later Krishna
Krishna
himself laid the foundation of this temple.[citation needed] The Khewra Salt Mine
Khewra Salt Mine
is a tourist attraction. Tours are accompanied by guides as the mine itself is very large and the complex interconnected passages are like a maze. There is a small but beautiful mosque inside the mine made from salt stone. A clinical ward with 20 beds was established in 2007[81][82] for the treatment of asthma and other respiratory diseases using salt therapy. Music and dance[edit] Main articles: Music of Punjab
Punjab
and Punjabi dance

Various festivals in rural Punjab

Classical music forms, such as Pakistani classical music, are an important part of the cultural wealth of the Punjab. The Muslim musicians have contributed a large number of ragas to the repository of classical music. The most common instruments used are the tabla and harmonium. Among the Punjabi poets, the names of Sultan Bahu, Bulleh Shah, Mian Muhammad
Muhammad
Baksh, and Waris Shah
Waris Shah
and folk singers like Inayat Hussain Bhatti and Tufail Niazi, Alam Lohar, Sain Marna, Mansoor Malangi, Allah Ditta Lonawala, Talib Hussain Dard, Attaullah Khan Essa Khailwi, Gamoo Tahliwala, Mamzoo Gha-lla, Akbar Jat, Arif Lohar, Ahmad Nawaz Cheena and Hamid Ali Bela are well-known. In the composition of classical ragas, there are such masters as Malika-i-Mauseequi (Queen of Music) Roshan Ara Begum, Ustad Amanat Ali Khan, Salamat Ali Khan and Ustad Fateh Ali Khan. Alam Lohar
Alam Lohar
has made significant contributions to folklore and Punjabi literature, by being a very influential Punjabi folk singer from 1930 until 1979. For the popular taste however, light music, particularly Ghazals and folk songs, which have an appeal of their own, the names of Mehdi Hassan, Ghulam Ali, Nur Jehan, Malika Pukhraj, Farida Khanum, Roshen Ara Begum, and Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan
Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan
are well-known. Folk songs and dances of the Punjab
Punjab
reflect a wide range of moods: the rains, sowing and harvesting seasons. Luddi, Bhangra and Sammi depict the joy of living. Love legends of Heer Ranjha, Mirza Sahiban, Sohni Mahenwal and Saiful Mulk are sung in different styles. For the most popular music from the region, bhangra, the names of Abrar-Ul-Haq, Arif Lohar, Attaullah Khan Essa Khailwi, Jawad Ahmed, Sajjad Ali, Legacy, and Malkoo are renowned. Folklore[edit]

Punjabi folk

Main article: Punjabi folklore Folklore songs, ballads, epics and romances are generally written and sung in the various Punjabi dialects. There are a number of folk tales that are popular in different parts of the Punjab. These are the folk tales of Mirza Sahiban, Sayful Muluk, Yusuf Zulekha, Heer Ranjha, Sohni Mahiwal, Dulla Bhatti, and Sassi Punnun. The mystic folk songs include the Kafees of Khwaja Farid in Saraiki, Punjabi and the Shalooks by Baba Farid. They also include Baits, Dohas, Lohris, Sehra, and Jugni.[83] The most famous of the romantic love songs are Mayhiah, Dhola and Boliyan. Punjabi romantic dances include Dharees, Dhamaal, Bhangra, Giddha, Dhola, and Sammi. Social issues[edit] One social/educational issue is the status of Punjabi language. According to Manzur Ejaz, "In Central Punjab, Punjabi is neither an official language of the province nor it is used as medium of education at any level. There are only two daily newspapers published in Punjabi in the Central areas of Punjab. Only a few monthly literary magazines constitute Punjabi press in Pakistan".[84] Notable people[edit]

List of people from Punjab, Pakistan List of Punjabi people: Some people who were born in area currently part of Punjab, Pakistan
Pakistan
and migrated to India
India
might exist in this list.

Gallery[edit]

Lahore
Lahore
Fort, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site

Jungle in Sahiwal, Punjab

Badshahi Mosque, Lahore

Tomb of Jahangir, Lahore

Lahore
Lahore
Museum

Sacred Heart Cathedral, Lahore

Shalimar Gardens

Asaf Khan's Mausoleum

Minar e Pakistan

GPO, Lahore

Clock Tower at Govt College University, Lahore

Faisalabad
Faisalabad
Clock Tower

Chenab Club, Faisalabad

Faisalabad
Faisalabad
Railway Station

Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan
Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan
Auditorium in Faisalabad

Faisalabad
Faisalabad
Pindi Battian Interchange

Irrigation canals in Faisalabad

Hindu
Hindu
temple in Faisalabad

CMH Mosque, Jhelum
Jhelum
Cantt

Taxila
Taxila
is a World Heritage Site

Government college for Women, Rawalpindi

Samadhi of Ranjit Singh

Major Akram Memorial, Jhelum

Wheat Fields

A view of Murree, a famous hill station of Punjab

Different shapes of clay pots mostly made in Gujrat

A Fields View from North Punjab

Tilla Jogian, considered sacred by Hindus
Hindus
and scenic peak in Punjab

Katasraj temple
Katasraj temple
(Sardar of Hari Singh's Haveli)

See also[edit]

Punjab
Punjab
(Pakistan) portal Pakistan
Pakistan
portal Geography portal

History of the Punjab Punjab
Punjab
region Punjab, India Punjabi culture Punjabi people Saraikistan

References[edit]

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governor". Pakistan
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(4th ed.). Routledge. ISBN 0-415-32919-1. In the early centuries the centre of Buddhist
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"Kautilya was also a Professor
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^ Radha Kumud Mookerji (2nd ed. 1951; reprint 1989), ''Ancient Indian Education: Brahmanical and Buddhist
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"Thus the various centres of learning in different parts of the country became affiliated, as it were, to the educational centre, or the central university, of Taxila
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^ Radha Kumud Mookerji (2nd ed. 1951; reprint 1989), Ancient Indian Education: Brahmanical and Buddhist
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"This shows that Taxila
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Punjab
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($40 billion). Faisalabad's GDP is projected to rise to $37 billion in 2025 at a growth rate of 5.7%, higher than the growth rates of 5.5% and 5.6% predicted for Karachi
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Bibliography[edit]

Pakistan
Pakistan
Narcotics Control Board (1986), National survey on drug abuse in Pakistan, The University of Michigan 

External links[edit]

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Province of Punjab
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topics

History

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Culture and places

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Geography

List of cities Districts Punjab
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Education

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Provinces and territories of Pakistan

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See also: Former administrative units of Pakistan

v t e

Districts of Punjab, Pakistan

Provincial capital: Lahore

Bahawalpur

Bahawalnagar Bahawalpur Rahim Yar Khan

Dera Ghazi Khan

Dera Ghazi Khan Layyah Muzaffargarh Rajanpur

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Attock Chakwal Jhelum Rawalpindi

Sargodha

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Sahiwal

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Sheikhupura Nankana Sahib

See also: Districts of P

.