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The PUNJAB (/pʌnˈdʒɑːb/ (_ listen ), /-ˈdʒæb/ , /ˈpʌndʒɑːb/ , /-dʒæb/ ), also spelled PANJAB (land of "five rivers"_; Punjabi : پنجاب ( Shahmukhi ); ਪੰਜਾਬ ( Gurumukhi )), is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent , comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India . Not being a political unit, the boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts.

Until the Partition of India in 1947, the British Punjab Province encompassed the present-day Indian states of Punjab , Haryana , Himachal Pradesh , and Chandigarh , and the Pakistani regions of Punjab and Islamabad Capital Territory . It bordered the Balochistan and Pashtunistan regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi-Urdu Belt to the east, and Rajasthan and Sindh to the south.

The people of the Punjab today are called Punjabis , and their principal language is Punjabi . The main religions of the Punjab region are Islam , Sikhism , and Hinduism . Other religious groups are Christianity , Jainism , Zoroastrianism , and Buddhism . The Punjab region has been inhabited by the Indus Valley Civilisation , Indo-Aryan peoples , and Indo-Scythians , and has seen numerous invasions by the Persians , Greeks , Kushans , Ghaznavids , Timurids , Mughals , Pashtuns , British , and others. The foreign invaders mainly targeted the most productive central region of the Punjab known as the Majha region, which is also the bedrock of Punjabi culture and traditions.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 Physical geography

* 2.1 1947 definition * 2.2 Present day maps * 2.3 Major cities * 2.4 Major cities * 2.5 Greater Punjab

* 3 Climate

* 4 History

* 4.1 Timeline

* 5 People of the Punjab

* 5.1 Ethnic background * 5.2 Languages * 5.3 Religions * 5.4 Punjabi festivals * 5.5 Punjabi clothing

* 6 Economy * 7 Photo gallery * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The region was originally called Sapta Sindhu , the vedic land of the seven rivers flowing into the ocean. The later name of the region, _Punjab_, is a compound of two Persian words, Panj (five) and āb (water), introduced to the region by the Turko-Persian conquerors of India , and more formally popularised during the Mughal Empire . Punjab thus means "The Land of Five Waters", referring to the rivers Jhelum , Chenab , Ravi , Sutlej , and Beas . All are tributaries of the Indus River , the Chenab being the largest.

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

There are two main definitions of the Punjab region: the 1947 definition and the older 1846–1849 definition. A third definition incorporates both the 1947 and the older definitions but also includes northern Rajasthan on a linguistic basis and ancient river movements.

1947 DEFINITION

The 1947 definition defines the Punjab region with reference to the dissolution of British India whereby the then British Punjab Province was partitioned between India and Pakistan. In Pakistan, the region now includes the Punjab province and Islamabad Capital Territory . In India, it includes the Punjab state , Chandigarh , Haryana , and Himachal Pradesh .

Using the 1947 definition, the Punjab borders the Balochistan and Pashtunistan regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, and Rajasthan and Sindh to the south. Accordingly, the Punjab region is very diverse and stretches from the hills of the Kangra Valley to the plains and to the Cholistan Desert .

PRESENT DAY MAPS

*

Punjab, Pakistan *

Punjab, India, 2014 *

Haryana, India *

Himachal Pradesh, India

MAJOR CITIES

Main article: List of cities in the Punjab region by population

*

Badshahi Mosque, Lahore *

Golden Temple, Amritsar *

Clock Tower, Faisalabad *

Aerial view of Multan Ghanta Ghar chawk *

Open Hand monument, Chandigarh *

Faisal Masjid (Margalla Hills)

Using the 1947 definition of the Punjab region, some of the major cities of the area include Lahore , Faisalabad and Ludhiana . Older 1846–1849 definition The Punjab, 1849 The Panjab, 1880 Punjab Province (British India) , 1909

The older definition of the Punjab region focuses on the collapse of the Sikh Empire and the creation of the British Punjab province between 1846 and 1849. According to this definition, the Punjab region incorporates, in Pakistan, Azad Kashmir including Bhimber and Mirpur and parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (especially Peshawar known in the Punjab region as Pishore). In India the wider definition includes parts of Delhi and Jammu Division .

Using the older definition of the Punjab region, the Punjab region covers a large territory and can be divided into five natural areas:

* the eastern mountainous region including Jammu Division and Azad Kashmir ; * the trans-Indus region including Peshawar ; * the central plain with its five rivers; * the north-western region, separated from the central plain by the Salt Range between the Jhelum and the Indus rivers; * the semi-desert to the south of the Sutlej river.

The formation of the Himalayan Range of mountains to the east and north-east of the Punjab is the result of a collision between the north-moving Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate . The plates are still moving together, and the Himalayas are rising by about 5 millimetres (0 in) per year.

The upper regions are snow-covered the whole year. Lower ranges of hills run parallel to the mountains. The Lower Himalayan Range runs from north of Rawalpindi through Jammu and Kashmir , Himachal Pradesh and further south. The mountains are relatively young, and are eroding rapidly. The Indus and the five rivers of the Punjab have their sources in the mountain range and carry loam, minerals and silt down to the rich alluvial plains, which consequently are very fertile.

MAJOR CITIES

According to the older definition, some of the major cities include Jammu , Peshawar and parts of Delhi.

*

Bahu Fort, Jammu, India *

Peshawar Museum *

Jama Masjid, Delhi *

City view, Mirpur

GREATER PUNJAB

The third definition of the Punjab region adds to the definitions cited above and includes parts of Rajasthan on linguistic lines and takes into consideration the location of the Punjab rivers in ancient times. In particular, the Sri Ganganagar and Hanumangarh districts are included in the Punjab region.

*

Anupgarh fort in Anupgarh city *

Bhatner fort in Hanumangarh city

CLIMATE

The snow-covered Himalayas

The climate is a factor contributing to the economy of the Punjab. It is not uniform over the whole region, with the sections adjacent to the Himalayas receiving heavier rainfall than those at a distance.

There are three main seasons and two transitional periods. During the hot season, from about mid April to the end of June, the temperature may reach 49 °C (120 °F). The monsoon season, from July to September, is a period of heavy rainfall, providing water for crops in addition to the supply from canals and irrigation systems. The transitional period after the monsoon is cool and mild, leading to the winter season, when the temperature in January falls to 5 °C (41 °F) at night and 12 °C (54 °F) by day. During the transitional period from winter to the hot season, sudden hailstorms and heavy showers may occur, causing damage to crops.

HISTORY

Main article: History of the Punjab Taxila in Pakistan is a World Heritage Site

The Punjab region of India and Pakistan has a historical and cultural link to Indo-Aryan peoples as well as partially to various indigenous communities. As a result of several invasions from Central Asia and the Middle East , many ethnic groups and religions make up the cultural heritage of the Punjab.

In prehistoric times, one of the earliest known cultures of South Asia , the Indus Valley civilisation was located in the region.

The epic battles described in the _ Mahabharata _ are described as being fought in what is now the State of Haryana and historic Punjab. The Gandharas , Kambojas , Trigartas, Andhra, Pauravas, Bahlikas (Bactrian settlers of the Punjab), Yaudheyas and others sided with the Kauravas in the great battle fought at Kurukshetra . According to Dr Fauja Singh and Dr L. M. Joshi: "There is no doubt that the Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Andhra, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas, Saindhavas and Kurus had jointly contributed to the heroic tradition and composite culture of ancient Punjab". Menander I Soter (165/155 –130 BCE), conqueror of the Punjab, carved out a Greek kingdom in the Punjab and ruled the Punjab until his death in 130 BC.

In 326 BCE, Alexander the Great invaded Pauravas and defeated King Porus . His armies entered the region via the Hindu Kush in northwest Pakistan and his rule extended up to the city of Sagala (present-day Sialkot in northeast Pakistan). In 305 BCE the area was ruled by the Maurya Empire . In a long line of succeeding rulers of the area, Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka stand out as the most renowned. The Maurya presence in the area was then consolidated in the Indo-Greek Kingdom in 180 BCE. Menander I Soter "The Saviour" (known as Milinda in Indian sources) is the most renowned leader of the era, he conquered the Punjab and made Sagala the capital of his Empire . Menander carved out a Greek kingdom in the Punjab and ruled the region till his death in 130 BCE. The neighbouring Seleucid Empire rule came to an end around 12 BCE, after several invasions by the Yuezhi and the Scythian people.

In 711–713 CE, the 18-year-old Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim of Taif , a city in what is now Saudi Arabia , came by way of the Arabian Sea with Arab troops to defeat Raja Dahir . Bin Qasim then led his troops to conquer the Sindh and Punjab regions for the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate , making him the first to bring Islam to the region. A section of the Lahore Fort built by the Mughal emperor Akbar

During the establishment and consolidation of the Muslim Turkic Mughal Empire prosperity, growth, and relative peace were established, particularly under the reign of Jahangir . Muslim empires ruled the Punjab for approximately 1,000 years. The period was also notable for the emergence of Guru Nanak (1469–1539), the founder of Sikhism .

In 1758, Punjab came under the rule of Marathas , who captured the region by defeating the Afghan forces of Ahmad Shah Abdali . Abdali's Indian invasion weakened the Maratha influence, but he could not defeat the Sikhs . After the death of Ahmad Shah, the Punjab was freed from the Afghan yoke by Sikhs between 1773 and 1818. At the time of the formation of the Dal Khalsa in 1748 at Amritsar , the Punjab had been divided into 36 areas and 12 separate Sikh principalities, called misl . From this point onward, the beginnings of a Punjabi Sikh Empire emerged. Out of the 36 areas, 22 were united by Maharaja Ranjit Singh . The other 14 accepted British sovereignty . After Ranjit Singh's death, assassinations and internal divisions severely weakened the empire. Six years later the British East India Company was given an excuse to declare war, and in 1849, after two Anglo-Sikh wars , the Punjab was annexed by the British.

In the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Sikh rulers backed the East India Company, providing troops and support, but in Jhelum 35 British soldiers of HM XXIV regiment were killed by the local resistance, and in Ludhiana a rebellion was crushed with the assistance of the Punjab chiefs of Nabha and Malerkotla .

The British Raj had political, cultural, philosophical, and literary consequences in the Punjab, including the establishment of a new system of education. During the independence movement, many Punjabis played a significant role, including Madan Lal Dhingra , Sukhdev Thapar , Ajit Singh Sandhu , Bhagat Singh , Udham Singh , Kartar Singh Sarabha , Bhai Parmanand , Muhammad Iqbal , Chaudhary Rehmat Ali , and Lala Lajpat Rai .

At the time of partition in 1947, the province was split into East and West Punjab. East Punjab (48%) became part of India, while West Punjab (52%) became part of Pakistan. The Punjab bore the brunt of the civil unrest following the end of the British Raj, with casualties estimated to be in the millions.

TIMELINE

* 3300–1500 BCE: Harappan civilisation * 1500–1000 BCE: (Rigvedic ) Vedic civilisation * 1000–500 BCE: Middle and late Vedic Period * 599 BCE: Birth of Mahavira * 567–487 BCE: Time of Gautama Buddha * 550 BCE – 600 CE: Buddhism remained prevalent * 326 BCE: Alexander 's Invasion of Punjab * 322–298 BCE: Chandragupta I , Maurya period * 273–232 BCE: Reign of Ashoka * 125–160 BCE: Rise of the Sakas * 2 BCE: Beginning of Rule of the Sakas * 45–180: Rule of the Kushans * 320–550: Gupta Empire * 500: Hunnic Invasion * 510–650: Vardhana 's Era * 711–713: Muhammad bin Qasim conquers Sindh and small part of Punjab region * 713–1200: Rajput states, Kabul Shahi & small Muslim kingdoms * 1206–1290: Mamluk dynasty established by Mohammad Ghori * 1290–1320: Khilji dynasty established by Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji * 1320–1413: Tughlaq dynasty established by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq * 1414–1451: Sayyid dynasty established by Khizr Khan * 1451–1526: Lodhi dynasty established by Bahlul Khan Lodhi * 1469–1539: Guru Nanak

* 1526–1707: Mughal rule

* 1526–1530: Zaheeruddin Muhammad Babur * 1530–1540: Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun * 1540–1545: Sher Shah Suri of Afghanistan * 1545–1554: Islam Shah Suri * 1555–1556: Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun * 1556–1556: Hem Chandra Vikramaditya * 1556–1605: Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar * 1605–1627: Nooruddin Muhammad Jahangir * 1627–1658: Shahaabuddin Muhammad Shah Jahan * 1658–1707: Mohiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir

* 1539–1675: Period of 8 Sikh Gurus from Guru Angad Dev to Guru Tegh Bahadur * 1675–1708: Guru Gobind Singh (10th Sikh Guru) * 1699: Birth of the Khalsa * 1708–1713: Conquests of Banda Bahadur * 1722: Birth of Ahmed Shah Durrani , either in Multan in Mughal Empire or Herat in Afghanistan * 1714–1759: Sikh chiefs (Sardars ) war against Afghans "> Ethnic Punjabis in Pakistan

ETHNIC BACKGROUND

Ethnic ancestries of modern Punjabis include a mixture of Indo-Aryan and Indo-Scythian . Semitic ancestries can also be found in lesser numbers. With the advent of Islam , settlers from Turkestan , Afghanistan , and Kashmir have also integrated into the Muslim Punjabi society. However, the majority of Punjab is still made up of the Ahirs , Arains , Dalits (mostly Chamars ), Gujjars , Jats , Khatris , Tarkhans , Brahmins , Bhats , Rajputs , Rors and Saini . In the past, the most densely populated area has been the Majha region of Punjab.

* v * t * e

Ethnic groups , social groups and tribes of the Punjab

AGRAWAL

* Bansal * Goyal

ARAINS

* Mian * Mehar * Dhankhar

BRAHMINS

* Punjabi Brahmins * Saraswat Brahmins * Bali * Chhibber * Datt * Mohan * Mohyal

SCHEDULED CASTES

* Ad-Dharmi * Balmiki * Bazigar * Chamar * Khateek * Mazhabi Sikh * Mochi * Mirasi * Nat * Ramdasia Sikh * Ravidasi

AHIRS

* Yaduvanshi Ahirs * Ahirs * Harals * Ghosi * Hindu Ghosi * Bhurtiya * Aharwar * Ranghar

GURJARS

* Gurjar Parihar * Bhati * Baisla

JATS

* Aulakh * Bajwa * Chaudhary * Chohan * Dhankhar * Dhillon * Dhindsa * Gill * Goraya * Kharal * Khokhar * Khullar * Ponwar * Randhawa * Sandhu * Sidhu * Sial * Sodhi * Sohal * Virk * Sanghera * Sahi

LABANA

* Ghotra * Labana

KHATRIS

* Ahuja * Babbar * Bedi * Bhasin * Chopra * Khukhrain * Kapoor * Kohli * Malhotra * Malik * Nayar * Oberoi * Roshan * Sabharwal * Sahni * Sethi * Sodhi * Talwar * Tandon * Tuli * Vohra

RAJPUTS

* Manhas * Bais * Butta * Bhatti * Chib * Jamwal * Janjua * Parmar * Ranial * Shaktawat * Sohlan

TARKHANS

* Panesar * Ramgharia * Sohal

* Arora * Bagga * Bakarwal * Bania * Kamboj * Kumhar * Sansi * Sayyid

LANGUAGES

Dialects of Punjabi Main article: Punjabi language

The major language spoken in the Punjab is Punjabi. In the Indian Punjab this is written in the Gurmukhi script. Pakistan uses the Shahmukhi script, that is closer to Urdu script. Hindi, written in the Devanagri script, is used widely in the Indian states of Himanchal Pradesh and Haryana. Several dialects of Punjabi are spoken in the different regions. The Majhi dialect is considered to be textbook Punjabi and is shared by both countries.

RELIGIONS

The vast majority of Pakistani Punjabis are Sunni Muslim by faith, but also include large minority faiths mostly Shia Muslim , Ahmadi Muslim and Christians .

The Indian states of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh are mostly Hindu-majority. Sikhism , founded in the late 15th century, is the main religion practised in the post-1966 Indian Punjab state . About 60% of the population of Punjab state is Sikh, 37% is Hindu , and the rest are Muslims, Christians, and Jains . However, due to large scale migration from Uttar Pradesh , Rajasthan , Bihar , Bengal and Odisha the demographics have become more skewed than reported earlier. Punjab state contains the holy Sikh cities of Amritsar , Anandpur Sahib , Tarn Taran Sahib , Fatehgarh Sahib and Chamkaur Sahib .

The Punjab was home to several Sufi saints . Sufism is a concept in Islam. Also, Kirpal Singh revered the Sikh Gurus as saints.

Population trends for major religious groups in the Punjab Province of British India (1881–1941) Religious group Population % 1881 Population % 1891 Population % 1901 Population % 1911 Population % 1921 Population % 1931 Population % 1941

ISLAM 47.6% 47.8% 49.6% 51.1% 51.1% 52.4% 53.2%

HINDUISM 43.8% 43.6% 41.3% 35.8% 35.1% 30.2% 29.1%

SIKHISM 8.2% 8.2% 8.6% 12.1% 12.4% 14.3% 14.9%

CHRISTIANITY 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.8% 1.3% 1.5% 1.5%

OTHER RELIGIONS / NO RELIGION 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 1.6% 1.3%

PUNJABI FESTIVALS

See also: Punjabi festivals , List of Sikh festivals , Hindu Punjabi Festivals , and Festivals in Lahore

Punjabis celebrate the following cultural, seasonal and religious festivals:

* Maghi * Lohri * Holi * Vaisakhi * Teeyan * Raksha Bandhan * Shab-e-Mehraj * Gurpurab * Hola Mohalla * Mela Chiraghan * Bandi Chhor Divas * Dussehra * Karwa Chauth * Eid * Christmas * Navratri

PUNJABI CLOTHING

Traditional Punjabi clothing includes the following:

* Salwar (Punjabi) Suit * Patiala salwar * Punjabi Tamba and Kurta * Phulkari * Punjabi Ghagra * Shalwar kameez * Kurta

ECONOMY

PHULKARI embroidery from Patiala Main articles: Economy of Punjab, Pakistan and Economy of Punjab, India

The historical region of Punjab is considered to be one of the most fertile regions on Earth. Both east and west Punjab produce a relatively high proportion of India and Pakistan's food output respectively.

The region has been used for extensive wheat farming, in addition rice , cotton , sugarcane , fruit , and vegetables are also grown.

The agricultural output of the Punjab region in Pakistan contributes significantly to Pakistan's GDP . Both Indian and Pakistani Punjab are considered to have the best infrastructure of their respective countries. Indian Punjab has been estimated to be the second richest state in India. Pakistani Punjab produces 68% of Pakistan's food grain production. Its share of Pakistan's GDP has historically ranged from 51.8% to 54.7%.

Called "The Granary of India" or "The Bread Basket of India", Indian Punjab produces 1% of the world's rice, 2% of its wheat, and 2% of its cotton. In 2001, it was recorded that farmers made up 39% of Indian Punjab's workforce.

PHOTO GALLERY

_ This section contains what may be an unencyclopedic or excessive GALLERY OF IMAGES. Galleries containing indiscriminate images of the article subject are discouraged ; please improve or remove the section accordingly. (Learn how and when to remove this template message )_

*

The Mughal era Badshahi Mosque , Lahore *

The fort at Bathinda *

The main gate of the Qila Mubarak, Patiala *

The Golden Temple in Amritsar *

The Baradari of Ranjit Singh, built in the Hazuri Bagh *

The Samadhi of Ranjit Singh *

The Alamgiri Gate, built in 1673, is the main entrance to the Lahore Fort . *

The Phuara Chowk (lit. Fountain Crossing) in Patiala *

The memorial to the Jallianwala Bagh massacre *

Jalandhar railway station reception block *

Irrigated land in the Punjab *

The tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam *

The Shalimar Gardens in Lahore *

Mohindra College in Patiala at night *

The Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore *

The Hiran Minar in Sheikhupura, a tribute to Jahangir 's favourite antelope *

The tomb of Nur Jahan in Lahore *

The tomb of Jahangir in Lahore *

The Noor Mahal (Palace of Light) in Bahawalpur *

The Jhelum River , one of the major rivers of the Punjab *

The Mankiala stupa near Islamabad *

The Open Hand monument in Chandigarh *

Closer view of Amar Mahal Museum, Jammu *

Ghainta ghar, Peshawar *

Dakhni Sarai, Nakodar (gate) *

Shrine Baba Budda Ji Nakodar

SEE ALSO

* Punjab portal

* Punjabi culture * Punjabi language * Punjabi cuisine * Punjabi dance * Music of Punjab * Sikhism

NOTES

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ H K Manmohan Siṅgh. "The Punjab". _The Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Editor-in-Chief Harbans Singh_. Punjabi University , Patiala. Retrieved 18 August 2015. * ^ Jatiinder Aulakh. Archaeological History of Majha: Research Book about Archaeology and Mythology with Rare Photograph. Createspace Independent Pub, 2014 * ^ Arrain, Anabasis, V.22, p.115 * ^ D. R. Bhandarkar, 1989, Some Aspects of Ancient Indian Culture: Sir WIlliam Meyers Lectures, 1938-39, Asia Educational Services, p. 2. * ^ A.S. valdiya, "River Sarasvati was a Himalayn-born river", Current Science, vol 104, no.01, ISSN 0011-3891. * ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (2013). _Punjab: A History from Aurangzeb to Mountbatten_. New Delhi, India, Urbana, Illinois : Aleph Book Company. p. 1 ("Introduction"). ISBN 978-93-83064-41-0 . * ^ Canfield, Robert L. (1991). _Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective_. Cambridge , United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 1 ("Origins"). ISBN 978-0-521-52291-5 . * ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (2013). _Punjab: A History from Aurangzeb to Mountbatten_. New Delhi, India, Urbana, Illinois : Aleph Book Company. ISBN 978-93-83064-41-0 . * ^ Shimmel, Annemarie (2004). _The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture_. London, United Kingdom: Reaktion Books Ltd. ISBN 1-86189-1857 . * ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed., vol. 20, Punjab, p.107 * ^ Darpan, Pratiyogita (1 October 2009). "Pratiyogita Darpan". Pratiyogita Darpan – via Google Books. * ^ History of Panjab Hill States, Hutchison, Vogel 1933 Mirpur was made a part of Jammu and Kashmir in 1846 * ^ Changes in the Socio-economic Structures in Rural North-West Pakistan By Mohammad Asif Khan Peshawar was separated from Punjab Province in 1901. * ^ Gill, Pritam Singh (1978) History of Sikh nation: foundation, assassination, resurrection. New Academic Pub. Co. * ^ Nadiem, Ihsan H. (2007). _Peshawar: heritage, history, monuments_. Sang-e-Meel Publications. Retrieved 13 September 2015. * ^ " Jammu and Kashmir". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. * ^ "Epilogue, Vol 4, Issue 11". * ^ G. S. Gosal. "Physical Geography of the Punjab" (PDF). University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved 3 November 2012. * ^ _The Times Atlas of the World, Concise Edition_. London: Times Books. 1995. p. 36. ISBN 0 7230 0718 7 . * ^ Grewal, J S (2004). _Historical Geography of the Punjab_ (PDF). Punjab Research Group, Volume 11, No 1. Journal of Punjab Studies. pp. 4, 7, 11. * ^ see the Punjab Doabs * ^ Pritam Singh and Shinder S. Thandi, ed. (1996). _Globalisation and the region: explorations in Punjabi identity_. Coventry Association for Punjab Studies, Coventry University. p. 361. * ^ Balder Raj Nayat (1966). _Minority Politcs in the Punjab_. Retrieved 13 September 2015. * ^ Maps of India, Climate of Punjab * ^ Royal Geographical Society Climate and Landscape of the Punjab * ^ Buddha Parkash, _Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Panjab_, p 36. * ^ _History of Panjab_, Vol I, p. 4, Dr L. M. Joshi, Dr Fauja Singh. * ^ _A_ _B_ Hazel, John (2013). _Who's Who in the Greek World_. Routledge. p. 155. ISBN 9781134802241 . Menander king in India, known locally as Milinda, born at a village named Kalasi near Alasanda (Alexandria-in-the-Caucasus), and who was himself the son of a king. After conquering the Punjab, where he made Sagala his capital, he made an expedition across northern India and visited Patna, the capital of the Mauraya empire, though he did not succeed in conquering this land as he appears to have been overtaken by wars on the north-west frontier with Eucratides. * ^ _A_ _B_ Ahir, D. C. (1971). _ Buddhism in the Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh_. Maha Bodhi Society of India. p. 31. OCLC 1288206 . Demetrius died in 166 B.C., and Apollodotus, who was a near relation of the King died in 161 B.C. After his death, Menander carved out a kingdom in the Punjab. Thus from 161 B.C. onward Menander was the ruler of Punjab till his death in 145 B.C. or 130 B.C. * ^ Ganda Singh (August 2004). "The Truth about the Indian Mutiny". Sikh Spectrum. Archived from the original on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013. * ^ . Daily Times (10 May 2012). Retrieved on 2013-07-12. * ^ "Census Reference Tables, C-Series Population by religious communities". Census of India. 2001. Retrieved 25 July 2010. * ^ "Sufi Saints of the Punjab". _Punjabics.com_. Retrieved January 2015. Check date values in: access-date= (help ) * ^ Kirpal Singh , Sant. "The Punjab – Home of Master Saints". Retrieved January 2015. Check date values in: access-date= (help ) * ^ Gopal Krishan. "Demography of the Punjab (1849–1947)" (PDF). Retrieved 15 October 2015. * ^ " Punjab second richest state in country: CII", _Times of India_, 8 April 2004. * ^ Pakistani government statistics, retrieved 14 April 2007. * ^ Provincial Accounts of Pakistan: Methodology and Estimates 1973-2000 * ^ Yadav, Kiran (11 February 2013). "Punjab". Agropedia. Retrieved 15 March 2013.

FURTHER READING

* Narang, K.S.; Gupta, Dr H.R. (1969). _History of the Punjab 1500-1858_ (PDF). U. C. Kapur & Sons, Delhi. Retrieved 22 January 2014. * _Punjabi Adab De Kahani_, Abdul Hafeez Quaraihee, Azeez Book Depot, Lahore, 1973. * _ Punjab as a Sovereign State_, Gulshan Lal Chopra, Al-Biruni, Lahore, 1977. * Patwant Singh. 1999. _The Sikhs_. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-50206-0 . * _The Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Panjab_, 1971, Buddha Parkash. * _Social and Political Movements in ancient Panjab_, Delhi, 1962, Buddha Parkash. * _History of Porus_, Patiala, Buddha Parkash. * _History of the Panjab_, Patiala, 1976, Fauja Singh, L. M. Joshi (Ed). * _The Legacy of the Punjab_, 1997, R. M. Chopra. * _The Rise Growth and Decline of Indo-Persian Literature_, R. M. Chopra, 2012, Iran Culture House, New Delhi. 2nd revised edition, published in 2013. * Sims, Holly. "The State and Agricultural Productivity: Continuity versus Change in the Indian and Pakistani Punjabs." _ Asian Survey _, 1 April 1986, Vol. 26(4), pp. 483–500

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to PUNJAB _.

* Official website of Punjab, India * Official

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