The Info List - Punch (magazine)

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Punch; or, The London
Charivari was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire established in 1841 by Henry Mayhew
Henry Mayhew
and engraver Ebenezer Landells. Historically, it was most influential in the 1840s and 1850s, when it helped to coin the term "cartoon" in its modern sense as a humorous illustration. After the 1940s, when its circulation peaked, it went into a long decline, closing in 1992. It was revived in 1996, but closed again in 2002.


1 History 2 Later years

2.1 Punch table

3 Gallery of selected early covers 4 Contributors

4.1 Editors 4.2 Cartoonists 4.3 Authors

5 Influence 6 See also 7 Notes 8 Works cited 9 External links

History[edit] Punch was founded on 17 July 1841 by Henry Mayhew
Henry Mayhew
and engraver Ebenezer Landells, on an initial investment of £25. It was jointly edited by Mayhew and Mark Lemon. It was subtitled The London
Charivari in homage to Charles Philipon's French satirical humour magazine Le Charivari.[1] Reflecting their satiric and humorous intent, the two editors took for their name and masthead the anarchic glove puppet, Mr. Punch, of Punch and Judy; the name also referred to a joke made early on about one of the magazine's first editors, Lemon, that "punch is nothing without lemon". Mayhew ceased to be joint editor in 1842 and became "suggestor in chief" until he severed his connection in 1845. The magazine initially struggled for readers, except for an 1842 "Almanack" issue which shocked its creators by selling 90,000 copies. In December 1842 due to financial difficulties the magazine was sold to Bradbury and Evans, both printers and publishers. Bradbury and Evans capitalised on newly evolving mass printing technologies and also were the publishers for Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
and William Makepeace Thackeray. The term "cartoon" to refer to comic drawings was first used in Punch in 1843, when the Houses of Parliament were to be decorated with murals, and "cartoons" for the mural were displayed for the public; the term "cartoon" then meant a finished preliminary sketch on a large piece of cardboard, or cartone in Italian. Punch humorously appropriated the term to refer to its political cartoons, and the popularity of the Punch cartoons led to the term's widespread use.[2] The illustrator Archibald Henning
Archibald Henning
designed the cover of the magazine's first issues. The cover design varied in the early years, though Richard Doyle designed what became the magazine's masthead in 1849. Artists who published in Punch during the 1840s and 50s included John Leech, Richard Doyle, John Tenniel
John Tenniel
and Charles Keene. This group became known as "The Punch Brotherhood", which also included Charles Dickens who joined Bradbury and Evans after leaving Chapman and Hall in 1843.[3] Punch authors and artists also contributed to another Bradbury and Evans literary magazine called Once A Week (est.1859), created in response to Dickens' departure from Household Words.[3] In the 1860s and 1870s, conservative Punch faced competition from upstart liberal journal Fun, but after about 1874, Fun's fortunes faded. At Evans's café in London, the two journals had "Round tables" in competition with each other.[4]

"True Humility": Bishop: "I'm afraid you've got a bad egg, Mr Jones"; Curate: "Oh, no, my Lord, I assure you that parts of it are excellent!"

George du Maurier, originally published in 1895

After months of financial difficulty and lack of market success, Punch became a staple for British drawing rooms because of its sophisticated humour and absence of offensive material, especially when viewed against the satirical press of the time. The Times
The Times
and the Sunday paper News of the World
News of the World
used small pieces from Punch as column fillers, giving the magazine free publicity and indirectly granting a degree of respectability, a privilege not enjoyed by any other comic publication. Punch would share a friendly relationship with not only The Times
The Times
but journals aimed at intellectual audiences such as the Westminster Review, which published a fifty-three page illustrated article on Punch's first two volumes. Historian Richard Altick writes that "To judge from the number of references to it in the private letters and memoirs of the 1840s...Punch had become a household word within a year or two of its founding, beginning in the middle class and soon reaching the pinnacle of society, royalty itself".[5] Increasing in readership and popularity throughout the remainder of the 1840s and 1850s, Punch was the success story of a threepenny weekly paper that had become one of the most talked-about and enjoyed periodicals. Punch enjoyed an audience including Elizabeth Barrett, Robert Browning, Thomas Carlyle, Edward FitzGerald, Charlotte Brontë, Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Emily Dickinson, Herman Melville, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and James Russell Lowell. Punch gave several phrases to the English language, including The Crystal Palace, and the "Curate's egg" (first seen in an 1895 cartoon). Several British humour classics were first serialised in Punch, such as the Diary of a Nobody
Diary of a Nobody
and 1066 and All That. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the artistic roster included Harry Furniss, Linley Sambourne, Francis Carruthers Gould, and Phil May.[3] Among the outstanding cartoonists of the following century were Bernard Partridge, H. M. Bateman, Bernard Hollowood who also edited the magazine from 1957 to 1968, Kenneth Mahood and Norman Thelwell. Circulation broke the 100,000 mark around 1910, and peaked in 1947–1948 at 175,000 to 184,000. Sales declined steadily thereafter; ultimately, the magazine was forced to close in 2002 after 161 years of publication. Punch was widely emulated worldwide and was popular in the colonies. The colonial experience, especially in India, influenced Punch and its iconography. Tenniel's Punch cartoons of the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny led to a surge in the magazine's popularity. Colonial India
was frequently caricatured in Punch and was an important source of knowledge of India for British readers.[6] Later years[edit] Punch material was collected in book formats from the late nineteenth century, which included Pick of the Punch annuals with cartoons and text features, Punch and the War (a 1941 collection of WWII-related cartoons), and A Big Bowl of Punch – which was republished a number of times. Many Punch cartoonists of the late 20th century published collections of their own, partly based on Punch contributions. Punch magazine ceased publishing in 1992.[7] In early 1996, the Egyptian businessman Mohamed Al-Fayed
Mohamed Al-Fayed
bought the rights to the name, and Punch was re-launched later that year.[7][8] It was reported that the magazine was intended to be a spoiler aimed at Private Eye, which had published many items critical of Fayed. The magazine never became profitable in its new incarnation, and at the end of May 2002 it was announced that Punch would once more cease publication.[7] Press reports quoted a loss of £16 million over the six years of publication, with only 6,000 subscribers at the end. Whereas the earlier version of Punch prominently featured the clownish character Punchinello (Punch of Punch and Judy) performing antics on front covers, the resurrected Punch magazine did not use this character, but featured on its weekly covers a photograph of a boxing glove, thus informing its readers that the new magazine intended its name to mean "punch" in the sense of a punch in the eye. Punch table[edit] In 2004, much of the archive was acquired by the British Library, including the famous Punch table. The long oval Victorian table was used for staff meetings and other occasions, and was brought into the offices sometime around 1855. The wooden surface is scarred with the carved initials of the magazine's longtime writers, artists and editors, as well as six invited "strangers" including James Thurber and Prince Charles. Mark Twain
Mark Twain
declined the invitation, saying that the already-carved initials of William Makepeace Thackeray
William Makepeace Thackeray
included his own. Gallery of selected early covers[edit]

Detail of Punch hanging the Devil
from first cover in 1841 

1843: 1 July cover shows Punch straddling a trumpeter 

1861: 24 August cover shows Pope Pius IX
Pope Pius IX
delivering weapons to the Southern Italian brigands 

1916: 26 April cover shows Richard Doyle's 1849 masthead with colour and advertisements 


Editorial meeting of Punch magazine in the late 19th century


Mark Lemon
Mark Lemon
(1841–1870) Henry Mayhew
Henry Mayhew
(1841–1842) Charles William Shirley Brooks
Charles William Shirley Brooks
(1870–1874) Tom Taylor
Tom Taylor
(1874–1880) Sir Francis Burnand
Francis Burnand
(1880–1906) Sir Owen Seaman
Owen Seaman
(1906–1932) E.V. Knox (1932–1949) Kenneth Bird (1949–1952) Malcolm Muggeridge
Malcolm Muggeridge
(1953–1957) Bernard Hollowood (1958–1968) William Davis (1969–1977) Alan Coren
Alan Coren
(1978–1987) David Taylor (1988) David Thomas (1989–1992) Peter McKay (September 1996 – 1997) Paul Spike (1997) James Steen (1997–2001) Richard Brass (2001–2002)


John Tenniel's "Our New 'First Lord' at Sea" for the 13 October 1877 issue

Acanthus (Frank Hoar) Arnold Wiles George Adamson Anton (Antonia Yeoman) Edward Ardizzone George Denholm Armour Murray Ball Lewis Baumer George Belcher C. H. Bennett Nicolas Bentley Alfred Bestall
Alfred Bestall
(who also illustrated Rupert Bear) Quentin Blake Russell Brockbank Eric Burgin Clive Collins[9] Bernard Cookson [10] Richard Doyle (who also illustrated Charles Dickens' Christmas books) Rowland Emett ffolkes (Michael Davies) Noel Ford[11] Fougasse (Kenneth Bird) André François P. Fraser Alex Graham (creator of Fred Basset) J. B. Handelsman Harry Hargreaves Michael Heath William Hewison Martin Honeysett Leslie Gilbert Illingworth[12] Ionicus John Jensen[13] Charles Keene David Langdon Larry (Terrence Parkes) John Leech Raymond Lowry George du Maurier Kenneth Mahood Phil May Brooke McEldowney Rod McKie Ed McLachlan Arthur Wallis Mills Benjamin Minns.[14] George Morrow Nick Newman Bernard Partridge[15] Frederick Pegram Matt Percival Roger Gamelyn Pettiward John Phillips[16] Pont (Graham Laidler) Matt Pritchett[17] Arthur Rackham Roy Raymonde Leonard Raven-Hill[15] Albert Rusling Edward Linley Sambourne Gerald Scarfe Ronald Searle E.H. Shepard
E.H. Shepard
(who also illustrated Winnie-the-Pooh) Robert Sherriffs C. A. Shepperson William Sillince George Sprod John Tenniel
John Tenniel
(who also illustrated Alice in Wonderland) Norman Thelwell Bill Tidy (who attempted to buy Punch when it went out of publication) F. H. Townsend Trog (Wally Fawkes) Arthur Watts


Gilbert Abbott A'Beckett Kingsley Amis Alex Atkinson Joan Bakewell John Betjeman Basil Boothroyd Quentin Crisp E.M. Delafield Peter Dickinson Willard R. Espy Penelope Fitzgerald Joyce Grenfell A.P. Herbert John Hollingshead Thomas Hood Chris Hutchins Douglas William Jerrold James Leavey E.V. Lucas Henry Lucy Olivia Manning Somerset Maugham George du Maurier George Melly John McCrae A.A. Milne Sylvia Plath Anthony Powell W.C. Sellar Stevie Smith William Makepeace Thackeray Artemus Ward P.G. Wodehouse Keith Waterhouse R.J. Yeatman


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Punch was influential in British colonies around the world, and in countries including Turkey, India, Japan, and China, with Punch imitators appearing in Cairo, Yokohama, Tokyo, Hong Kong, and Shanghai.[18]

Punch gave its name to the Lucknow-based satirical Urdu
weekly Awadh Punch (1877–1936), which, in turn, inspired dozens of other "Punch" periodicals in India. University of Pennsylvania
University of Pennsylvania
humor magazine the Pennsylvania Punch Bowl derived its name from this magazine. Australia's Melbourne Punch was inspired by the London
original. Charles Wirgman's Japan Punch (1862–1865, 1865–1887) was based on Punch and went on to inspire elements of modern manga. China Punch, established in 1867 in colonial Hong Kong, was the first humor magazine in greater China. Punch along with founder Henry Mayhew
Henry Mayhew
were included in Terry Pratchett's non-Discworld novel Dodger

See also[edit]

Works originally published in Punch magazine Prehistoric Peeps, cartoons by Edward Tennyson Reed.


^ Appelbaum & Kelly 1981, p. 14. ^ Appelbaum & Kelly 1981, p. 15. ^ a b c Punch, or the London
Charivari (1841-1992) — A British Institution, Philip V. Allingham; Contributing Editor, Victorian Web; Faculty of Education, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario. ^ See Schoch, Richard, Performing Bohemia (2004) (copy downloaded 13 October 2006).[dead link] ^ See Altick, Richard. Punch: The Lively Youth of a British Institution, 1841–1851 (Ohio State University Press, 1997), 17. ^ Ritu G. Khanduri. Caricaturing Culture in India: Cartoons and History in the Modern World. 2014. Cambridge University Press ^ a b c John Morrish, Paul Bradshaw, Magazine Editing: In Print and Online. Routledge, 2012. ISBN 1136642072 (p.32). ^ Whack! Whack! Whack! Reborn Punch Pounded Warren Hodge, The New York Times, 18 September 1996. Retrieved 16 March 2013. ^ "Biography: Clive Collins - The British Cartoon
Archive". University of Kent. Retrieved 11 December 2014.  ^ henleystandard.co.uk Archived 14 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved February 2016 ^ "Noel Ford's Cartoon
and Humorous Illustration Portfolio". Ford Cartoons. Retrieved 11 December 2014.  ^ "Biography: Leslie Gilbert Illingworth - The British Cartoon Archive". University of Kent. Retrieved 11 December 2014.  ^ "Biography: John Jensen
John Jensen
- The British Cartoon
Archive". University of Kent. Retrieved 11 December 2014.  ^ Campbell, Jean (1986). "Benjamin Edwin Minns". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 5 June 2012.  ^ a b "The Correspondence of James McNeill Whistler: Biography of Raven-Hill". University of Glasgow. Retrieved 22 March 2014.  ^ Spielmann, Marion Harry (1895). The history of "Punch", Volume 1. Cassell and company, limited. p. 412.  ^ "David Myers Award-winning joke cartoonist". The Independent. 21 June 2007. Archived from the original on 2 January 2008. Retrieved 24 October 2010.  ^ Harder, Hans, Mittler, Barbara, eds. Asian Punches: A Transcultural Affair. Berlin: Springer, 2013. Ebook ISBN 978-3-642-28607-0

Works cited[edit]

Appelbaum, Stanley; Kelly, Richard Michael (1981). Great Drawings and Illustrations from Punch, 1841–1901: 192 Works by Leech, Keene, Du Maurier, May and 21 Others. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-24110-4. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Punch, or the London

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has original text related to this article: Punch

"Punch, or, The London
Charivari, 1841". Science in the 19th Century Periodical. Retrieved 29 September 2013 from http://www.sciper.org/browse/PU_desc.html Works by or about Punch magazine at Internet Archive Punch at Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
(plain text and HTML) List of Punch volumes currently online Hathi Trust. Punch, fulltext The History of "Punch" by Marion H. Spielmann, 1895, from Project Gutenberg Punch cartoon library, Official site of Punch Limited British Cartoon
Archive at University of Kent John Leech Sketch archives from Punch, site with 600 of Leech's sketches Beauty's Lisping Parasite, a Punch article decoded. Ariadne In Naxos, a Punch cartoon analyzed. Searchable archive edmclachlan.co.uk punch.photoshelter.com martinh