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Garbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha Antyeshti

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Pumsavana
Pumsavana
(Sanskrit: पुंसवन, Puṁsavana) (literally: quickening the fetus, or engendering a male issue) is the second of the 16 saṃskāras (sacraments, rite of passage) in ancient texts of Hinduism.[1] The rite of passage is celebrated in the third or fourth month of pregnancy, typically after the pregnancy begins to show but before the baby begins to move in the womb.

Contents

1 Background 2 Description

2.1 Literature

3 Ceremony 4 References

Background[edit] Pumsavana
Pumsavana
is one of the 16 sanskara in Hinduism, which are rites of passage to beget a male child instead of the fetus changing into a girl child by evil spirits in early stages of a woman's pregnency( third or fourth month), early steps for his welcome into the world in the presence of friends and family, then various stages of life (Ashrama (stage)) such as first learning day, graduation from school, wedding and honeymoon, pregnancy, raising a family, as well as those related to final rites associated with cremation.[2] These rites of passage are not uniform, and vary within the diverse traditions of Hinduism. Some may involve formal ceremonies, yajna (fire) ceremonies with the chanting of Vedic hymns. Others are simple, private affairs.[2] These rites of passage in Hinduism
Hinduism
are found in the numerous Dharmasutras and Grhyasutras dated from the 1st millennium BCE.[3][4][5] Description[edit] Pumsavana
Pumsavana
(Sanskrit: पुंसवन) is a composite word of Pums + savana. Pums mean "to grind, move", and "a man, a human being, a soul or spirit", while savana means "ceremony, rite, oblation, festival".[6] Pumsavana
Pumsavana
thus literally means "quickening a being, soul or man", and it is usually translated as "quickening a male fetus, bringing forth a male baby".[7] Pumsavana
Pumsavana
is a rite of passage observed when the pregnancy begins to show, typically in or after the third month of pregnancy and usually before the fetus starts moving in the womb. The ceremony celebrates the rite of passage of the developing fetus, marking the stage where the baby begins to kick as a milestone in a baby's development. Literature[edit] The roots of the pumsavana ritual are found in section 4.3.23 and 4.6.2 of the Atharva Veda, wherein charms are recited for a baby boy.[8] The Atharva Veda also contains charms to be recited for the birth of a child of either gender and the prevention of miscarriages, such as in section 4.6.17.[8] The Atharva Veda, includes thousands of chapters, with diverse scope and prayers. In many verses, the prayer or charm is aimed to have a child, of either sex. For example, in verse 14.2.2, the Atharva Veda states a ritual invitation to the wife, by her husband to mount the bed for conception, "being happy in mind, here mount the bed; give birth to children for me, your husband".[9] Texts, such as the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, in the last chapter detailing the education of a student, include lessons for his Grihastha
Grihastha
stage of life.[10] There, the student is taught, that as a husband, he should cook rice for the wife, and they together eat the food in certain way depending on whether they wish for the birth of a daughter or a son, as follows,[10]

And if a man wishes that a learned daughter should be born to him, and that she should live to her full age, then after having prepared boiled rice with sesamum and butter, they should both eat, being fit to have offspring.

And if a man wishes that a learned son should be born to him, and that he should live his full age, then after having prepared boiled rice with meat and butter, they should both eat, being fit to have offspring.

— Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Upanishad
6.4.17 - 6.4.18, Translated by Max Muller[11]

Ceremony[edit] The ritual is performed in diverse ways, but all involve the husband serving something to the expectant wife. In one version, she is fed a paste mixture of yoghurt, milk and ghee (clarified butter) by him.[12] In another version, the pumsavana ritual is more elaborate, done in the presence of yajna fire and vedic chants, where the husband places a drop of Banyan leaf extract in the wife's right nostril for a son, and her left nostril for a daughter, followed by a feast for all present.[13][14] References[edit]

^ Pandey, R.B. (1962, reprint 2003). The Hindu
Hindu
Sacraments (Saṁskāra) in S. Radhakrishnan (ed.) The Cultural Heritage of India, Vol.II, Kolkata:The Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Mission Institute of Culture, ISBN 81-85843-03-1, p.392 ^ a b Jörg Gengnagel and Ute Hüsken (2005), Words and Deeds: Hindu and Buddhist Rituals in South Asia, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447051521, see Preface Chapter ^ Joyce Flueckiger, Everyday Hinduism, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-1405160117, pages 169-191 ^ David Knipe (2015), Vedic Voices: Intimate Narratives of a Living Andhra Tradition, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199397693, pages 32-37 ^ Mary McGee (2007), Samskara, in The Hindu
Hindu
World (Editors: Mittal and Thursby), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415772273, pages 332-356 ^ puMs and savana Monier-Williams' Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon, Germany ^ Mary McGee (2007), Samskara, in The Hindu
Hindu
World (Editors: Mittal and Thursby), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415772273, page 335 ^ a b Maurice Bloomfield, Hymns of the Atharva Veda at Google Books, Oxford University Press, pages 97-99 ^ Rajbali Pandey (2013), Hindu
Hindu
Saṁskāras: Socio-religious Study of the Hindu
Hindu
Sacraments, 2nd Edition, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120803961, pages 48-56 with footnotes ^ a b Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, pages 534-539 ^ Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Upanishad
VI Adhyaya 4 Brahmana
Brahmana
17 and 18 Max Muller (translator), Oxford University Press, pages 219-220 ^ Ute Hüsken, Will Sweetman and Manfred Krüger (2009), Viṣṇu's Children: Prenatal Life-cycle Rituals in South India, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447058544, page 123 ^ Helene Stork (Editor: Julia Leslie), Roles and Rituals for Hindu Women, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120810365, pages 92-93 ^ B Rama
Rama
Rao, Bulletin of the Indian Institute of History of Medicine at Google Books, Vol. 33-34, page 153

v t e

16 Hindu
Hindu
Saṃskāras (rites of passage)

Pre-natal

Garbhādhāna Puṁsavana Sīmantonnayana

Childhood

Jātakarman Nāmakaraṇa Niṣkramaṇa Annaprāśana Cūḍākaraṇa Karṇavedha

Educational

Vidyārambha Upanayana Vedārāmbha Keśānta Samāvartana

Marriage

Vivāha

Last

Antyeṣṭi

Related topics

Nishekam Pumsavana
Pumsavana
Simant

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