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Pula
Pula
or Pola (Croatian pronunciation: [pǔːla] ( listen); Italian and Istro-Romanian: Pola; Latin: Colonia Pietas Iulia Pola Pollentia Herculanea; Slovene and Chakavian: Pulj, Hungarian: Póla, German: Polei, Ancient Greek: Πόλαι, Polae) is the largest city in Istria County, Croatia
Croatia
and the eighth largest city in the country, situated at the southern tip of the Istria
Istria
peninsula, with a population of 57,460 in 2011. It is known for its multitude of ancient Roman buildings, the most famous of which is the Pula
Pula
Arena, one of the best preserved Roman amphitheaters, and its beautiful sea. The city has a long tradition of wine making, fishing, shipbuilding, and tourism. It has also been Istria's administrative centre since ancient Roman times.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Pre-history 1.2 Ancient period 1.3 Middle Ages 1.4 Venetian, Napoleonic and early Habsburg rule 1.5 Austrian Littoral province and union with Italy 1.6 Post-World War II and modern era

2 Geography and climate 3 Population 4 Sights 5 Economy 6 Sport 7 Tourism 8 Transport 9 Nearby towns and villages 10 International relations

10.1 Twin towns – sister cities

11 See also 12 Notable people 13 References

13.1 Bibliography 13.2 Further reading

13.2.1 Published in the 19th century 13.2.2 Published in the 20th century

13.3 Notes

14 External links

History[edit] Pre-history[edit] Evidence of the presence of Homo erectus
Homo erectus
1 million years ago has been found in the cave of Šandalja near Pula/Pola.[2] Pottery from the Neolithic
Neolithic
period (6000–2000 BC), indicating human settlement, has been found around Pula
Pula
– Pola. In the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(1800–1000 BC), a new type of settlement appeared in Istria, called 'gradine', or Hill-top fortifications.[3] Many late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
bone objects, such as tools for smoothing and drilling, sewing needles, as well as spiral bronze pendants, have been found in the area around Pula/Pola.[4] The type of materials found in Bronze Age
Bronze Age
sites in Istria
Istria
connects these with sites along the Danube.[4] The inhabitants of Istria
Istria
in the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
are known as Proto Illyrians.[4] Greek pottery and a part of a statue of Apollo
Apollo
have been found, attesting to the presence or influence of Greek culture.[5] Greek tradition attributed the foundation of Polai to the Colchians, mentioned in the context of the story of Jason
Jason
and Medea, who had stolen the golden fleece. The Colchians, who had chased Jason
Jason
into the northern Adriatic, were unable to catch him and ended up settling in a place they called Polai, signifying "city of refuge".[6] Ancient period[edit]

Aerial view of the city

Pula Arena
Pula Arena
in the year 1728

In classical antiquity, it was inhabited by the Histri,[7] a Venetic or Illyrian tribe recorded by Strabo
Strabo
in the 1st century AD The Istrian peninsula was conquered by the Romans in 177 BC,[7] starting a period of Romanization. The town was elevated to colonial rank between 46–45 BC as the tenth region of the late Roman Republic, under Julius Caesar.[7][8] During that time the town grew and had at its zenith a population of about 30,000. It became a significant Roman port with a large surrounding area under its jurisdiction. During the civil war of 42 BC of the triumvirate of Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus against Caesar's assassins Brutus and Cassius, the town took the side of Cassius, since the town had been founded by Cassius Longinus, brother of Cassius. After Octavian's victory, the town was demolished. It was soon rebuilt at the request of Octavian's daughter Iulia and was then called Colonia Pietas Iulia Pola Pollentia Herculanea. The colony was part of Venetia et Histria, a region of Roman Italy. Great classical constructions were built of which a few remain. A great amphitheatre, Pula
Pula
Arena, was constructed between 27 BC – 68 AD,[9] much of it still standing to this day. The Romans also supplied the city with a water supply and sewage systems. They fortified the city with a wall with ten gates. A few of these gates still remain: the triumphal Arch of the Sergii, the Gate of Hercules
Hercules
(in which the names of the founders of the city are engraved) and the Twin Gates. During the reign of emperor Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
the name of the town was changed into "Res Publica Polensis". The town was the site of Crispus Caesar's execution in 326 AD and Gallus Caesar's execution in 354 AD. In 425 AD the town became the centre of a bishopric, attested by the remains of foundations of a few religious buildings.[7] Middle Ages[edit]

Chapel of St. Mary Formosa

Pula
Pula
Fortress

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the city and region were attacked by the Ostrogoths, Pola being virtually destroyed by Odoacer, a Germanic foederati general in 476 AD[10] The town was ruled by the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
from 493 to 538 AD.[10] When their rule ended, Pola came under the rule of the Exarchate of Ravenna
Exarchate of Ravenna
(540–751). During this period Pola prospered and became the major port of the Byzantine fleet and integral part of the Byzantine Empire.[10][11] The Basilica of Saint Mary Formosa was built in the 6th century.[10] From 788 on Pola was ruled by the Frankish Empire
Frankish Empire
under Charlemagne, with the introduction of the feudal system.[11][12][13] Under the Franks it was part of the Kingdom of Italy. Pola became the seat of the elective counts of Istria
Istria
until 1077. The town was taken in 1148 by the Venetians and in 1150 Pola swore allegiance to the Republic of Venice, thus becoming a Venetian possession. For centuries thereafter, the city's fate and fortunes were tied to those of Venetian power. It was conquered by the Pisans in 1192 but soon reconquered by the Venetians.[14] In 1238 Pope Gregory IX
Pope Gregory IX
formed an alliance between Genoa
Genoa
and Venice against the Empire, and consequently against Pisa
Pisa
too. As Pola had sided with the Pisans, the city was sacked by the Venetians in 1243. It was destroyed again in 1267 and again in 1397 when the Genoese defeated the Venetians in a naval battle. Pola then slowly went into decline. This decay was accelerated by the infighting of local families: the ancient Roman Sergi family and the Ionotasi (1258–1271) and the clash between Venice
Venice
and Genoa
Genoa
for the control of the city and its harbour (late 13th and 14th centuries). In 1291, by the Peace of Treviso, Patriarch Raimondo della Torre gained the city as part of the secular realm of the Patriarchate of Aquileia, only to lose it to Venice
Venice
in 1331, which then held it until its downfall in 1797. Pola is quoted by the Italian poet Dante Alighieri, who had visited Pola, in the Divine Comedy: "Sì come a Pola, presso del Carnaro, ch'Italia chiude e i suoi termini bagna" or "As Pola, along the Quarnero, that marks the end of Italy
Italy
and bathes its boundaries". Venetian, Napoleonic and early Habsburg rule[edit] The Venetians took over Pula
Pula
in 1331 and would rule the city until 1797. During the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, Pula
Pula
was attacked and occupied by the Genoese, the Hungarian army and the Habsburgs; several outlying medieval settlements and towns were destroyed. In addition to war, the plague, malaria and typhoid ravaged the city. By the 1750s there were only 3,000 inhabitants left in ancient city, an area now covered with weeds and ivy.[15] With the collapse of the Venetian Republic in 1797 following Napoleon's Treaty of Campo Formio, the city became part of the Habsburg Monarchy. It was invaded again in 1805 after the French had defeated the Austrians. It was included in the French Empire of Napoleon as part of the Kingdom of Italy, then placed directly under the French Empire's Illyrian Provinces. Austrian Littoral province and union with Italy[edit]

Pula
Pula
Riviera in 1904

Austro-Hungarian dreadnoughts at Pola

In 1813, Pola (with Istria) came back to the Austrian Empire. Under the compromise of 1867, the town — under the original Italian name, Pola — remained in Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
until the latter's defeat and dissolution in 1918.[16] Under Austrian rule, Pola regained prosperity. Its large natural harbour became Austria's main naval base and a major shipbuilding centre.[17][18] It was chosen for the base in 1859 by Hans Dahlerup (da), a Danish admiral in the service of Austria.[15] Subsequently, Pola grew from a fading provincial town into an industrial city. The famous island of Brioni (in Croatian renamed Brijuni) to the North West of Pola became the summer vacation resort of Austria's Habsburg royal family. In World War I, the port was the main base for Austro-Hungarian dreadnoughts and other naval forces of the Empire.[17] During this period many inhabitants were Italian speaking. The 1910 Austrian census recorded a city population of 58,562 (45.8% Italian speaking; 15.2% Croatian, the rest were mostly German speaking military).[19] Following the collapse of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
in 1918, Pola and the whole of Istria
Istria
– except the territory of Castua Kastav
Kastav
– went to Italy.[18] Pola became the capital of the Province of Pola. The decline in population after World War I was mainly due to economic difficulties caused by the withdrawal of Austro-Hungarian military and bureaucratic facilities and the dismissal of workers from the shipyard.[20] Under the Italian Fascist
Italian Fascist
government of Benito Mussolini, non-Italians, especially Croatian residents who came to Pola under Austro-Hungarian rule, faced stringent political and cultural repression because they had now to integrate themselves into the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
and learn the Italian language. Many left the city and went back to the newly created Yugoslavia, where their homes were. After the collapse of Fascist Italy
Italy
in 1943, the city was occupied by the German Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
and remained a base for U-boats. Consequently, the city was subjected to repeated Allied bombing from 1942–1944. In the last phase of the war, Pola saw the arrest, deportation and execution of people suspected of aiding the partisans who together with the Yugoslav communists killed many soldiers and civilians. Post-World War II and modern era[edit]

Pula
Pula
University building

For two years after 1945, Pola was administered by the Allied Military Government for Occupied Territories (AMG). Pola formed an enclave within south Istria
Istria
that was occupied by Yugoslavia since 1945 with the help of Churchill. The AMG was occupied by a company of the United States 351st Infantry and a British battalion of the 24th Guards Brigade. Istria
Istria
was partitioned into occupation zones until the region became officially united with the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia) on 15 September 1947, under terms of the Paris Peace Treaties. The city became part of the SFR Yugoslavia, upon the ratification of the Paris Peace Treaties on 15 September 1947 — which also created the Free Territory of Trieste
Free Territory of Trieste
that ultimately reverted to Italy. Initially Pola's population of 45,000 was largely made up of ethnic Italians. However, between December 1946 and September 1947, most of the Italian residents fled to Italy
Italy
during the Istrian exodus. Subsequently, the city's Croatian name, Pula, became the official name. Today the city of Pola or Pula
Pula
is officially bilingual, hence both Pula
Pula
or Pola are official names. Since the collapse of Yugoslavia in 1991, Pula-Pola has been part of the newly created Republic of Croatia. Geography and climate[edit] The city lies on and beneath seven hills on the inner part of a wide gulf and a naturally well-protected port (depth up to 38 metres (125 ft)) open to the northwest with two entrances: from the sea and through Fažana
Fažana
channel. Today, Pula/Pola's geographical area amounts to 5,165 hectares (12,760 acres), 4,159 hectares (10,280 acres)[21] on land and 1,015 hectares (2,510 acres) at sea, bounded from the north by islands Sv. Jerolim and Kozada, city areas Štinjan/Stignano, Veli Vrh/Monte Grande and Sianna with its 'Kaiserwald' forest; from the east area Monteserpo, Valmade, Busoler and Valdebek; from the south with the old gas works, commercial port Veruda and island Veruda; and from the west Verudela, Lungomare and Musil. Protected from the north by the mountain chain of Alps
Alps
as well the inner highland, the climate is humid subtropical (Köppen climate classification: Cfa), very pleasant, with the highest air temperature averaging 24 °C (75 °F) during August and lowest averaging 6 °C (43 °F), in January. Summers are usually warm during the day and cooler near the evening, although some strange heat wave patterns are also common. Normally, it is humid. Temperatures above 10 °C (50 °F) last for more than 240 days a year. There are two different kinds of winds here – the bora brings cold and clear weather from the north in winter, and the southern Sirocco
Sirocco
bringing rain in summer.[22] The 'Maestral' is a summer breeze blowing from the inland to the sea. Like the rest of the region Pula
Pula
– Pola is known for its mild climate, tame sea, and unspoiled nature with an average of sunny days of 2,316 hours per year or 6.3 hours a day, with an average air temperature of 13.7 °C (56.7 °F)[23] (6.1 °C (43.0 °F) in February to 26.4 °C (79.5 °F) in July and August) and sea temperature from 7 °C (45 °F) to 26 °C (79 °F).[24][25][26]

Climate
Climate
data for Pula

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 10.0 (50) 10.0 (50) 13.0 (55.4) 16.0 (60.8) 21.0 (69.8) 25.0 (77) 28.0 (82.4) 28.0 (82.4) 24.0 (75.2) 20.0 (68) 14.0 (57.2) 10.0 (50) 18.3 (64.85)

Daily mean °C (°F) 6 (43) 6 (43) 8.5 (47.3) 12 (54) 16.5 (61.7) 20.5 (68.9) 23 (73) 23 (73) 19.5 (67.1) 16 (61) 10.5 (50.9) 7 (45) 14.04 (57.33)

Average low °C (°F) 2.0 (35.6) 2.0 (35.6) 4.0 (39.2) 8.0 (46.4) 12.0 (53.6) 16.0 (60.8) 18.0 (64.4) 18.0 (64.4) 15.0 (59) 12.0 (53.6) 7.0 (44.6) 4.0 (39.2) 9.8 (49.7)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 78.0 (3.071) 64.0 (2.52) 65.0 (2.559) 70.0 (2.756) 56.0 (2.205) 53.0 (2.087) 48.0 (1.89) 75.0 (2.953) 85.0 (3.346) 85.0 (3.346) 80.0 (3.15) 112.0 (4.409) 871 (34.292)

Average rainy days 12.0 12.0 12.0 13.0 13.0 13.0 10.0 11.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 13.0 145

Mean daily sunshine hours 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 9.0 7.0 5.0 3.0 3.0 6

Percent possible sunshine 33 40 42 43 53 56 67 64 58 45 30 33 47

Source #1: EuroWeather

Source #2: Weather Atlas (sunshine data) [27]

Climate
Climate
data for Pula

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average sea temperature °C (°F) 11.3 (52.4) 10.4 (50.7) 11.2 (52.1) 13.7 (56.7) 18.2 (64.8) 23.0 (73.3) 25.0 (77.0) 25.2 (77.3) 23.7 (74.6) 19.6 (67.3) 16.8 (62.3) 14.2 (57.5) 17.7 (63.8)

Mean daily daylight hours 9.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 15.0 14.0 12.0 11.0 10.0 9.0 12.3

Average Ultraviolet index 1 2 3 5 7 8 8 7 5 3 2 1 4.3

Source: Weather Atlas [27]

Population[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1857 3,628 —    

1869 10,601 +192.2%

1880 25,390 +139.5%

1890 31,498 +24.1%

1900 36,143 +14.7%

1910 59,498 +64.6%

1921 38,591 −35.1%

1931 44,219 +14.6%

1948 20,812 −52.9%

1953 28,259 +35.8%

1961 37,099 +31.3%

1971 47,156 +27.1%

1981 56,153 +19.1%

1991 62,378 +11.1%

2001 58,594 −6.1%

2011 57,765 −1.4%

census data

Pula/Pola is the largest city in Istria
Istria
County, with a metropolitan area of 90,000 people.[citation needed] The city itself has 57,460 residents (census 2011),[1] while the metropolitan area includes Barban/Barbana (2,802 residents), Fažana/Fasana (3,050 residents), Ližnjan/Lisignano (2,945 residents), Marčana/Marciana (3,903 residents), Medulin/Medolino (6,004 residents), Svetvinčenat/Sanvicenti (2,218 residents) and Vodnjan/Dignanon (5,651 residents). Its population density is 1,093.27 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,831.6/sq mi), ranking Pula
Pula
– Pola fifth in Croatia. Its birth rate is 1.795 per cent and its mortality rate is 1.014 per cent (in 2001 466 people were born and 594 deceased), with a natural population decrease of −0.219 per cent and vital index of 78.45. The majority of its citizens are Croats
Croats
representing 70.14% of the population (2011 census). The largest ethnic minorities are: 3,454 Serbs
Serbs
(6.01 per cent), 2,545 autochthonous Italians (4.43 per cent), 2,011 Bosniaks
Bosniaks
(3.5 per cent), 549 Slovenians (0.96 per cent).[28] Sights[edit]

Pula Arena
Pula Arena
interior

Punta Verudela

Arch of Sergii

Byzantine Piran Reliquary at the Pula
Pula
Archeologial Museum

Pula
Pula
Cathedral

The Temple of Augustus

Lungo Mare beach

Light design by Dean Skira
Dean Skira
on cranes in Pula
Pula
harbour

The city is best known for its many surviving ancient Roman buildings, the most famous of which is its 1st-century amphitheatre, which is among the six largest surviving Roman arenas in the world.[9] and locally known as the Arena. This is one of the best preserved amphitheatres from antiquity and is still in use today during summer film festivals. During the World War II Italian fascist administration, there were attempts to dismantle the arena and move it to mainland Italy, which were quickly abandoned due to the costs involved. Two other notable and well-preserved ancient Roman structures are the 1st-century AD triumphal arch, the Arch of the Sergii
Arch of the Sergii
and the co-eval temple of Rome and Augustus, built in the 1st century AD built on the forum during the reign of the Roman emperor Augustus. The Twin Gates (Porta Gemina) is one of the few remaining gates after the city walls were pulled down at the beginning of the 19th century. It dates from the mid-2nd century, replacing an earlier gate. It consists of two arches, columns, a plain architrave and a decorated frieze. Close by are a few remains of the old city wall. The Gate of Hercules
Hercules
dates from the 1st century. At the top of the single arch one can see the bearded head of Hercules, carved in high-relief, and his club on the adjoining voussoir. A damaged inscription, close to the club, contains the names of Lucius Calpurnius Piso and Gaius Cassius Longinus
Gaius Cassius Longinus
who were entrusted by the Roman senate to found a colony at the site of Pula. Thus it can be deduced that Pula
Pula
was founded between 47 and 44 BC. The Augustan Forum was constructed in the 1st century BC, close to the sea. In Roman times it was surrounded by temples of Jupiter, Juno and Minerva. This Roman commercial and administrative centre of the city remained the main square of classical and medieval Pula
Pula
– Pola. It still is the main administrative and legislative centre of the city. The temple of Roma and Augustus
Augustus
is still preserved today. A part of the back wall of the temple of Juno was integrated into the Communal Palace in the 13th century. Two Roman theatres have withstood the ravages of time: the smaller one (diameter c. 50 m; 2nd century AD) near the centre, the larger one (diameter c. 100 m; 1st century AD) on the southern edge of the city. The city's old quarter of narrow streets, lined with Medieval and Renaissance
Renaissance
buildings, are still surfaced with ancient Roman paving stones. The Byzantine chapel of St. Mary Formosa was built in the 6th century (before 546) in the form of a Greek cross, resembling the churches in Ravenna. It was built by deacon Maximilian, who became later Archbishop of Ravenna. It was, together with another chapel, part of a Benedictine abbey that was demolished in the 16th century. The floors and the walls are decorated with 6th-century mosaics. The decoration bears some resemblance to the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia
Mausoleum of Galla Placidia
at Ravenna. The wall over the door contains a Byzantine carved stone panel. The 15th-century wall paintings may be restorations of Early Christian paintings. When the Venetians raided Pula
Pula
in 1605, they removed many treasures from this chapel to Venice, including the four columns of oriental alabaster that stand behind the high altar of St Mark's Basilica. The Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary was built in the 6th century, when Pula
Pula
– Pola became the seat of a bishopry, over the remains over the original site where the Christians used to gather and pray in Roman times. It was enlarged in the 10th century. After its destruction by Genoese and Venetian raids, it was almost completely rebuilt in the 15th century. It got its present form when a late Renaissance
Renaissance
façade was added in the early 16th century. The church still retains several Romanesque and Byzantine characters, such as some parts of the walls (dating from the 4th century), a few of the original column capitals and the upper windows of the nave. In the altar area and in the room to the south one can still see fragments of 5th- or 6th-century floor mosaics with memorial inscriptions from worshippers who paid for the mosaics. The windows of the aisles underwent reconstruction in Gothic style after a fire in 1242. The belfry in front the church was built between 1671 and 1707 with stones form the amphitheatre. There also used to stand a baptistery from the 5th century in front of the church, but it was demolished in 1885. The Orthodox Church of St. Nicholas with its Ravenna-style polygonal apse, originally dates from the 6th century, but was partially rebuilt in the 10th century. In 1583 it was assigned to the Orthodox community of Pula
Pula
– Pola, mainly immigrants from Cyprus
Cyprus
and Nauplion. The church owns several icons from the 15th and the 16th century and an iconostasis from the Greek artists Tomios Batos from the 18th century. The star-shaped castle with four bastions is situated on top of the central hill of the old city. It was built, over the remains of the Roman capitolium, by the Venetians in the 17th century, following the plans of the French military architect Antoine de Ville. Since 1961 it now houses the Historical Museum of Istria. Close by, on the north-eastern slopes, one can see the remains of a 2nd-century theatre. The Church of St. Francis dates from the end of the 13th century. It was built in 1314 in late Romanesque style with Gothic additions such as the rose window. The church consists of a single nave with three apses. An unusual feature of this church is the double pulpit, with one part projecting into the street. A 15th-century wooden polyptych from an Emilian artist adorns the altar. The west portal is decorated with shell motifs and a rose window. The adjoining monastery dates from the 14th century. The cloisters display some antique Roman artefacts. The Archaeological Museum of Istria
Istria
is situated in the park on a lower level than the Roman theatre and close to the Twin Gates. Its collection was started by Marshall Marmont in August 1802 when he collected the stone monuments from the temple of Roma and Augustus. The present-day museum was opened in 1949. It displays treasures from Pula/Pola and surroundings from prehistory until the Middle Ages. The building was constructed under Austro-Hungarian rule and was the former k.u.k. 'Staatsgymnasium', the Austrian highschool. The Aquarium Pula
Pula
is the biggest aquarium in Croatia, located in the Austro-Hungarian fortress Verudela, which was built in 1886 on the peninsula 3 km (2 mi) from the centre of the city of Pula/Pola. Transforming the fortress into the aquarium has been in progress since 2002. The installation encompasses about 60 tanks on the ground floor, the moat, and the first floor of the fortress. In an area of approximately 2,000 m2 (21,528 sq ft), visitors can view inhabitants of the Northern and Southern Adriatic Sea, tropical marine and freshwater fish and with representatives of European rivers and lakes. From the roof of the fort, visitors may view the entire city of Pula. It is also possible to see the first marine turtle rescue centre in Croatia. Fort Bourguignon
Fort Bourguignon
is one of many fortresses in Pula
Pula
– Pola that the Austrian empire erected to protect the port for its navy. As a result of its rich political history, Pula
Pula
– Pola is a city with a cultural mixture of people and languages from the Mediterranean and Central Europe, ancient and contemporary. Pula/Pola's architecture reflects these layers of history. Residents are commonly fluent in both Croatian and Italian language
Italian language
but also to foreign languages like German and English. From 30 October 1904 to March 1905 Irish writer James Joyce
James Joyce
taught English at the Berlitz School; his students were mainly Austro-Hungarian naval officers who were stationed at the Naval Shipyard. While he was in Pola he organised the local printing of his broadsheet The Holy Office, which satirised both William Butler Yeats and George William Russell.[29] Economy[edit]

Center of the city

Uljanik
Uljanik
shipyard

Major industries include shipbuilding, processing industry, tourism, traffic, food industries, construction industries and other non-metal industries. Major companies located in Pula/Pola:

Arenaturist d.d. (tourism) Bina Istra d.d. (construction industry) Brionka d.d. (food industry) Cesta d.o.o. (construction industry) DURAN Group d.d. (glass production)[30] Istra cement d.o.o. (cement production) Istragradnja d.d. (construction industry) Tehnomont (shipbuilding) Uljanik
Uljanik
(shipbuilding) Uniline d.o.o (tourism)

Sport[edit]

Aldo Drosina Stadium

Football - NK Istra 1961
NK Istra 1961
(first Croatian league) and NK Istra
NK Istra
(third Croatian league) Volleyball -OK OTP Banka Pula
Pula
(first Croatian league) Handball -RK Arena Basketball -KK Stoja and KK Pula1981 Swimming -SK Arena Judo -JK Istarski borac and JK PulaFit Rowing -VK Istra Tennis -Smrikve Tennis Club (Smrikva Bowl)

Tourism[edit]

Riviera Hotel (right)

The natural beauty of Pula/Pola's surrounding countryside and turquoise water of the Adriatic have made the city an internationally popular summer vacation destination. The pearl nearby is Brioni island or Brijuni
Brijuni
national park visited by numerous world leaders since it was the summer residence of Josip Broz Tito. Roman villas and temples still lie buried among farm fields and along the shoreline of the dozens of surrounding fishing and farming villages. The coastal waters offer beaches, fishing, wreck dives to ancient Roman galleys and World War I warships, cliff diving, and sailing to unspoiled coves and islands large and small. Pula
Pula
– Pola is the end point of the EuroVelo
EuroVelo
9 cycle route that runs from Gdańsk
Gdańsk
on the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
through Poland, the Czech Republic, Austria, Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia. It is possible to track dinosaur footprints on the nearby sea shores; certain more important finds have been made at an undisclosed location near Bale. Transport[edit]

Žverinac hydrofoil at the port of Pula

Pulapromet city bus

Pula/Pola had an electric tramway system in the early 20th century. It was built in 1904 as a part of Pula's economic crescendo during the Austro-Hungarian rule. After World War I, during the Fascist rule, the need for tram transportation declined and it was finally dismantled in 1934. Pula Airport
Pula Airport
is located north-east of Pula/Pola, and serves both domestic and international destinations.[31] Similarly to nearby Rijeka
Rijeka
Airport, it is not a major international destination. However, this is likely to change as low-cost airline, Ryanair
Ryanair
has started scheduled flights to Pula
Pula
since November 2006. Jet2 also offer flights from Newcastle, Birmingham, Glasgow, Leeds-Bradford, Belfast, Manchester and East Midlands Airports. Scandinavian Airlines (SAS) operate scheduled flights from Stockholm and Copenhagen during summertime. Nearby international airports include Trieste
Trieste
in Italy, Zagreb, Croatia's capital and Ljubljana, Slovenia's capital. There are direct flights into Pula
Pula
airport from London and Dublin during whole year and several other large airports in Western Europe during summer. On 9 April 2015 European Coastal Airlines
European Coastal Airlines
established a daily seaplane service from the downtown seaplane terminal at the city's main waterfront. Destinations as of April 2015 are Rijeka, the island of Rab
Rab
and Mali Losinj.[32][33] A train service operates north from Pula/Pola through to Slovenia, however the line remains disconnected from the rest of the Croatian Railways network. Plans to tunnel the 'missing link' between this line and from Rijeka
Rijeka
have existed for many years, and despite work commencing on this project previously, has never seen completion. Pula
Pula
Bus Terminus/Terminal is the main hub for Istria
Istria
and located on the edge of town just west of the Amphitheatre. From there, an excellent service to a wide range of local, domestic and international locations is available throughout the year. Several bus companies operate from this Terminus including the local service run by Pulapromet. There is also a guaranteed direct line from Pula/Pola to Trieste/Venice, especially into spring/summer time. Timetables can be found on www.buscroatia.com www.akz.hr www.autobusi.hr www.balkanviator.com Passenger ferries also operate from the port area to nearby islands, and also to Venice
Venice
and Trieste
Trieste
in Italy
Italy
from June till September. Nearby towns and villages[edit]

Bale / Valle d'Istria Banjole
Banjole
/ Bagnole Barban
Barban
/ Barbana d'Istria Brijuni
Brijuni
/ Brioni (Isole) Fažana
Fažana
/ Fasana

Galižana / Gallesano Ližnjan
Ližnjan
/ Lisignano Medulin
Medulin
/ Medolino Pomer / Pomero Premantura
Premantura
/ Promontore (Capo)

Šišan / Sissano Štinjan / Strugnano Valtura / Valtura Vinkuran/ Vincurano Vodnjan
Vodnjan
/ Dignano d'Istria

Porer Lightouse

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Croatia Twin towns – sister cities[edit] Pula
Pula
– Pola is twinned with:[34]

Graz, Austria
Austria
(since 1972, partnership established in 1961)[35] Trier, Germany
Germany
(since 8 September 1970)[36] Imola, Italy
Italy
(since 1972) Verona, Italy
Italy
(since 1982) Čabar, Croatia
Croatia
(since 1974) Kranj, Slovenia
Slovenia
(since 1974)

Varaždin, Croatia
Croatia
(since 1979) Novorossiysk, Russia
Russia
(since 1999)[37][38] Hekinan, Japan
Japan
(since 2007) Villefranche-de-Rouergue, France
France
(since 2008)[39] Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(since 2012)

Other forms of city partnership

Szeged, Hungary[40] Veles, Macedonia[41]

Friendly relationships

Vienna, Austria several towns from Styria
Styria
region Pécs, Hungary Brno, Czech Republic Skopje, Macedonia

See also[edit]

List of people from Pula List of ancient cities in Illyria Roman Catholic Diocese of Poreč-Pula

Notable people[edit]

Archduke Karl Albrecht of Austria, Austrian and Polish officer and landowner Lidia Bastianich, chef-restaurateur Alida Valli, actress Antonio Smareglia, classical composer Laura Antonelli, actress Sergio Endrigo, singer-composer Mate Parlov, boxer Stjepan Hauser, cellist Jadranka Đokić, actress Raimondo Vianello, actor Rossana Rossanda, journalist James Joyce, writer, lived in Pula
Pula
on first leaving Ireland with his wife Nora Barnacle Johann Palisa, astronomer Herman Potočnik, a.k.a Hermann Noordung, rocket engineer and pioneer of cosmonautics

References[edit] Bibliography[edit]

Cresswell, Peterjon; Atkins, Ismay; Dunn, Lily (10 July 2006). Time Out Croatia
Croatia
(First ed.). London, Berkeley & Toronto: Time Out Group Ltd & Ebury Publishing, Random House
Random House
Ltd. 20 Vauxhall Bridge Road, London SV1V 2SA. pp. 116–123. ISBN 978-1-904978-70-1. Retrieved 10 March 2010.  Džin, Kristina (2009). Mirko Žužić, ed. Arena Pula. Zagreb: Viza MG d.o.o. Remetinečka cesta 81, Zagreb. ISBN 978-953-7422-15-8. [verification needed] Ivelja-Dalmatin, Ana (2009). Pula. Tourist Monograph. Zagreb: Turistička naklada. ISBN 953-215-120-6. [verification needed]

Further reading[edit] Published in the 19th century[edit]

Thomas Graham Jackson
Thomas Graham Jackson
(1887), "Pola", Dalmatia, Oxford: Clarendon Press, retrieved 2016-02-12  R. Lambert Playfair
Lambert Playfair
(1892), "Pola", Handbook to the Mediterranean (3rd ed.), London: J. Murray, retrieved 2016-02-12 

Published in the 20th century[edit]

Arthur L. Frothingham (1910), "Pola", Roman Cities in Italy
Italy
and Dalmatia, New York: Sturgis & Walton Company, retrieved 2016-02-12  "Pola", The Encyclopaedia Britannica (11th ed.), New York: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910, OCLC 14782424, retrieved 2016-02-12  Turner, J. (2 January 1996). Grove Dictionary of Art
Grove Dictionary of Art
(New ed.). USA: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517068-7. 

Notes[edit]

^ a b "Population by Age and Sex, by Settlements, 2011 Census: Pula". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.  ^ Skorin-Kapov, Jadranka. "A short historical overview of Istria
Istria
and, especially, Pula". croatianhistory.net. Retrieved 13 March 2017.  ^ " Istria
Istria
in the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(1800-1000 B.C.)". istrianet.org. Retrieved 7 April 2012.  ^ a b c "Tracking the History of the Hillforts in Istria
Istria
and Slovenia". istrianet.org. Retrieved 7 April 2012.  ^ "A short historical overview of Istria
Istria
and, especially, Pula". croatianhistory.net. Retrieved 6 January 2010.  ^ " Istria
Istria
on the Internet – Customs – Legends – Pola". istrianet.org. Retrieved 27 January 2010.  ^ a b c d "A HISTORICAL OUTLINE OF ISTRIA". www2.arnes.si. Retrieved 27 January 2010.  ^ Ivelja-Dalmatin 2009, p. 10 ^ a b Džin 2009, p. 7 ^ a b c d Ivelja-Dalmatin 2009, p. 12 ^ a b "Arheoloski muzej Istre". mdc.hr. Archived from the original on 13 October 2008. Retrieved 27 January 2010.  ^ Ivelja-Dalmatin 2009, p. 13 ^ " Charlemagne
Charlemagne
– The making of Europe". mhas-split.hr. The Museum of Croatian Archaeological Monuments. Retrieved 27 January 2010.  ^ "A Historical Outline of Istria". zrs-kp.si. Archived from the original on 6 April 2009. Retrieved 27 January 2010.  ^ a b Ivelja-Dalmatin 2009, p. 15 ^ Die postalischen Abstempelungen auf den österreichischen Postwertzeichen-Ausgaben 1867, 1883 und 1890, Wilhelm KLEIN, 1967 ^ a b First World War – Willmott, H.P., Dorling Kindersley, 2003, Page 186-187 ^ a b Cresswell, Atkins & Dunn 2006, p. 117. ^ Kocsis, Károly; Az etnikai konfliktusok történeti-földrajzi háttere a volt Jugoszlávia területén; Teleki László Alapítvány, 1993 ISBN 963-04-2855-5 ^ "Summary: Islam in Europe, European Islam". Cser.it. Archived from the original on 6 March 2009. Retrieved 11 July 2009.  ^ Ivelja-Dalmatin 2009, p. 24 ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "sirocco". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  ^ Ivelja-Dalmatin 2009, p. 28 ^ Ivelja-Dalmatin 2009, p. 29 ^ "CLIMATE PULA – Weather". tutiempo.net. Retrieved 26 January 2010.  ^ "EuroWEATHER – Maximum temperature, Pula/Pola, Croatia
Croatia
– Climate averages". eurometeo.com. Retrieved 26 January 2010.  ^ a b "Pula, Croatia
Croatia
- Climate
Climate
data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 9 March 2017.  ^ "Population by Ethnicity, by Towns/Municipalities, 2011 Census: County of Istria". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.  ^ "Dear Dirty Dublin – redirect". Lib.utulsa.edu. Retrieved 23 August 2009.  ^ "DURAN GROUP – Labware – SCHOTT Boral". Web.archive.org. 2 November 2007. Archived from the original on 2 November 2007. Retrieved 23 August 2009.  ^ AIP from the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation[dead link] ^ "Fotogalerija : U Pulu iz Splita hidroavionom stigli prvi putnici – GlasIstre.hr". glasistre.hr.  ^ "Timetable – European Coastal Airlines". Archived from the original on 17 April 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2015.  ^ "Međunarodna suradnja Grada Pule". Grad Pula
Pula
(in Croatian and Italian). Archived from the original on 2012-05-05. Retrieved 2013-07-28.  ^ "Twin Towns – Graz
Graz
Online – English Version". graz.at. Archived from the original on 8 November 2009. Retrieved 5 January 2010.  ^ pula.hr: Građani Triera u posjeti gradu prijatelju Puli ^ (Protocol of partnership and town twinning in 1997)[full citation needed] ^ Международные Связи – Администрация муниципального образования город-герой Новороссийск (in Russian). Archived from the original on 23 December 2011. Retrieved 21 December 2011.  ^ location of Croatian rebellion ^ (since 2003) ^ (since 2002)

External links[edit]

Official website Pula
Pula
travel guide from Wikivoyage Media related to Pula
Pula
at Wikimedia Commons Archaeological Museum of Istria Croatian National Tourist Board - Pula Official tourist website of Istria
Istria
- Pula

Places adjacent to Pula

57 km (35 mi) to Poreč 67 km (42 mi) Motovun 106 km (66 mi) Rijeka

Pula

81 km (50 mi) Mali Lošinj

v t e

Cities and towns of Croatia
Croatia
by population

100,000+

Osijek Rijeka Split Zagreb

35,000+

Bjelovar Dubrovnik Karlovac Kaštela Pula Samobor Šibenik Sisak Slavonski Brod Varaždin Velika Gorica Vinkovci Zadar

10,000+

Beli Manastir Belišće Benkovac Čakovec Crikvenica Đakovo Daruvar Donji Miholjac Duga Resa Dugo Selo Garešnica Gospić Imotski Ivanec Ivanić-Grad Jastrebarsko Kastav Knin Koprivnica Krapina Križevci Kutina Labin Makarska Metković Našice Nova Gradiška Novi Marof Novska Ogulin Omiš Opatija Petrinja Pleternica Ploče Popovača Poreč Požega Rovinj Sinj Slatina Solin Sveta Nedelja Sveti Ivan Zelina Trogir Umag Valpovo Virovitica Vrbovec Vukovar Zaprešić Županja

v t e

Subdivisions of Istria
Istria
County

Cities and towns

Buje Buzet Labin Novigrad Pazin
Pazin
(seat) Poreč Pula Rovinj Umag Vodnjan

Municipalities

Bale Barban Brtonigla Cerovlje Fažana Funtana Gračišće Grožnjan Kanfanar Karojba Kaštelir-Labinci Kršan Lanišće Ližnjan Lupoglav Marčana Medulin Motovun Oprtalj Pićan Raša Sveti Lovreč Sveta Nedelja Sveti Petar u Šumi Svetvinčenat Tar-Vabriga Tinjan Višnjan Vižinada Vrsar Žminj

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 145417618 GND: 4103444-2 BNF: cb1252

.