HOME
The Info List - Puhar


--- Advertisement ---



Puhar
Puhar
(also known as Poompuhar) is a town in the Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
district in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It was once a flourishing ancient port city known as Kaveri
Kaveri
poompattinam, which for a while served as the capital of the early Chola
Chola
kings in Tamilakam. Puhar
Puhar
is located near the end point of the Kaveri
Kaveri
river, aside the sea coast. It is mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. It has now been established by marine archaeological research (conducted by the National institute of marine archaeology, Goa) that much of the town was washed away by progressive erosion and floods. Submerged wharves and several meter lengths of pier walls excavated in recent times have corroborated the literary references to Poompuhar. It was rebuilt several times after that. Ancient Pottery
Pottery
dating back to the 4th century BCE have been discovered off shore by marine archaeologists east of this town.

Contents

1 City layout

1.1 Maruvurpakkam 1.2 Pattinappakkam

2 In culture 3 Descriptions in Tamil poetic works 4 Merchants of Puhar 5 City's destruction 6 Manimekalai 7 Geography 8 Politics 9 Tourism 10 Gallery 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links

City layout[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

List of Chola
Chola
kings and emperors

Early Cholas

Ellalan Kulakkottan Ilamchetchenni Karikala Nedunkilli Nalankilli Killivalavan Kopperuncholan Kochchenganan Perunarkilli

Interregnum (c. 200 – c. 848)

Medieval Cholas

Vijayalaya 848–891(?)

Aditya I 891–907

Parantaka I 907–950

Gandaraditya 950–957

Arinjaya 956–957

Sundara (Parantaka II) 957–970

Aditya II (co-regent)

Uttama 970–985

Rajaraja I 985–1014

Rajendra I 1012–1044

Rajadhiraja 1044–1054

Rajendra II 1054–1063

Virarajendra 1063–1070

Athirajendra 1070–1070

Later Cholas

Kulothunga I 1070–1120

Vikrama 1118–1135

Kulothunga II 1133–1150

Rajaraja II 1146–1173

Rajadhiraja II 1166–1178

Kulothunga III 1178–1218

Rajaraja III 1216–1256

Rajendra III 1246–1279

Related dynasties

Telugu Cholas of Andhra

Chodagangas of Kalinga

Rajahnate of Cebu

Chola
Chola
society

Chola
Chola
government Chola
Chola
military Chola
Chola
Navy Chola
Chola
art Chola
Chola
literature Flag of Chola Great Living Chola
Chola
Temples Solesvara Temples Poompuhar Uraiyur Melakadambur Gangaikonda Cholapuram Thanjavur Tiruvarur

v t e

The general plan of the city of Puhar
Puhar
is described in considerable detail in the fifth book of Silapathikaram
Silapathikaram
(c. ). The town was built on the north banks of the river Kaveri. The town had two distinct districts, Maruvurpakkam near the sea and Pattinappakkam to its west. These two villages were separated by a stretch of gardens and orchards where daily markets were held under the shades of the trees. The market place was known as Naalangadi during the day and as allangadi by night.

After 2004 Tsunami

Poompuhar
Poompuhar
Beach

Maruvurpakkam[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The district of Maruvurpakkam was near the beach and had several terraced mansions and warehoused with windows shaped like the eyes of the deer. Maruvurpakkam being close to the shore and hence to the shipyard was naturally preferred by the many overseas travellers, merchants and 'yavanas (foreigner) whose pleasant features arrested the eyes of the spectators living close to each other. Maruvurpakkam was inhabited by the fisher folk. The town had several warehouses. Weavers, silk merchants, vendors, fish and meat sellers, potters, grain merchants, jewellers and diamond makers lived in Maruvurppakkam. Pattinappakkam[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The King and nobles, rich traders, physicians, astrologers, members of the king’s army, court dancers occupied Pattinappakkam. The five Manrams - Vellidai Manram, Elanchi Manram, Nedankal manram, Poothachathukkam and Pavaimanram were located in Pattinappakkam. Gardens like Elavanthikaicholai, Uyyanam, Chanpathivanam, Uvavanam, and Kaveravanam added beauty to the town. In culture[edit] The city of poompuhar is a very ancient one. Legends relate how great Muchukunda chola of solar race once led his troops to guard kingdom of lord indra namely amaravathi in battle against some powerful demons who were in possession of very destructive weapons. The king and his soldiers held guard without sleeping for 3600 years and as a matter of gratitute lord Indra king of devas ordered his chief engineer viswakarma to build the city on the same lines of amaravati. He also presented the king with sivalingam that he personally worshipped. The great Tamil work Silappathikaram says that in puhar ships creaked in with wealth from all 7 continents, that devas in guise of humans came and worshipped in its temples and that the nights were so bright that even a small grain of white lentil dropped in the beach sand could be spotted by naked eye. Descriptions in Tamil poetic works[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

A Purananuru
Purananuru
poem (poem 30) says that big ships entered the port of Puhar
Puhar
without slacking sail, and poured out onto the beach precious merchandise brought from overseas. In the extensive markets of Puhar there were many tall mansions surrounded by platforms reached by high ladders. These mansions had many apartments and were provided with doorways, great and small, and with wide hallways and corridors ( Pattinappaalai – II –142-158). In all parts of the town there were flags flying of various kinds and shapes. Pattinappaalai, a poem that describes the ancient Puhar
Puhar
very vividly, was written by the poet Kadiyalur Uruthirangannanaar is part of the Ten Idylls anthology and was sung in praise of Karikala
Karikala
Chola, a second-century Chola
Chola
king. Merchants of Puhar[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Pattinappaalai also gives an idealised description of the merchants plying their trade in Puhar
Puhar
( Pattinappaalai – II –199-212):

They shunned murder, and put aside theft, pleased the gods by fire offerings,…they regarded others rights as scrupulously as their own, they took nothing more than was due to them and never gave less than was due from them. Trading thus in many articles of merchandise, they enjoyed an ancient heritage of prosperity and lived in close proximity to one another.

City's destruction[edit] The ancient city of Puhar
Puhar
was destroyed by the sea around 300 BC. Marine archeologists from the National Institute of Oceanography have established that this could have been the effects of sediment erosion and periodic tsunamis. Such a tsunami is mentioned in the Tamil poem Manimekhalai
Manimekhalai
(see below), which relates that the town Kāveripattinam or Puhār was swallowed up by the sea. This event is supported by archeological finds of submerged ruins off the coast of modern Poompuhar.[1][2] The town of Kāveripattinam is believed to have disappeared around 300 BC due to this tsunami[3] Manimekalai[edit] The ancient Tamil poem Manimekalai
Manimekalai
by the poet Seethalai Saathanar is set in the town of Kaveripattanam.[4][5] Ancient ruins of a 4th-5th-century Buddhist monastery, a Buddha statue, and a Buddhapada (footprint of the Buddha) were found in another section of the ancient city, now at Pallavanesvaram.[6] Geography[edit] Kaveripattanam is located at 11°08′21″N 79°50′57″E / 11.13917°N 79.84917°E / 11.13917; 79.84917.[7] It has an average elevation of 1 m (3.3 ft). Politics[edit] Poompuhar
Poompuhar
assembly constituency is part of Mayiladuturai (Lok Sabha constituency).[8] Tourism[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

A Sign Board

The major tourists attractions in Poompuhar : Silappathikara Art Gallery A beautiful building of great sculptural value has been built as Silappathikara Art Gallery.Scenes from Silappadikaram, the Epic of the land have been given lively shapes in stones on the walls of the Gallery. These sculptures carved by the sculptors of Mamallapuram Art College remain the treasure house of Tamil Culture. Masilamani Nathar Koil Though heavily eroded by the sea in a number of places, this temple built in 1305 by Maravarma Kulasekara Pandiyan, still manages to impress all the tourists to Poompuhar
Poompuhar
with its architectural richness. Gallery[edit]

Fishermen's vessels

Ilango Adigal
Ilango Adigal
(poet prince)

Kannagi
Kannagi
In Pandya Court

Sculpture of Kovalan
Kovalan
and Kannagi
Kannagi
at the art gallery entrance

Notes[edit]

^ Gaur A. S. and Sundaresh, Underwater Exploration off Poompuhar
Poompuhar
and possible causes of its Submergence, 1998, Puratattva, 28: 84-90. Available online at [1] ^ Marine archaeological explorations of Tranquebar- Poompuhar
Poompuhar
region on Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
coast, Rao, S.R.. Journal of Marine Archaeology, Vol. II, July 1991, pp. 5–20. Available online at [2] ^ ”Indian town sees evidence of ancient tsunami”, Associated Press report, Poompuhar,1/14/2005. Available online at [3] ^ Rao Bahadur Krishnaswāmi Aiyangar, Maṇimekhalai in its Historical Setting, London, 1928. Available at www.archive.org [4] ^ Hisselle Dhammaratana,Buddhism in South India, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, 1964. Available on Buddhist Publication Society Online Library [5] ^ Marine archaeological explorations of Tranquebar- Poompuhar
Poompuhar
region on Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
coast., Rao, S.R.. Journal of Marine Archaeology, Vol. II, July 1991, pp. 6. Available online at [6] ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Kaveripattanam ^ "List of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies" (PDF). Tamil Nadu. Election Commission of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-05-04. Retrieved 2008-10-12. 

References[edit]

Denmark portal India
India
portal

Mudaliar, A.S, Abithana Chintamani (1931), Reprinted 1984 Asian Educational Services, New Delhi. Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1935). The CōĻas, University of Madras, Madras (Reprinted 1984). http://www.nio.org/index/option/com_projdisp/task/show/tid/2/sid/15/pid/56 https://web.archive.org/web/20050210100642/http://www.nio.org/projects/vora/project_vora_5.jsp

External links[edit]

Poom Puhar
Puhar
College Poompugar in Memories in Asia

v t e

Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
district

District Headquarters

Nagapattinam

Country

India

State

Tamil Nadu

Region

Chola
Chola
Nadu

Divisions

Mayiladuthurai Nagapattinam

Taluks

Kilvelur Kuthalam Mayiladuthurai Nagapattinam Sirkazhi Tharangambadi Thirukkuvalai Vedaranyam

Revenue blocks

Keelaiyur Kilvelur Kollidam Kuthalam Mayiladuthurai Nagapattinam Sembanar Koil Sirkazhi Talanayar Thirumarugal Vedaranyam

Municipalities

Mayiladuthurai Nagapattinam Sirkazhi Vedaranyam

Rivers

Addapar Kaveri Kollidam Thirumalairajan Vettar Veera Chozhan

History

Early Cholas Kalabhras Pallavas Medieval Cholas Later Cholas Later Pandyas Delhi Sultanate Madurai
Madurai
Sultanate Vijayanagar Empire Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Nayaks Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Marathas Company Raj British Raj

Places of interest

Chudamani Vihara Ganapathi Temple, Thiruchengattankudi Kayarohanaswami Temple, Nagapattinam Kazheesirama Vinnagaram Mayuranathaswami Temple, Mayiladuthurai Nagannathaswamy Temple, Keezhaperumpallam Nangur Vishnu Temples Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary Puhar Punjai Siva Temple Sattainathar Temple, Sirkazhi Sayavaneswarar Temple Sembanarkoil Sikkal
Sikkal
Singaravelan Temple Sri Sivalokanathar Temple, Tirupunkur Subrahmanya Temple, Perambur Swetharanyeswarar Temple Tharangambadi Therazhundur Thirukkadaiyur Thiruvenkadu Vaitheeswaran Koil Valampurinathar Temple Vanjinatha Temple Vedaranyeswarar Temple Viratteswara Temple, Vazhuvur

Religious and monastic institutions

Dharmapuram Adheenam Thiruvaduthurai Adheenam

Cities and towns People Villages

v t e

Kaveri

Tributaries

Amaravati Arkavathy Bhavani Chinnar Hemavati Honnuhole Kabini Kollidam Kudamurutti Lakshmana Tirtha Noyyal Pambar Shimsha Vennar

Dams

Banasura Sagar Dam Kallanai Dam Krishna Raja Sagara Dam Mettur
Mettur
Dam Upper Anaicut Lower Anaicut

Features

Bay of Bengal Deccan plateau Hogenakal Falls Shivanasamudra Falls Western Ghats

Cities and towns

Bhagamandala Bhavani Chidambaram Erode Karaikal Karur Kodumudi Kodagu Kudavasal Kumbakonam Kushalanagara Mannargudi Mandya Mayiladuthurai Mettur Mysore Nagapattinam Nannilam Papanasam Puhar Peralam Sakleshpur Sikkal Sirkali Srirangam Srirangapatna Swamimalai Talakad Talakaveri Thanjavur Tharangambadi Tirunallar Thiruvaiyaru Thiruvarur Thiruveezhimizhalai Tiruchirapalli Vaitheeswarankoil

Riparian states and territories

Karnataka Kerala Puducherry Tamil Nadu

v t e

Silappatikaram
Silappatikaram
by Ilango Adigal

Characters

Kannagi Kovalan Madhavi Neduncheziyan Manimekalai Masattuvan Vacavadattai Kosigan Madalan Kavunthi Adigal Kopperundevi

Place

Puhar Madurai Vanchi Kovalanpottal

v t e

Mayiladuthurai

Neighborhoods

Revenue Division Taluk Block Town Puhar Sembanarkoil Tharangambadi Therizhundur Thirukkadaiyur Thiruvenkadu

Temples

Amritaghateswarar Dharmapuram Adheenam Mayuranathaswami Nagannathaswamy Nangur Vishnu Punjai Siva Sattainathar Sayavaneswarar Sivalokanathar Swetharanyeswarar Thiruarimeya Vinnagaram Thiruchsemponsey Thirukkavalampadi Thirumanikkoodam Thirumanimadam Thiruppaarththanpalli Thiruthetriyambalam Thiruthevanartthogai Thiruvaduthurai Adheenam Thiruvaikunda Vinnagaram Thiruvanpurushothamam Thiruvellakkulam
Thiruvellakkulam
or Annan Koil Vaitheeswaran

.