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Puducherry
Puducherry
(/pʊdʊˈtʃɛri/, literally New Town in Tamil),[7] formerly known as Pondicherry
Pondicherry
(/pɒndɪˈtʃɛri/), is a union territory of India. It was formed out of four exclaves of former French India, namely Pondichéry (Pondicherry; now Puducherry), Karikal (Karaikal), Mahé and Yanaon
Yanaon
(Yanam). It is named after the largest district, Puducherry. Historically known as Pondicherry (Pāṇṭiccēri), the territory changed its official name to Puducherry
Puducherry
(Putuccēri) on 20 September 2006.[8] Puducherry
Puducherry
lies in the southern part of the Indian Peninsula. The areas of Puducherry district
Puducherry district
and Karaikal district
Karaikal district
are bound by the state of Tamil Nadu, while Yanam district and Mahé district
Mahé district
are enclosed by the states of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Kerala
Kerala
respectively. Puducherry
Puducherry
is the 29th most populous and the third most densely populated of the states and union territories of India. It has a gross domestic product (GDP) of ₹0.21 lakh crore (US$3.2 billion) and ranks 27th in India.[9]

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Districts of Union Territory of Puducherry

3 Demographics 4 Government and administration

4.1 Special
Special
administration status 4.2 Official languages 4.3 Official symbols

5 Culture

5.1 French influence

6 Economy

6.1 Fisheries 6.2 Tourism

7 Transport

7.1 Rail 7.2 Road 7.3 Air

8 Education 9 In Popular culture 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Puducherry The earliest recorded history of Puducherry
Puducherry
can be traced to the 2nd century AD. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
mentions a marketplace named Poduke (ch 60). G. W. B. Huntingford suggested this might be a site about 2 miles from the modern Puducherry, which was possibly the location of Arikamedu
Arikamedu
(now part of Ariyankuppam). Huntingford noted that Roman pottery was found at Arikamedu
Arikamedu
in 1937. In addition, archaeological excavations between 1944 and 1949 showed that it was "a trading station to which goods of Roman manufacture were imported during the first half of the 1st century CE" Subsequent investigation by Vimala Begley from 1989 to 1992 modified this assessment, and now place the period of occupation from the 3rd or 2nd century BCE to the 8th century CE.[10] to ..[11] In 1674, Pondicherry
Pondicherry
(Pondichéry) became a French colony of the French colonial empire. Together with Chandernagor (already French since 1673), Mahé (since 1721), Yanam
Yanam
(Yanaon) (since 1731), Karaikal (Karikal) (since 1739) and Masulipatam
Masulipatam
(1760), it formed the French colony of French India, under a single French governor in Pondicherry, although French rule over one or more of these enclaves was repeatedly interrupted by British occupations. The territories of French India were completely transferred to the Republic of India
India
de facto on 1 November 1954, and de jure on 16 August 1962, when French India
India
ceased to exist, becoming the present Indian constituent union territory of Pondicherry, still combining four coastal enclaves. Geography[edit]

Map showing the districts of Puducherry

Further information: List of rivers of Puducherry The union territory of Puducherry
Puducherry
consists of four small unconnected districts: Puducherry district
Puducherry district
(393 km2 (152 sq mi)), Karaikal district
Karaikal district
(160 km2 (62 sq mi)) and Yanam district (30 km2 (12 sq mi)) on the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
and Mahé district
Mahé district
(9 km2 (3.5 sq mi)) on the Arabian Sea, covering a total area of 592 km2 (229 sq mi). Puducherry
Puducherry
and Karaikal
Karaikal
have the largest areas and population, and are both enclaves of Tamil Nadu. Yanam
Yanam
and Mahé are enclaves of Andhra Pradesh and Kerala, respectively. Its population, as per the 2011 Census, is 1,244,464. Some of Puducherry's regions are themselves amalgamations of non-contiguous enclaves, often called pockets in India. The Puducherry region is made of 11 such pockets, some of which are very small and entirely surrounded by the territory of Tamil Nadu. Mahé region is made up of three pockets. This unusual geography is a legacy of the colonial period with Puducherry
Puducherry
retaining the borders of former French India. All four regions of Puducherry
Puducherry
are located in the coastal region. Five rivers in Puducherry
Puducherry
district, seven in Karaikal
Karaikal
district, two in Mahé district
Mahé district
and one in Yanam district drain into the sea, but none originates within the territory. Districts of Union Territory of Puducherry[edit]

Puducherry
Puducherry
district, comprises of the regions of Puducherry, Mahe and Yanam. While Puducherry
Puducherry
is an enclave of Tamil Nadu, Mahe and Yanam are enclaves of the States of Kerala
Kerala
and Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
respectively. Karaikkal district
Karaikkal district
is an enclave of Tamil Nadu

Demographics[edit]

Religion in Puducherry    Hinduism
Hinduism
(87.3%)    Christianity
Christianity
(6.2%)    Islam
Islam
(6%)

Hinduism
Hinduism
is the major religion with 87.3% of the population adhering to it. Other religions include Christianity
Christianity
(6.2%) and Islam
Islam
(6%).[12] Government and administration[edit]

Puducherry
Puducherry
Legislative Assembly

Main articles: Puducherry Legislative Assembly
Puducherry Legislative Assembly
and Puducherry Municipal Council See also: List of Lieutenant Governors of Puducherry, List of Chief Ministers of Puducherry, and List of districts of Puducherry Puducherry
Puducherry
is a Union Territory of India
India
rather than a state, which implies that governance and administration falls directly under federal authority. However, Puducherry
Puducherry
is one of only two union territories in India
India
(the other being Delhi), that is entitled by a special constitutional amendment to have an elected legislative assembly and a cabinet of ministers, thereby conveying partial statehood.[13] The Centre is represented by the Lieutenant Governor, who resides at the Raj Nivas (Le Palais du Gouverneur) at the Park, the former palace of the French governor. The central government is more directly involved in the territory's financial well-being unlike states, which have a central grant that they administer. Consequently, Puducherry has at various times, enjoyed lower taxes, especially in the indirect category. Special
Special
administration status[edit]

The territory changed its name to Puducherry
Puducherry
in 2006

According to the Treaty of Cession of 1956, the four territories of former French India
India
territorial administration are permitted to make laws with respect to specific matters. In many cases, such legislation may require ratification from the federal government or the assent of the President of India. Article II of the Treaty states:

“The Establishments will keep the benefit of the special administrative status which was in force prior to 1 November 1954. Any constitutional changes in this status which may be made subsequently shall be made after ascertaining the wishes of the people.”

Official languages[edit] Main article: Official languages of Puducherry French remained the official language according to the Article XXVIII of "Traité de Cession" (Treaty of Cession) 1956. According to the treaty, "the French language
French language
shall remain the official language of the Establishments so long as the elected representatives of the people shall not decide otherwise". By 1963 Union Territories Act, the Tamil, Telugu and Malayalam
Malayalam
are the three official languages used region-wise.[14][15] French didn't lose its official status even after the adoption of "The Pondicherry
Pondicherry
Official Language Act 1965" (Act No. 3 of 1965).[16] This act stated that "the Tamil language
Tamil language
shall (...) be the language to be used for all or any of the official purposes of the Union territory". It also provides for the use of the Malayalam and Telugu languages in the Mahé and Yanam
Yanam
districts. The law also states that English "may be used for all or any of the official purposes of the Union territory".[17] As of today, still the official gazette of Puducherry
Puducherry
is published with French; albeit, with a marginal use.[18] Official symbols[edit] On 16 April 2007, the government of Puducherry
Puducherry
announced that the following were to be its state symbols:[19]

State symbols of Puducherry

Song Invocation to Tamil Goddess (written by Bharathidasan)

Animal Squirrel

Bird Koel

Flower Cannonball tree's flower

Tree Bael fruit tree

Culture[edit] French influence[edit]

Consulate of France at Goubert Avenue, White Town, Puducherry

The plan of the city of Pondicherry
Pondicherry
is based on the French grid pattern and features perpendicular streets. The town is divided into two sections: the French Quarter (Ville Blanche or 'White Town') and the Indian quarter (Ville Noire or 'Black Town'). Many streets retain French names, and villas in French architectural styles are a common sight. In the French quarter, the buildings are typically in French colonial style, with long compounds and stately walls. The Indian quarter consists of houses lined with verandas and with large doors and grilles. These French- and Indian-style houses are preserved from destruction by an organisation named INTACH. The French language
French language
can be seen on signs and menus, and heard in Puducherry. Puducherry
Puducherry
has residents with French passports: Most are of Indian descent and a small number are of non-Indian descent. At the time of Puducherry's transfer to India
India
in 1954, residents were given a choice to retain their French citizenship or to gain Indian citizenship. Those with French passports today are generally descendants of residents who chose to keep their French citizenship. Several monuments in the city pertain to the French period. A French Consulate is in Puducherry, along with cultural organisations. Another important building is Le Foyer du Soldat, a veterans legion hall for soldiers who served in French wars. Among the French cultural organisations, the French Institute of Pondicherry, the Puducherry Centre of the École française d'Extrême-Orient
École française d'Extrême-Orient
and a branch of the Alliance Française
Alliance Française
are noteworthy. A French high school (Lycée français de Pondichéry) operates under the aegis of the French Minister of National Education. Economy[edit]

The Promenade in the main town Puducherry
Puducherry
is one of the most popular tourist attractions of the Union Territory

Sri Aurobindo
Sri Aurobindo
Ashram, Puducherry

The gross state domestic product of Puducherry, at market prices estimated by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in crores of Indian rupees grew from 184 to 25,819 crore rupees from 1980– 2014.

Year Gross State Domestic Product

1980 184

1985 342

1990 603

1995 1,320

2000 3,781

2010 13,092

2014 25,819 [20]

Fisheries[edit] The potential for fisheries is substantial in the Union Territory. The four regions of the Union Territory have a coastline of 45 km with 675 of inshore waters, 1.347 hectares (3.33 acres) of inland water and 800 ha of brackish water. 27 marine fishing villages and 23 inland fishing villages host a fishermen population of about 65,000 of which 13,000 are actively engaged in fishing. Tanks and ponds are also tapped for commercial fish rearing. Tourism[edit] Main article: Tourism in Puducherry Puducherry
Puducherry
is one of the most popular tourist spots for national and international tourists. Out of 274 Paadal Petra Sthalam
Paadal Petra Sthalam
Shiva Temples, the Puducherry
Puducherry
region is owning 1 temple and in Karaikal
Karaikal
regions it is having 4 temples which itself a clear proof that the Puducherry territory is also a part of the spiritual and sacramental of Shaivism principles. Besides in Villianur, Bahour
Bahour
and in so many areas of Puducherry
Puducherry
region there are so many Shiva temples built up during the golden period of King Chola empire which gives immense pleasure to be proud of that our Puducherry
Puducherry
territory was administered under the control of such golden rulers. So visiting such ancient temples would definitely give more spiritual vibrations to the tourists. For every year the Puducherry
Puducherry
territory administration also declares official Holiday for performing the grand Car Festivals to the temples situates in Villianur, Veerampattinam
Veerampattinam
that too the Lieutenant Governor of Puducherry
Puducherry
and the Chief Minister of Puducherry also participates in such grand Car Festival. Besides in Kizhoor, Puducherry
Kizhoor, Puducherry
which is 22 km away from Puducherry
Puducherry
therein on 18-10-1954 a referendum was conducted to ensure that whether the erstwhile French establishments of Puducherry
Puducherry
shall continue with French administration or to merge with Indian Union and finally decided to merge with Indian Union. Puducherry
Puducherry
was the residence of Sri Aurobindo
Sri Aurobindo
(1872–1950) and the Sri Aurobindo
Sri Aurobindo
Ashram still operates from Puducherry. A unique experimental city Auroville, the brainchild of the Mother, whose inhabitants are drawn from all parts of the world is situated on the outskirts of the city. There are several temples, churches, monuments, parks and mosques which attract tourists.

St. Luke – Sacred Heart Church, Puducherry

Transport[edit] Rail[edit]

Puducherry
Puducherry
railway station

Puducherry
Puducherry
is connected by a railway branch line from the five-way junction at Viluppuram
Viluppuram
and Chennai. The railway line is a broad gauge line with 16 originating Trains and 17 Terminating Trains[21] Road[edit] Main article: Road Network in Puducherry
Puducherry
District Further information: Puducherry
Puducherry
Road Transport Corporation Puducherry
Puducherry
has a network all weather metalled roads connecting the territory. Puducherry
Puducherry
has a road length of 2,552 km (road length per 4.87 km2), the highest in the country.

Yanam
Yanam
Draksharamam Road, Puducherry

Road length comparison with Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and India
India
as a whole

Total road length (in Puducherry) 2,552 km

Road length per 1000 km2 Puducherry Tamil Nadu India

4,575 1,572 663

Classification of roads

Sl. No. Type of road Length in (km)

1 National highways 64.450

2 State highways 49.304

3 District & other roads

Puducherry – 173.384

Karaikal – 55.162

Mahé – 19.622

Yanam – 26.460

274.628 274.628

4 Rural roads

Puducherry – 164.964

Karaikal – 83.470

248.434 248.434

Grand total 636.816

Air[edit]

Puducherry
Puducherry
Airport

Puducherry Airport
Puducherry Airport
is situated at Lawspet. The Puducherry
Puducherry
Government upgraded the airport in 2012[22] with a new terminal building and apron to accommodate larger aircraft. The new terminal building was inaugurated in January 2013 and scheduled flights to Bengaluru were launched.[23] A MoU has been signed with Airports Authority of India for expansion of Puducherry Airport
Puducherry Airport
in two phases.[24] Karaikal Airport is a planned greenfield airport and will be the India's first airport to be built entirely with private capital.[25] Education[edit] Main article: List of educational institutions in Puducherry Puducherry
Puducherry
has a literacy rate of 86.55%.[26] Pondicherry
Pondicherry
University is a central university located in Puducherry.[27] Other colleges include Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER), Indira Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute (Government of Puducherry), Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, National Institute of Technology, Puducherry, Perunthalaivar Kamarajar Institute of Engineering and Technology,[28] Pondicherry
Pondicherry
Engineering College, Mother Theresa Post Graduate and Research Institute of Health Sciences, Achariya College of Engineering & Technology ACET, Rajiv Gandhi College of Engineering and Technology, Rajiv Gandhi College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Christ institute of technology, Sri Manakula Vinayagar Engineering College, Shri Krishnaa College of Engineering & Technology, Sri Ganesh College Of Engineering and Technology and Sri Venkateshwaraa Medical College Hospital and Research Centre. In Popular culture[edit]

Puducherry
Puducherry
was the setting for Yann Martel's first third of his Booker Prize-winning novel Life of Pi
Life of Pi
(2001). A portion of the subsequent film adaptation of the same name was filmed there.[29] Lee Langley's novel A House in Pondicherry
Pondicherry
(1996) was set there. Prince Pondicherry
Pondicherry
is an Indian character from Roald Dahl's children's novel Charlie and The Chocolate Factory
Charlie and The Chocolate Factory
(1964). The prince orders Willy Wonka
Willy Wonka
to build a palace of chocolate in India; the palace melts in the hot sun. The 9th season of the reality show Splisvilla on MTV was set in Puducherry.

See also[edit]

Geography portal Asia portal South Asia portal India
India
portal Puducherry
Puducherry
portal

Puducherry
Puducherry
(Lok Sabha constituency) Causes for liberation of French colonies in India French East India
India
Company French colonial empire Municipal Administration in French India

References[edit]

^ "narendra modi appointe Lieutenant Governor of Puducherry". The Hindu. 22 May 2016. Retrieved 25 May 2016.  ^ "V Narayanasamy to be new Puducherry
Puducherry
Chief Minister".  ^ Varma, M. Dinesh (2015-06-06). "New Chief Secretary assumes charge". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2016-11-09.  ^ "IG Sunil Kumar Gautam to assume charge after polls". The Hindu. 2016-02-18. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2016-11-09.  ^ "PUDUCHERRY LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY".  ^ a b "Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India: 50th report (delivered to the Lokh Sabha in 2014)" (PDF). National Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. p. 155. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 29 June 2016.  ^ "South Asia New name for old French territory". BBC News. 20 September 2006. Retrieved 10 February 2014.  ^ "National : Bill to rename Pondicherry
Pondicherry
as Puducherry
Puducherry
passed". The Hindu. 22 August 2006. Retrieved 10 February 2014.  ^ "State Domestic Product and other aggregates, 2004–05 series". Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. 27 February 2015. Archived from the original on 23 March 2015. Retrieved 18 June 2015.  ^ The Dating of Arikamedu
Arikamedu
and its Bearing on the Archaeology of Early ... utilisateurs.linguist.univ-paris-diderot.fr/~chevilla/FestSchrift/V_Beg_3x.pdf ^ The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century. Kessinger Publishing. July 2007. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-548-20943-1.  ^ "Population by religion community – 2011". Census of India, 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015.  ^ "Lanka BBC Info Know Puducherry: Government Name Pondicherry
Pondicherry
As Puducherry". lankabbc.com. 2012-06-29. Retrieved 2017-01-24.  ^ "The Government of Union Territories Act, 1963" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Retrieved 1 June 2015.  ^ " Puducherry
Puducherry
code volume 1" (pdf). Government of Puducherry. Retrieved 1 June 2015.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.  ^ CIDIF. "06-Le français à Pondichéry, par Roland Breton". go1.cc. Archived from the original on 9 April 2015.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 11 October 2017.  ^ " Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
News : Puducherry
Puducherry
comes out with list of State symbols". The Hindu. 21 April 2007. Retrieved 10 February 2014.  ^ List of Indian states by GDP ^ karthik. " Pondicherry
Pondicherry
Station - 16 Train Departures SR/Southern Zone - Railway Enquiry". indiarailinfo.com.  ^ "Flight operations await new terminal". IBN Live. 10 May 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2012.  ^ "First flight to Puducherry
Puducherry
from Bangalore on January 17". Retrieved 5 February 2013.  ^ " Puducherry
Puducherry
airport to go on stream in October". The Economic Times. 3 September 2011. Retrieved 3 January 2012.  ^ "Coimbatore firm to build India's first private airport in Karaikal". The Times of India. 13 March 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2012.  ^ "Ranking of states and union territories by literacy rate: 2011" (PDF). Government of India.  ^ " Pondicherry
Pondicherry
University". Pondicherry
Pondicherry
University. Archived from the original on 25 April 2011.  ^ "Welcome to the Website of PKIET". Pkiet.edu.in. Retrieved 10 February 2014.  ^ "Filming Locations". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 3 December 2012. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Pondicherry
Pondicherry
(union territory).

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Puducherry.

Official website of the Government of the Union Territory of Puducherry Treaty establishing De Jure Cession of French Establishments in India Official website of Department of Tourism, Pondicherry Official website of Puducherry
Puducherry
Tourism, by Pondy Tourism Events and happenings in and around Puducherry Puducherry
Puducherry
travel guide from Wikivoyage

v t e

State of Puducherry

Capital: Pondicherry

Districts

Pondicherry Karaikal Mahé Yanam

Municipalities

Karaikal Mahé Ozhukarai Pondicherry Yanam

Languages

French Tamil Malayalam Telugu

Education

Pondicherry
Pondicherry
University Pondicherry
Pondicherry
Engineering College JIPMER National Institute of Technology, Puducherry

History

History of Pondicherry

Places of interest

Beach Manakula Vinayagar Temple Matrimandir Sri Aurobindo
Sri Aurobindo
Ashram Sacred Heart Basilica

Transport

Rail

Puducherry Karaikal Mahe

Air

Puducherry
Puducherry
Airport Karaikal
Karaikal
Airport

Sports

Yanam
Yanam
Tigers Pondicherry
Pondicherry
Cricket Association Indira Gandhi Sports Stadium Rajiv Gandhi Cricket Stadium YSR Indoor Stadium

v t e

States and union territories of India

States

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Union Territories

Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli National Capital Territory of Delhi Daman and Diu Lakshadweep Puducherry

Capitals in India Proposed states and territories Historical Regions British Provinces

Authority control

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