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PUDUCHERRY (/pʊdᵿˈtʃɛri/ ); literally _New Town_ in Tamil ), formerly known as PONDICHERRY (/pɒndᵻˈtʃɛri/ ; is a union territory of India
India
. It was formed out of four exclaves of former French India
India
, namely Pondichéry (Pondicherry; now Puducherry), Karikal (Karaikal), Mahé and Yanaon (Yanam). It is named after the largest district, Puducherry. Historically known as _Pondicherry_ (_Pāṇṭiccēri_), the territory changed its official name to _Puducherry_ (_Putuccēri_) on 20 September 2006.

Puducherry
Puducherry
lies in the southern part of the Indian Peninsula. The areas of Puducherry district and Karaikal district are bound by the state of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
, while Yanam district and Mahé district are enclosed by the states of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Kerala
Kerala
respectively. Puducherry
Puducherry
is the 29th most populous and the third most densely populated state/union territory in India. It has a GDP of ₹0.21 lakh crore (US$3.3 billion) and ranks 27th in India.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 The Four Districts of Puducherry
Puducherry

* 3 Demographics

* 4 Government and administration

* 4.1 Special
Special
administration status * 4.2 Official languages * 4.3 Official symbols

* 5 Culture

* 5.1 French influence

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Fisheries * 6.2 Tourism

* 7 Transport

* 7.1 Rail * 7.2 Road * 7.3 Air

* 8 Education * 9 In Popular culture * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of Puducherry

The earliest recorded history of Puducherry
Puducherry
can be traced to the 2nd century AD. The _ Periplus of the Erythraean Sea _ mentions a marketplace named _Poduke_ (ch 60). G. W. B. Huntingford suggested this might be a site about 2 miles from the modern Puducherry, which was possibly the location of Arikamedu
Arikamedu
(now part of Ariyankuppam ). Huntingford noted that Roman pottery was found at Arikamedu
Arikamedu
in 1937. In addition, archaeological excavations between 1944 and 1949 showed that it was "a trading station to which goods of Roman manufacture were imported during the first half of the 1st century CE".

In 1674, Pondicherry
Pondicherry
(Pondichéry) became a French colony of the French colonial empire
French colonial empire
. Together with Chandernagor (already French since 1673), Mahé (since 1721), Yanam ( Yanaon ) (since 1731), Karaikal (Karikal) (since 1739) and Masulipatam (1760), it formed the French colony of French India
India
, under a single French governor in Pondicherry, although French rule over one or more of these enclaves was repeatedly interrupted by British occupations. The territories of French India
India
were completely transferred to the Republic of India
India
de facto on 1 November 1954, and legally de jure on 16 August 1962, when French India
India
ceased to exist, becoming the present Indian constituent union territory of Pondicherry, still combining four coastal enclaves.

GEOGRAPHY

Map showing the districts of Puducherry
Puducherry
Further information: List of rivers of Puducherry

The union territory of Puducherry
Puducherry
consists of four small unconnected districts : Puducherry district (293 km2 (113 sq mi)), Karaikal district (160 km2 (62 sq mi)) and Yanam district (30 km2 (12 sq mi)) on the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
and Mahé district (9 km2 (3.5 sq mi)) on the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
, covering a total area of 492 km2 (190 sq mi). Puducherry and Karaikal have the largest areas and population, and are both enclaves of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
. Yanam and Mahé are enclaves of Andhra Pradesh and Kerala
Kerala
, respectively. Its population, as per the 2011 Census , is 1,244,464.

Some of Puducherry's districts are themselves amalgamations of non-contiguous enclaves, often called _pockets_ in India. The Puducherry district is made of 11 such pockets, some of which are very small and entirely surrounded by the territory of Tamil Nadu. Mahé district is made up of three pockets. This unusual geography is a legacy of the colonial period with Puducherry
Puducherry
retaining the borders of former French India
India
.

All four districts of Puducherry
Puducherry
are located in the coastal region. Five rivers in Puducherry district , seven in Karaikal district , two in Mahé district and one in Yanam district drain into the sea, but none originates within the territory.

THE FOUR DISTRICTS OF PUDUCHERRY

* Puducherry district , an enclave of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
* Yanam district , an enclave of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
* Karaikkal district , an enclave of Tamil Nadu * Mahé district , an enclave of Kerala
Kerala

DEMOGRAPHICS

Religion in Puducherry
Puducherry
Hinduism (87.3%) Christianity
Christianity
(6.2%) Islam
Islam
(6%)

Hinduism is the major religion with 87.3% of the population adhering to it. Other religions include Christianity
Christianity
(6.2%) and Islam
Islam
(6%).

GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION

Puducherry Legislative Assembly Main articles: Puducherry Legislative Assembly and Puducherry Municipal Council See also: List of Lieutenant Governors of Puducherry
Puducherry
, List of Chief Ministers of Puducherry
Puducherry
, and List of districts of Puducherry

Puducherry
Puducherry
is a Union Territory of India
India
rather than a state, which implies that governance and administration falls directly under federal authority. However, Puducherry
Puducherry
is one of only two union territories in India
India
(the other being Delhi
Delhi
), that is entitled by a special constitutional amendment to have an elected legislative assembly and a cabinet of ministers, thereby conveying partial statehood.

The Centre is represented by the Lieutenant Governor , who resides at the Raj Nivas (Le Palais du Gouverneur) at the Park, the former palace of the French governor. The central government is more directly involved in the territory's financial well-being unlike states, which have a central grant that they administer. Consequently, Puducherry has at various times, enjoyed lower taxes, especially in the indirect category.

SPECIAL ADMINISTRATION STATUS

The territory changed its name to Puducherry
Puducherry
in 2006

According to the Treaty of Cession of 1956, the four territories of former French India
India
territorial administration are permitted to make laws with respect to specific matters. In many cases, such legislation may require ratification from the federal government or the assent of the President of India
India
.

Article II of the Treaty states:

"The Establishments will keep the benefit of the special administrative status which was in force prior to 1 November 1954. Any constitutional changes in this status which may be made subsequently shall be made after ascertaining the wishes of the people."

OFFICIAL LANGUAGES

Main article: Official languages of Puducherry

Tamil remained the official language according to the "Traité de Cession" (Treaty of Cession) 1956 and the Government of Union Territories Act, 1963. According to the treaty, "_the French language shall remain the official language of the Establishments so long as the elected representatives of the people shall not decide otherwise_". Tamil , Telugu and Malayalam
Malayalam
are the three official languages used region-wise. French didn't lose its official status even after the adoption of "The Pondicherry
Pondicherry
Official Language Act 1965" (Act No. 3 of 1965). This act stated that "the Tamil language shall (...) be the language to be used for all or any of the official purposes of the Union territory." It also provides for the use of the Malayalam
Malayalam
and Telugu languages in the Mahé and Yanam districts. The law also states that English "may be used for all or any of the official purposes of the Union territory".

OFFICIAL SYMBOLS

On 16 April 2007, the government of Puducherry
Puducherry
announced that the following were to be its state symbols:

State symbols of Puducherry
Puducherry
SONG Invocation to Goddess Tamil (written by Bharathidasan
Bharathidasan
)

ANIMAL Squirrel
Squirrel

BIRD Koel

FLOWER Cannonball tree 's flower

TREE Bael fruit tree

CULTURE

FRENCH INFLUENCE

Consulate of France at Goubert Avenue, White Town, Puducherry
Puducherry

The plan of the city of Pondicherry
Pondicherry
is based on the French grid pattern and features perpendicular streets. The town is divided into two sections: the French Quarter (_Ville Blanche_ or 'White Town') and the Indian quarter (_Ville Noire_ or 'Black Town'). Many streets retain French names, and villas in French architectural styles are a common sight. In the French quarter, the buildings are typically in French colonial style, with long compounds and stately walls. The Indian quarter consists of houses lined with verandas and with large doors and grilles. These French- and Indian-style houses are preserved from destruction by an organisation named INTACH . The French language can be seen on signs and menus, and heard in Puducherry. Puducherry has residents with French passports : Most are of Indian descent and a small number are of non-Indian descent. At the time of Puducherry's transfer to India
India
in 1954, residents were given a choice to retain their French citizenship or to gain Indian citizenship. Those with French passports today are generally descendants of residents who chose to keep their French citizenship.

Several monuments in the city pertain to the French period. A French Consulate is in Puducherry, along with cultural organisations. Another important building is Le Foyer du Soldat, a veterans legion hall for soldiers who served in French wars. Among the French cultural organisations, the French Institute of Pondicherry
Pondicherry
, the Puducherry Centre of the École française d\'Extrême-Orient and a branch of the Alliance Française are noteworthy. A French high school (Lycée français de Pondichéry ) operates under the aegis of the French Minister of National Education .

ECONOMY

The Promenade in the main town Puducherry
Puducherry
is one of the most popular tourist attractions of the Union Territory Sri Aurobindo Ashram, Puducherry
Puducherry

The gross state domestic product of Puducherry, at market prices estimated by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in crores of Indian rupees grew from 184 to 25,819 crore rupees from 1980- 2014.

YEAR GROSS STATE DOMESTIC PRODUCT

1980 184

1985 342

1990 603

1995 1,320

2000 3,781

2010 13,092

2014 25,819

FISHERIES

The potential for fisheries is substantial in the Union Territory. The four regions of the Union Territory have a coastline of 45 km with 675 of inshore waters, 1.347 hectares (3.33 acres) of inland water and 800 ha of brackish water . 27 marine fishing villages and 23 inland fishing villages host a fishermen population of about 65,000 of which 13,000 are actively engaged in fishing. Tanks and ponds are also tapped for commercial fish rearing.

TOURISM

Main article: Tourism in Puducherry

Puducherry
Puducherry
is one of the most popular tourist spots for national and international tourists. Puducherry
Puducherry
was the residence of Sri Aurobindo (1872-1950) and the Sri Aurobindo
Sri Aurobindo
Ashram still operates from Puducherry. A unique experimental city Auroville , the brainchild of the Mother , whose inhabitants are drawn from all parts of the world is situated on the outskirts of the city. There are several temples, churches, monuments, parks and mosques which attract tourists. St. Luke - Sacred Heart Church, Puducherry
Puducherry

TRANSPORT

RAIL

Puducherry railway station

Puducherry
Puducherry
is connected by a railway branch line from the five-way junction at Viluppuram
Viluppuram
and Chennai
Chennai
. The railway line is a broad gauge line.

ROAD

Main article: Road Network in Puducherry District Further information: Puducherry Road Transport Corporation

Puducherry
Puducherry
has a network all weather metalled roads connecting the territory. Puducherry
Puducherry
has a road length of 2,552 km (road length per 4.87 km2), the highest in the country. Yanam Draksharamam Road, Puducherry
Puducherry
Motorcycle and auto rickshaw in Puducherry
Puducherry

ROAD LENGTH COMPARISON WITH TAMIL NADU AND INDIA AS A WHOLE

TOTAL ROAD LENGTH (IN PUDUCHERRY) 2,552 km

ROAD LENGTH PER 1000 KM2 PUDUCHERRY TAMIL NADU INDIA

4,575 1,572 663

Classification of roads SL. NO. TYPE OF ROAD LENGTH IN (KM)

1 National highways 64.450

2 State highways 49.304

3 District "> Puducherry Airport

Puducherry Airport is situated at Lawspet. The Puducherry
Puducherry
Government upgraded the airport in 2012 with a new terminal building and apron to accommodate larger aircraft. The new terminal building was inaugurated in January 2013 and scheduled flights to Bengaluru were launched. A MoU has been signed with Airports Authority of India
India
for expansion of Puducherry Airport in two phases. Karaikal Airport is a planned greenfield airport and will be the India's first airport to be built entirely with private capital.

EDUCATION

Main article: List of educational institutions in Puducherry

Puducherry
Puducherry
has a literacy rate of 86.55%. Pondicherry
Pondicherry
University is a central university located in Puducherry. Other colleges include Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER), Indira Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute (Government of Puducherry), Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute , National Institute of Technology, Puducherry , Perunthalaivar Kamarajar Institute of Engineering and Technology , Pondicherry
Pondicherry
Engineering College , Achariya College of Engineering & Technology ACET , Rajiv Gandhi College of Engineering and Technology , Rajiv Gandhi College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences , Christ institute of technology , Sri Manakula Vinayagar Engineering College , Shri Krishnaa College of Engineering the palace melts in the hot sun.

SEE ALSO

* Geography portal * Asia portal * South Asia portal * India
India
portal * Puducherry
Puducherry
portal

* Puducherry (Lok Sabha constituency) * Causes for liberation of French colonies in India
India
* French East India
India
Company * French colonial empire
French colonial empire
* Municipal Administration in French India
India

REFERENCES

* ^ "narendra modi appointe Lieutenant Governor of Puducherry". _ The Hindu
The Hindu
_. 22 May 2016. Retrieved 25 May 2016. * ^ "V Narayanasamy to be new Puducherry
Puducherry
Chief Minister". * ^ Varma, M. Dinesh (2015-06-06). "New Chief Secretary assumes charge". _The Hindu_. ISSN 0971-751X . Retrieved 2016-11-09. * ^ "IG Sunil Kumar Gautam to assume charge after polls". _The Hindu_. 2016-02-18. ISSN 0971-751X . Retrieved 2016-11-09. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India: 50th report (delivered to the Lokh Sabha in 2014)" (PDF). National Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. p. 155. Retrieved 29 June 2016. * ^ "South Asia New name for old French territory". BBC News. 20 September 2006. Retrieved 10 February 2014. * ^ "National : Bill to rename Pondicherry
Pondicherry
as Puducherry
Puducherry
passed". The Hindu
The Hindu
. 22 August 2006. Retrieved 10 February 2014. * ^ "State Domestic Product and other aggregates, 2004-05 series". Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. 27 February 2015. Archived from the original on 23 March 2015. Retrieved 18 June 2015. * ^ _The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century_. Kessinger Publishing. July 2007. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-548-20943-1 . * ^ "Population by religion community - 2011". _Census of India, 2011_. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015. * ^ "Lanka BBC Info Know Puducherry: Government Name Pondicherry
Pondicherry
As Puducherry". _lankabbc.com_. 2012-06-29. Retrieved 2017-01-24. * ^ "The Government of Union Territories Act, 1963" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Retrieved 1 June 2015. * ^ " Puducherry
Puducherry
code volume 1" (pdf). Government of Puducherry. Retrieved 1 June 2015. * ^ http://ecourts.gov.in/pondicherry/history * ^ CIDIF. "06-Le français à Pondichéry, par Roland Breton". _go1.cc_. * ^ " Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
News : Puducherry
Puducherry
comes out with list of State symbols". The Hindu. 21 April 2007. Retrieved 10 February 2014. * ^ List of Indian states by GDP * ^ "Flight operations await new terminal". IBN Live . 10 May 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2012. * ^ "First flight to Puducherry
Puducherry
from Bangalore on January 17". Retrieved 5 February 2013. * ^ " Puducherry
Puducherry
airport to go on stream in October". _The Economic Times _. 3 September 2011. Retrieved 3 January 2012. * ^ "Coimbatore firm to build India\'s first private airport in Karaikal". _The Times of India
India
_. 13 March 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2012. * ^ "Ranking of states and union territories by literacy rate: 2011" (PDF). Government of India. * ^ " Pondicherry
Pondicherry
University". Pondicherry
Pondicherry
University. Archived from the original on 25 April 2011. * ^ "Welcome to the Website of PKIET". Pkiet.edu.in. Retrieved 10 February 2014. * ^ "Filming Locations". Internet Movie Database
Internet Movie Database
. Retrieved 3 December 2012.

EXTERNAL LINKS

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