PUDUCHERRY (/pʊdᵿˈtʃɛri/ ); literally New Town in Tamil ),
formerly known as PONDICHERRY (/pɒndᵻˈtʃɛri/ ; is a union
India . It was formed out of four exclaves of former
India , namely Pondichéry (Pondicherry; now Puducherry),
Karikal (Karaikal), Mahé and
Yanaon (Yanam). It is named after the
largest district, Puducherry. Historically known as Pondicherry
(Pāṇṭiccēri), the territory changed its official name to
Puducherry (Putuccēri) on 20 September 2006.
Puducherry lies in the southern part of the Indian Peninsula. The
Puducherry district and
Karaikal district are bound by the
Tamil Nadu , while
Yanam district and
Mahé district are
enclosed by the states of
Andhra Pradesh and
Puducherry is the 29th most populous and the third most densely
populated state/union territory in India. It has a GDP of ₹0.21 lakh
crore (US$3.3 billion) and ranks 27th in India.
* 1 History
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 The Four Districts of
* 3 Demographics
* 4 Government and administration
Special administration status
* 4.2 Official languages
* 4.3 Official symbols
* 5 Culture
* 5.1 French influence
* 6 Economy
* 6.1 Fisheries
* 6.2 Tourism
* 7 Transport
* 7.1 Rail
* 7.2 Road
* 7.3 Air
* 8 Education
* 9 In Popular culture
* 10 See also
* 11 References
* 12 External links
History of Puducherry
The earliest recorded history of
Puducherry can be traced to the 2nd
century AD. The
Periplus of the Erythraean Sea mentions a marketplace
named Poduke (ch 60).
G. W. B. Huntingford suggested this might be a
site about 2 miles from the modern Puducherry, which was possibly the
Arikamedu (now part of
Ariyankuppam ). Huntingford noted
that Roman pottery was found at
Arikamedu in 1937. In addition,
archaeological excavations between 1944 and 1949 showed that it was "a
trading station to which goods of Roman manufacture were imported
during the first half of the 1st century CE".
Pondicherry (Pondichéry) became a French colony of the
French colonial empire
French colonial empire . Together with Chandernagor (already French
since 1673), Mahé (since 1721),
Yanaon ) (since 1731),
Karaikal (Karikal) (since 1739) and
Masulipatam (1760), it formed the
French colony of French
India , under a single French governor in
Pondicherry, although French rule over one or more of these enclaves
was repeatedly interrupted by British occupations. The territories of
India were completely transferred to the Republic of
facto on 1 November 1954, and legally de jure on 16 August 1962, when
India ceased to exist, becoming the present Indian constituent
union territory of Pondicherry, still combining four coastal enclaves.
Map showing the districts of
Puducherry Further information:
List of rivers of Puducherry
The union territory of
Puducherry consists of four small unconnected
Puducherry district (293 km2 (113 sq mi)), Karaikal
district (160 km2 (62 sq mi)) and
Yanam district (30 km2 (12 sq mi))
Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal and
Mahé district (9 km2 (3.5 sq mi)) on the
Arabian Sea , covering a total area of 492 km2 (190 sq mi). Puducherry
Karaikal have the largest areas and population, and are both
Tamil Nadu .
Yanam and Mahé are enclaves of Andhra
Kerala , respectively. Its population, as per the 2011
Census , is 1,244,464.
Some of Puducherry's districts are themselves amalgamations of
non-contiguous enclaves, often called pockets in India. The Puducherry
district is made of 11 such pockets, some of which are very small and
entirely surrounded by the territory of Tamil Nadu.
Mahé district is
made up of three pockets. This unusual geography is a legacy of the
colonial period with
Puducherry retaining the borders of former French
All four districts of
Puducherry are located in the coastal region.
Five rivers in
Puducherry district , seven in
Karaikal district , two
Mahé district and one in
Yanam district drain into the sea, but
none originates within the territory.
THE FOUR DISTRICTS OF PUDUCHERRY
Puducherry district , an enclave of
Yanam district , an enclave of
Karaikkal district , an enclave of Tamil Nadu
Mahé district , an enclave of
Hinduism is the major religion with 87.3% of the population adhering
to it. Other religions include
Christianity (6.2%) and
GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION
Puducherry Legislative Assembly
Puducherry Legislative Assembly Main articles: Puducherry
Legislative Assembly and
Puducherry Municipal Council See also: List
of Lieutenant Governors of
Puducherry , List of Chief Ministers of
Puducherry , and
List of districts of Puducherry
Puducherry is a
Union Territory of
India rather than a state, which
implies that governance and administration falls directly under
federal authority. However,
Puducherry is one of only two union
India (the other being
Delhi ), that is entitled by a
special constitutional amendment to have an elected legislative
assembly and a cabinet of ministers, thereby conveying partial
The Centre is represented by the Lieutenant Governor , who resides at
the Raj Nivas (Le Palais du Gouverneur) at the Park, the former palace
of the French governor. The central government is more directly
involved in the territory's financial well-being unlike states, which
have a central grant that they administer. Consequently, Puducherry
has at various times, enjoyed lower taxes, especially in the indirect
SPECIAL ADMINISTRATION STATUS
The territory changed its name to
Puducherry in 2006
According to the Treaty of Cession of 1956, the four territories of
India territorial administration are permitted to make
laws with respect to specific matters. In many cases, such legislation
may require ratification from the federal government or the assent of
the President of
Article II of the Treaty states:
"The Establishments will keep the benefit of the special
administrative status which was in force prior to 1 November 1954. Any
constitutional changes in this status which may be made subsequently
shall be made after ascertaining the wishes of the people."
Official languages of Puducherry
Tamil remained the official language according to the "Traité de
Cession" (Treaty of Cession) 1956 and the Government of Union
Territories Act, 1963. According to the treaty, "the French language
shall remain the official language of the Establishments so long as
the elected representatives of the people shall not decide otherwise".
Tamil , Telugu and
Malayalam are the three official languages used
region-wise. French didn't lose its official status even after the
adoption of "The
Pondicherry Official Language Act 1965" (Act No. 3 of
1965). This act stated that "the
Tamil language shall (...) be the
language to be used for all or any of the official purposes of the
Union territory." It also provides for the use of the
Telugu languages in the Mahé and
Yanam districts. The law also states
that English "may be used for all or any of the official purposes of
the Union territory".
On 16 April 2007, the government of
Puducherry announced that the
following were to be its state symbols:
State symbols of
Invocation to Goddess Tamil (written by
Cannonball tree 's flower
Bael fruit tree
Consulate of France at Goubert Avenue, White Town,
The plan of the city of
Pondicherry is based on the French grid
pattern and features perpendicular streets. The town is divided into
two sections: the French Quarter (Ville Blanche or 'White Town') and
the Indian quarter (Ville Noire or 'Black Town'). Many streets retain
French names, and villas in French architectural styles are a common
sight. In the French quarter, the buildings are typically in French
colonial style, with long compounds and stately walls. The Indian
quarter consists of houses lined with verandas and with large doors
and grilles. These French- and Indian-style houses are preserved from
destruction by an organisation named
INTACH . The
French language can
be seen on signs and menus, and heard in Puducherry.
residents with French passports : Most are of Indian descent and a
small number are of non-Indian descent. At the time of Puducherry's
India in 1954, residents were given a choice to retain
their French citizenship or to gain Indian citizenship. Those with
French passports today are generally descendants of residents who
chose to keep their French citizenship.
Several monuments in the city pertain to the French period. A French
Consulate is in Puducherry, along with cultural organisations. Another
important building is Le Foyer du Soldat, a veterans legion hall for
soldiers who served in French wars. Among the French cultural
organisations, the French Institute of
Pondicherry , the Puducherry
Centre of the École française d\'Extrême-Orient and a branch of the
Alliance Française are noteworthy. A French high school (Lycée
français de Pondichéry ) operates under the aegis of the French
Minister of National Education .
The Promenade in the main town
Puducherry is one of the most
popular tourist attractions of the
Union Territory Sri
The gross state domestic product of Puducherry, at market prices
estimated by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with
figures in crores of Indian rupees grew from 184 to 25,819 crore
rupees from 1980- 2014.
GROSS STATE DOMESTIC PRODUCT
The potential for fisheries is substantial in the Union Territory.
The four regions of the
Union Territory have a coastline of 45 km with
675 of inshore waters, 1.347 hectares (3.33 acres) of inland water and
800 ha of brackish water . 27 marine fishing villages and 23 inland
fishing villages host a fishermen population of about 65,000 of which
13,000 are actively engaged in fishing. Tanks and ponds are also
tapped for commercial fish rearing.
Tourism in Puducherry
Puducherry is one of the most popular tourist spots for national and
Puducherry was the residence of Sri Aurobindo
(1872-1950) and the
Sri Aurobindo Ashram still operates from
Puducherry. A unique experimental city
Auroville , the brainchild of
the Mother , whose inhabitants are drawn from all parts of the world
is situated on the outskirts of the city. There are several temples,
churches, monuments, parks and mosques which attract tourists.
St. Luke - Sacred Heart Church,
Puducherry railway station
Puducherry is connected by a railway branch line from the five-way
Chennai . The railway line is a broad gauge
Road Network in Puducherry District Further
Puducherry Road Transport Corporation
Puducherry has a network all weather metalled roads connecting the
Puducherry has a road length of 2,552 km (road length per
4.87 km2), the highest in the country.
Yanam Draksharamam Road,
Puducherry Motorcycle and auto rickshaw in
ROAD LENGTH COMPARISON WITH TAMIL NADU AND INDIA AS A WHOLE
TOTAL ROAD LENGTH (IN PUDUCHERRY)
ROAD LENGTH PER 1000 KM2
Classification of roads
TYPE OF ROAD
LENGTH IN (KM)
Puducherry Airport is situated at Lawspet. The
upgraded the airport in 2012 with a new terminal building and apron
to accommodate larger aircraft. The new terminal building was
inaugurated in January 2013 and scheduled flights to Bengaluru were
launched. A MoU has been signed with Airports Authority of
Puducherry Airport in two phases.
Karaikal Airport is a
planned greenfield airport and will be the India's first airport to be
built entirely with private capital.
List of educational institutions in Puducherry
Puducherry has a literacy rate of 86.55%.
Pondicherry University is
a central university located in Puducherry. Other colleges include
Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research
(JIPMER), Indira Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute
(Government of Puducherry), Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and
Research Institute ,
National Institute of Technology, Puducherry ,
Perunthalaivar Kamarajar Institute of Engineering and Technology ,
Pondicherry Engineering College , Achariya College of Engineering &
Technology ACET ,
Rajiv Gandhi College of Engineering and Technology ,
Rajiv Gandhi College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences , Christ
institute of technology ,
Sri Manakula Vinayagar Engineering College ,
Shri Krishnaa College of Engineering the palace melts in the hot sun.
* Geography portal
* Asia portal
* South Asia portal
Puducherry (Lok Sabha constituency)
* Causes for liberation of French colonies in
* French East
French colonial empire
French colonial empire
* Municipal Administration in French
* ^ "narendra modi appointe Lieutenant Governor of Puducherry". The
Hindu . 22 May 2016. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
* ^ "V Narayanasamy to be new
Puducherry Chief Minister".
* ^ Varma, M. Dinesh (2015-06-06). "New Chief Secretary assumes
charge". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X . Retrieved 2016-11-09.
* ^ "IG Sunil Kumar Gautam to assume charge after polls". The
Hindu. 2016-02-18. ISSN 0971-751X . Retrieved 2016-11-09.
* ^ A B "Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in
India: 50th report (delivered to the Lokh Sabha in 2014)" (PDF).
National Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority
Affairs, Government of India. p. 155. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
* ^ "South Asia New name for old French territory". BBC News. 20
September 2006. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
* ^ "National : Bill to rename
The Hindu . 22 August 2006. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
* ^ "State Domestic Product and other aggregates, 2004-05 series".
Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. 27 February 2015.
Archived from the original on 23 March 2015. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
* ^ The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the
Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century. Kessinger Publishing.
July 2007. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-548-20943-1 .
* ^ "Population by religion community - 2011". Census of India,
2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived
from the original on 25 August 2015.
* ^ "Lanka BBC Info Know Pudu