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Puxian (
Hinghwa Romanized Hinghwa Romanized, also known as Hing-hua̍ báⁿ-uā-ci̍ (興化平話字) or Báⁿ-uā-ci̍ (平話字), is a Latin alphabet The Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet is the collection of letters originally used by the ancient Romans to w ...
: Pó-sing-gṳ̂/莆仙語; ), also known as Pu-Xian Chinese, Puxian Min, Xinghua, Henghwa or Hinghwa (Hing-hua̍-gṳ̂/興化語; ), is a Sinitic language that forms a branch of
Min Chinese Min (; Bàng-uâ-cê, BUC: Mìng ngṳ̄) is a broad group of Sinitic languages spoken by about 30 million people in Fujian Provinces of China, province as well as by the descendants of Min speaking colonists on Leizhou peninsula and Hainan, or as ...
. The native language of
Putian people The Putian people, (Chinese language, Chinese: 莆田人, pinyin: ''Pútiánrén''; Puxian Min: 莆仙儂, Hinghwa Romanized: ) also known as Henghua, Hinghwa or Xinghua, are Han Chinese people from Putian, part of Fujian, Fujian Province, China. T ...
, Puxian is spoken mostly in
Fujian Fujian (; alternately romanized as Fukien or Hokkien) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnat ...

Fujian
province, particularly in
Putian Putian or Putien (, Putian dialect: ''Pó-chéng''), also known as Puyang (莆阳) and Puxian (莆仙), historically known as Xinghua or Hing Hwa (), is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather ...

Putian
city and Xianyou County (after which it is named), parts of
Fuzhou Fuzhou (; , Fuzhounese The Fuzhou dialect (, FR: ), also Foochow, Hokchew, Hok-chiu, or Fuzhounese, is the prestige variety of the Eastern Min branch of Min Chinese spoken mainly in the Mindong region of Eastern Fujian Province. Like ma ...

Fuzhou
, and parts of
Quanzhou Quanzhou, alternatively known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level port city on the north bank of the Jin River, beside the Taiwan Strait The Taiwan Strait, also known as the Formosa Strait, is a -wide strait A strait is a naturall ...

Quanzhou
. It is also widely used as the mother tongue in Wuqiu Township,
Kinmen County Kinmen, also called Quemoy, is a County , county of the Republic of China located in the Taiwan Strait between the island of Taiwan and mainland China. The main island of Kinmen County is Kinmen Island., National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Un ...

Kinmen County
,
Fujian Province, Republic of China Fujian Province (; Hokkien Hokkien (; , Pe̍h-ōe-jī: ''Hok-kiàn-ōe'', ) or Minnan (閩南語/闽南语), known as Quanzhang or Tsuan-Tsiang (泉漳) in linguistics, is a Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Standard Chinese, Mandari ...
(Taiwan). More than 2,000 people in Shacheng,
Fuding () is a county-level city in northeastern Ningde prefecture level city, on Fujian Fujian (; alternately romanized as Fukien or Hokkien) is a province on the southeastern coast of China China, officially the People's Republic of C ...

Fuding
in northern Fujian also speak Puxian. There are minor differences between the dialects of Putian and Xianyou. Overseas populations of Puxian speakers exist in
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions that are geographically south of C ...

Malaysia
,
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian Ocean, Indian and Pacific Ocean, Pacific oceans. It consists of over List of islands of I ...

Indonesia
and
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a island in . It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the , off the southern tip of the , bordering the to the west, the () to the south, and the to the east. The country' ...

Singapore
. Speakers of Puxian are also known as
Henghua The Putian people, (Chinese language, Chinese: 莆田人, pinyin: ''Pútiánrén''; Puxian Min: 莆仙儂, Hinghwa Romanized: ) also known as Henghua, Hinghwa or Xinghua, are Han Chinese people from Putian, part of Fujian, Fujian Province, China. T ...
, Hinghua, or Xinghua.


History

Before the year 979 AD, the Puxian region was part of Quanzhou county and people there spoke a form of
Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy ...
. due to its origin in the past. In 979 AD, during the
Song Dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kuan ...
, the region was administratively separated from Quanzhou and the Chinese spoken there developed separately from the rest of Southern Min. Due to its proximity with Fuzhou, it absorbed some elements of
Eastern Min Eastern Min or Min Dong (, Foochow Romanized: Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄), is a branch of the Min Chinese, Min group of Sinitic languages of China. The prestige form and most-cited representative form is the Fuzhou dialect, the speech of the capital ...
, such as morphophonemic alternations in initial consonants, but its basic linguistic characteristics, i.e. grammar and most of its lexicon, are based on
Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy ...
. It also shares denasalization of historical nasal consonants and vocalic nasalization with
Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy ...
varieties. Puxian Min has 62% cognates with
Quanzhou dialect The Quanzhou dialect (), also known as the Chin-chew dialect, is a dialect of Hokkien Hokkien (; , Pe̍h-ōe-jī: ''Hok-kiàn-ōe'', ) or Minnan (閩南語/闽南语), known as Quanzhang or Tsuan-Tsiang (泉漳) in linguistics, is a Southern M ...
(Southern Min) and only 39% cognates with
Fuzhou dialect The Fuzhou dialect (, FR: ), also Foochow, Hokchew, Hok-chiu, or Fuzhounese, is the prestige Prestige refers to a good reputation or high esteem; in earlier usage, ''prestige'' meant "showiness". (19th c.) Prestige may also refer to: Arts, ...
(Eastern Min).


Characteristics


Differences with Southern Min dialects

Puxian differs from most Southern Min varieties in several ways: * The vowel 'a' is replaced by (o̤) in most cases, e.g. 腳 ''ko̤'' "leg". * The vowel 'ư' is replaced by ('ü'), e.g. 魚 ''hṳ'' "fish". * In Putian 'ng' has changed to except after zero initial and h- (notation: ng), e.g. 湯 ''tung'' "soup". * The vowel /e/ is often replaced by /ɒ/ o̤, e.g. 馬 ''bo̤'' "horse". * Where Quanzhou has 'ĩ' and Zhangzhou has 'ẽ', the corresponding Putian vowel is 'ã', e.g. 病 ''baⁿ'' "sick", where ''ⁿ'' indicates a
nasalized vowel A nasal vowel is a vowel A vowel is a Syllable, syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels are one of the two principal classes of speech sounds, the other being the consonant. Vowels vary in quality, in ...
. * The vowel 'io' is replaced by 'iau' (notation: a̤u), e.g. 笑 ''ciao'' "laugh". This also holds for nasalized vowels, e.g. 張 ''da̤uⁿ'' corresponding to Zhangzhou ''tioⁿ''. * Nasals 'm' sometimes occur in place of voiced stops 'b', e.g. 夢 ''mang'' vs. Quanzhou ''bang''. * Initial consonant 'ng' replaces 'g' e.g. 五 'ngo' vs. Quanzhou 'go'. * There is a loss of distinction between voiced and unvoiced stops, e.g. the sounds /b/ and /p/ both correspond to the same phoneme and occur in
free variation In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include p ...
.


Borrowings from Eastern Min

* Wife 老媽 (Lau Ma)


Phonology

Puxian has 15
consonants In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of the tongue; , pronounced with the back of the ...

consonants
, including the zero onset, the same as most other Min varieties. Puxian is distinctive for having a lateral fricative instead of the in other Min varieties, similar to Taishanese. Puxian has 53 Syllable#Structure, finals and 6 phonemic Tone (linguistics), tones.


Initials

* (only appears in connected speech. It's a result of consonant mutation of [p])


Finals

Puxian Min has 53 finals (including nasalised finals)


Tone


Register


Assimilation

新婦房 ɬiŋ pu paŋ → ɬiŋ mu βaŋ 青草 tsʰɔŋ tsʰau → tsʰɔŋ nau


Comparison between Putian Min and Quanzhou Min Nan


Sentence-final particles

* ''ah'' (): used to express exclamation. * ''lah'' (): used to stress or for adding emotional effect to your words. * ''neh'' (): used for questioning. * ''nɔ'' (): used to express emotion. * ''yɔu'' (): used to denote obviousness or contention.


Romanization

Hing-hua̍ báⁿ-uā-ci̍ () is the Romanization system for Puxian Min. It has 23 letters: . The Romanization only needs five tone marks for seven tones: * 陰平 Ing-báⁿ (unmarked) * 陰上 Ing-siō̤ng ˆ (â) * 陰去 Ing-kṳ̍ ˈ (a̍) * 陰入 Ing-ci̍h (unmarked) * 陽平 Ió̤ng-báⁿ ́ (á) * 陽去 Ió̤ng-kṳ̍ – (ā) * 陽入 Ió̤ng-ci̍h ˈh (a̍h) 


References


External links


Motoki Makajima, Conversational Texts in Two Min Dialects, 1979
{{Languages of Taiwan Pu-Xian Min, Min Chinese Languages of China Languages of Taiwan Languages of Malaysia Languages of Singapore