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With Thaïs
Thaïs
(mistress):

Lagus Leontiscus Eiren

With Eurydice:

Ptolemy Keraunos Meleager Argaeus Lysandra Ptolemais

With Berenice I:

Ptolemy Philadelphus Arsinoe II Philotera

Father Lagus or Philip II of Macedon

Mother Arsinoe

Born C. 367 BC Macedon

Died 283/2 BC (aged 84) Alexandria, Egypt

Ptolemy I Soter (/ˈtɒləmi/; Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr "Ptolemy the Savior"; c. 367 BC – 283/2 BC), also known as Ptolemy of Lagus (Πτολεμαῖος ὁ Λάγου/Λαγίδης), was a Macedonian Greek[1][2][3][4][5] general under Alexander the Great, one of the three Diadochi
Diadochi
who succeeded to his empire. Ptolemy became ruler of Egypt
Egypt
(323–283/2 BC) and founded a dynasty which ruled it for the next three centuries, turning Egypt
Egypt
into a Hellenistic kingdom and Alexandria
Alexandria
into a center of Greek culture. He assimilated some aspects of Egyptian culture, however, assuming the traditional title pharaoh in 305/4 BC. The use of the title of pharaoh was often situational: pharaoh was used for an Egyptian audience, and Basileus for a Greek audience, as exemplified by Egyptian coinage. Like all Macedonian nobles, Ptolemy I Soter claimed descent from Heracles, the mythical founder of the Argead dynasty
Argead dynasty
that ruled Macedon. Ptolemy's mother was Arsinoe of Macedon, and, while his father is unknown, ancient sources variously describe him either as the son of Lagus, a Macedonian nobleman, or as an illegitimate son of Philip II of Macedon
Philip II of Macedon
(which, if true, would have made Ptolemy the half-brother of Alexander), but it is possible that this is a later myth fabricated to glorify the Ptolemaic dynasty. However the genealogical strands preserved in a number of accounts state Ptolemy I is presented as having direct blood relationships with the Argead kings. Satyrus the Peripatetic, traced the partrilinear descent of Arsinoe directly through Macedonian kings, back to Hercules. [6] Ptolemy was one of Alexander's most trusted generals, and was among the seven somatophylakes (bodyguards) attached to his person.[7] He was a few years older than Alexander and had been his intimate friend since childhood. He was succeeded by his son Ptolemy II Philadelphus.

Contents

1 Early career 2 Successor of Alexander 3 Rivalry and wars 4 Successor 5 Lost history of Alexander's campaigns 6 Euclid 7 Fictional portrayals 8 Gallery 9 See also 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links

Early career[edit] Ptolemy served with Alexander from his first campaigns, and played a principal part in the later campaigns in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and India.[7] He participated in the Battle of Issus, commanding troops on the left wing under the authority of Parmenion. Later he accompanied Alexander during his journey to the Oracle
Oracle
in the Siwa Oasis
Siwa Oasis
where he was proclaimed a son of Zeus.[8] Ptolemy had his first independent command during the campaign against the rebel Bessus
Bessus
whom Ptolemy captured and handed over to Alexander for execution.[9] During Alexander's campaign in the Indian subcontinent, Ptolemy was in command of the advance guard at the siege of Aornos
Aornos
and fought at the Battle of the Hydaspes River. Successor of Alexander[edit]

Tetradrachm with portrait of Ptolemy I, British Museum, London

When Alexander died in 323 BC, Ptolemy is said to have instigated the resettlement of the empire made at Babylon. Through the Partition of Babylon, he was appointed satrap of Egypt, under the nominal kings Philip III Arrhidaeus and the infant Alexander IV;[7] the former satrap, the Greek Cleomenes, stayed on as his deputy. Ptolemy quickly moved, without authorization, to subjugate Cyrenaica. By custom, kings in Macedonia asserted their right to the throne by burying their predecessor. Probably because he wanted to pre-empt Perdiccas, the imperial regent, from staking his claim in this way, Ptolemy took great pains in acquiring the body of Alexander the Great, placing it temporarily in Memphis, Egypt. Ptolemy then openly joined the coalition against Perdiccas.[10] Perdiccas
Perdiccas
appears to have suspected Ptolemy of aiming for the throne himself, and may have decided that Ptolemy was his most dangerous rival. Ptolemy executed Cleomenes for spying on behalf of Perdiccas — this removed the chief check on his authority, and allowed Ptolemy to obtain the huge sum that Cleomenes had accumulated.[10] Rivalry and wars[edit]

  Kingdom of Ptolemy I Soter Other diadochi   Kingdom of Cassander   Kingdom of Lysimachus   Kingdom of Seleucus I Nicator   Epirus Other   Carthage   Rome   Greek colonies

In 321 BC, Perdiccas
Perdiccas
attempted to invade Egypt, only to fall at the hands of his own men.[11] Ptolemy's decision to defend the Nile against Perdiccas's attempt to force it ended in fiasco for Perdiccas, with the loss of 2,000 men. This failure was a fatal blow to Perdiccas' reputation, and he was murdered in his tent by two of his subordinates. Ptolemy immediately crossed the Nile, to provide supplies to what had the day before been an enemy army. Ptolemy was offered the regency in place of Perdiccas; but he declined.[12] Ptolemy was consistent in his policy of securing a power base, while never succumbing to the temptation of risking all to succeed Alexander.[13] In the long wars that followed between the different Diadochi, Ptolemy's first goal was to hold Egypt
Egypt
securely, and his second was to secure control in the outlying areas: Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
and Cyprus, as well as Syria, including the province of Judea. His first occupation of Syria was in 318, and he established at the same time a protectorate over the petty kings of Cyprus. When Antigonus One-Eye, master of Asia in 315, showed dangerous ambitions, Ptolemy joined the coalition against him, and on the outbreak of war, evacuated Syria. In Cyprus, he fought the partisans of Antigonus, and re-conquered the island (313). A revolt in Cyrene was crushed the same year.[7] In 312, Ptolemy and Seleucus, the fugitive satrap of Babylonia, both invaded Syria, and defeated Demetrius Poliorcetes ("besieger of cities"), the son of Antigonus, in the Battle of Gaza. Again he occupied Syria, and again—after only a few months, when Demetrius had won a battle over his general, and Antigonus entered Syria
Syria
in force—he evacuated it. In 311, a peace was concluded between the combatants. Soon after this, the surviving 13-year-old king, Alexander IV, was murdered in Macedonia on the orders of Cassander, leaving the satrap of Egypt
Egypt
absolutely his own master.[7] The peace did not last long, and in 309 Ptolemy personally commanded a fleet that detached the coastal towns of Lycia
Lycia
and Caria
Caria
from Antigonus, then crossed into Greece, where he took possession of Corinth, Sicyon
Sicyon
and Megara
Megara
(308 BC). In 306, a great fleet under Demetrius attacked Cyprus, and Ptolemy's brother Menelaus was defeated and captured in another decisive Battle of Salamis. Ptolemy's complete loss of Cyprus
Cyprus
followed.[7]

Ptolemy as Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Egypt, British Museum, London

The satraps Antigonus and Demetrius now each assumed the title of king; Ptolemy, as well as Cassander, Lysimachus
Lysimachus
and Seleucus I Nicator, responded by doing the same. In the winter of 306 BC, Antigonus tried to follow up his victory in Cyprus
Cyprus
by invading Egypt; but Ptolemy was strongest there, and successfully held the frontier against him. Ptolemy led no further overseas expeditions against Antigonus.[14] However, he did send great assistance to Rhodes
Rhodes
when it was besieged by Demetrius (305/304). Pausanias reports that the grateful Rhodians bestowed the name Soter ("saviour") upon him as a result of lifting the siege. This account is generally accepted by modern scholars, although the earliest datable mention of it is from coins issued by Ptolemy II in 263 BC. When the coalition against Antigonus was renewed in 302, Ptolemy joined it, and invaded Syria
Syria
a third time, while Antigonus was engaged with Lysimachus
Lysimachus
in Asia Minor. On hearing a report that Antigonus had won a decisive victory there, he once again evacuated Syria. But when the news came that Antigonus had been defeated and slain by Lysimachus and Seleucus at the Battle of Ipsus
Battle of Ipsus
in 301, he occupied Syria
Syria
a fourth time.[14]

The taking of Jerusalem by Ptolemy Soter ca. 320 BC, by Jean Fouquet

The other members of the coalition had assigned all Syria
Syria
to Seleucus, after what they regarded as Ptolemy's desertion, and for the next hundred years, the question of the ownership of southern Syria
Syria
(i.e., Judea) produced recurring warfare between the Seleucid and Ptolemaic dynasties. Henceforth, Ptolemy seems to have mingled as little as possible in the rivalries between Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and Greece; he lost what he held in Greece, but reconquered Cyprus
Cyprus
in 295/294. Cyrene, after a series of rebellions, was finally subjugated about 300 and placed under his stepson Magas.[14] Successor[edit]

Ptolemy I and his third wife Berenice I

In 289, Ptolemy made his son by Berenice—Ptolemy II Philadelphus—his co-regent. His eldest (legitimate) son, Ptolemy Keraunos, whose mother, Eurydice, the daughter of Antipater, had been repudiated, fled to the court of Lysimachus. Ptolemy also had a consort in Thaïs, the Athenian hetaera and one of Alexander's companions in his conquest of the ancient world. Ptolemy I Soter died in winter 283 or spring 282 at the age of 84.[15] Shrewd and cautious, he had a compact and well-ordered realm to show at the end of forty years of war. His reputation for bonhomie and liberality attached the floating soldier-class of Macedonians and other Greeks to his service, and was not insignificant; nor did he wholly neglect conciliation of the natives. He was a ready patron of letters, founding the Great Library of Alexandria.[16] Lost history of Alexander's campaigns[edit] Ptolemy himself wrote an eyewitness history of Alexander's campaigns (now lost).[17] In the second century AD, Ptolemy's history was used by Arrian
Arrian
of Nicomedia as one of his two main primary sources (alongside the history of Aristobulus of Cassandreia) for his own extant Anabasis of Alexander, and hence large parts of Ptolemy's history can be assumed to survive in paraphrase or précis in Arrian's work.[18] Arrian
Arrian
cites Ptolemy by name on only a few occasions, but it is likely enough that large stretches of Arrian's Anabasis ultimately reflect Ptolemy's version of events. Arrian
Arrian
once names Ptolemy as the author "whom I chiefly follow" (Anabasis 6.2.4), and in his Preface claims that Ptolemy seemed to him to be a particularly trustworthy source, "not only because he was present with Alexander on campaign, but also because he was himself a king, and hence lying would be more dishonourable for him than for anyone else" (Anabasis, Prologue). Ptolemy's lost history was long considered an objective work, distinguished by its straightforward honesty and sobriety,[14] but more recent work has called this assessment into question. R. M. Errington argued that Ptolemy's history was characterised by persistent bias and self-aggrandisement, and by systematic blackening of the reputation of Perdiccas, one of Ptolemy's chief dynastic rivals after Alexander's death.[19] For example, Arrian's account of the fall of Thebes in 335 BC (Anabasis 1.8.1-1.8.8, a rare section of narrative explicitly attributed to Ptolemy by Arrian) shows several significant variations from the parallel account preserved in Diodorus Siculus (17.11-12), most notably in attributing a distinctly unheroic role in proceedings to Perdiccas. More recently, J. Roisman has argued that the case for Ptolemy's blackening of Perdiccas
Perdiccas
and others has been much exaggerated.[20] Euclid[edit] Ptolemy personally sponsored the great mathematician Euclid, but found Euclid's seminal work, the Elements, too difficult to study, so he asked if there were an easier way to master it. According to Proclus Euclid
Euclid
famously quipped: "Sire, there is no Royal Road
Royal Road
to geometry."[21] Fictional portrayals[edit]

Ptolemy was played by Virgilio Teixeira in the film Alexander the Great (1956) and by Robert Earley, Elliot Cowan, and Anthony Hopkins in the Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
film Alexander (2004).

Gallery[edit]

A rare coin of Ptolemy I, a reminder of his successful campaigns with Alexander in India. Obv: Ptolemy in profile at the beginning of his reign.Rev: Alexander triumphantly riding a chariot drawn by elephants.

Ptolemy coin with Alexander wearing an elephant scalp, symbol of his conquest of India

Ptolemy I gold stater with elephant quadriga, Cyrenaica

See also[edit]

History of Ptolemaic Egypt Serapis, Greco-Egyptian political appeasement god for the Greek and Egyptian masses, ordered into existence by Ptolemy I

References[edit]

^ Jones, Prudence J. (2006). Cleopatra: A Sourcebook. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 14. They were members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Macedonian Greeks, who ruled Egypt
Egypt
after the death of its conqueror, Alexander the Great.  ^ Pomeroy, Sarah B. (1990). Women in Hellenistic Egypt. Wayne State University Press. p. 16. while Ptolemaic Egypt
Ptolemaic Egypt
was a monarchy with a Greek ruling class.  ^ Redford, Donald B., ed. (2000). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII was born to Ptolemy XII Auletes (80–57 BCE, ruled 55–51 BCE) and Cleopatra, both parents being Macedonian Greeks.  ^ Bard, Kathryn A., ed. (1999). Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. Routledge. p. 488. Ptolemaic kings were still crowned at Memphis and the city was popularly regarded as the Egyptian rival to Alexandria, founded by the Macedonian Greeks.  ^ Bard, Kathryn A., ed. (1999). Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. Routledge. p. 687. During the Ptolemaic period, when Egypt
Egypt
was governed by rulers of Greek descent...  ^ Carney, Elizabeth (2010). Philip II and Alexander The Great : Father and Son,Lives and Afterlives. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-973815-1.  ^ a b c d e f Chisholm 1911, p. 616. ^ Grimal, Nicolas (1992). A History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Blackwell Books. p. 382. ISBN 978-0-631-19396-8.  ^ Arrian
Arrian
(1976). de Sélincourt, Aubrey, ed. Anabasis Alexandri
Anabasis Alexandri
(The Campaigns of Alexander). Penguin Books. III, 30. ISBN 0-14-044253-7.  ^ a b Peter Green, Alexander to Actium, 1990, pp 13-14 ^ Anson, Edward M (Summer 1986). "Diodorus and the Date of Triparadeisus". The American Journal of Philology (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 107 (2): 208–217. doi:10.2307/294603. JSTOR 294603. ^ Peter Green p14 ^ Peter Green pp 119 ^ a b c d Chisholm 1911, p. 617. ^ "Ptolemy I". www.tyndalehouse.com. Retrieved 2016-04-01.  ^ Phillips, Heather A., "The Great Library of Alexandria?". Library Philosophy and Practice, August 2010 ^ Jacoby, Felix (1926). Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker, Teil 2, Zeitgeschichte. - B. Spezialgeschichten, Autobiographien und Memoiren, Zeittafeln [Nr. 106-261]. Berlin: Weidmann. pp. 752–769, no. 138, "Ptolemaios Lagu".  ^ Bosworth, A. B. (1988). From Arrian
Arrian
to Alexander: Studies in Historical Interpretation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 13–14. ISBN 0198148631.  ^ Errington, R. M. (1969-01-01). "Bias in Ptolemy's History of Alexander". The Classical Quarterly. 19 (2): 233–242. JSTOR 637545.  ^ Roisman, Joseph (1984-01-01). "Ptolemy and His Rivals in His History of Alexander". The Classical Quarterly. 34 (2): 373–385. JSTOR 638295.  ^ Robinson, Victor (2005). The Story of Medicine. Kessinger Publishing. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-4191-5431-7. 

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ptolemies". Encyclopædia Britannica. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 616–618. 

Bibliography[edit]

Walter M. Ellis: Ptolemy of Egypt, London
London
1993. Christian A. Caroli: Ptolemaios I. Soter - Herrscher zweier Kulturen, Konstanz 2007. Waterfield, Robin (2011). Dividing the Spoils - The War for Alexander the Great's Empire (hardback). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 273 pages. ISBN 978-0-19-957392-9. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ptolemy I.

Ptolemy Soter I at LacusCurtius — (Chapter II of E. R Bevan's House of Ptolemy, 1923) Ptolemy I (at Egyptian Royal Genealogy, with genealogical table) Livius, Ptolemy I Soter by Jona Lendering Ptolemy I Soter entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith A genealogical tree of Ptolemy, though not necessarily reliable Alexander the Great

Ptolemy I Soter Ptolemaic Dynasty Born: 367 BC Died: 283 BC

Preceded by Alexander IV Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Egypt 305–283/2 BC Succeeded by Ptolemy II Philadelphus

v t e

The division of Alexander's empire

v t e

Hellenistic rulers

Argeads

Philip II Alexander III the Great Philip III Arrhidaeus Alexander IV

Antigonids

Antigonus I Monophthalmus Demetrius I Poliorcetes Antigonus II Gonatas Demetrius II Aetolicus Antigonus III Doson Philip V Perseus Philip VI (pretender)

Ptolemies

Ptolemy I Soter Ptolemy Keraunos Ptolemy II Philadelphus Ptolemy III Euergetes Ptolemy IV Philopator Ptolemy V Epiphanes Cleopatra I Syra
Cleopatra I Syra
(regent) Ptolemy VI Philometor Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Cleopatra
Cleopatra
II Philometor Soter Ptolemy VIII Physcon Cleopatra
Cleopatra
III Ptolemy IX Lathyros Ptolemy X Alexander Berenice III Ptolemy XI Alexander Ptolemy XII Auletes Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VI Tryphaena Berenice IV Epiphanea Ptolemy XIII Ptolemy XIV Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII Philopator Ptolemy XV Caesarion

Kings of Cyrene

Magas Demetrius the Fair Ptolemy VIII Physcon Ptolemy Apion

Seleucids

Seleucus I Nicator Antiochus I Soter Antiochus II Theos Seleucus II Callinicus Seleucus III Ceraunus Antiochus III the Great Seleucus IV Philopator Antiochus IV Epiphanes Antiochus V Eupator Demetrius I Soter Alexander I Balas Demetrius II Nicator Antiochus VI Dionysus Diodotus Tryphon Antiochus VII Sidetes Alexander II Zabinas Seleucus V Philometor Antiochus VIII Grypus Antiochus IX Cyzicenus Seleucus VI Epiphanes Antiochus X Eusebes Antiochus XI Epiphanes Demetrius III Eucaerus Philip I Philadelphus Antiochus XII Dionysus Antiochus XIII Asiaticus Philip II Philoromaeus

Lysimachids

Lysimachus Ptolemy Epigonos

Antipatrids

Cassander Philip IV Alexander V Antipater II Antipater Etesias Sosthenes

Attalids

Philetaerus Eumenes I Attalus I Eumenes II Attalus II Attalus III Eumenes III

Greco-Bactrians

Diodotus I Diodotus II Euthydemus I Demetrius I Euthydemus II Antimachus I Pantaleon Agathocles Demetrius II Eucratides I Plato Eucratides II Heliocles I

Indo-Greeks

Demetrius I Antimachus I Pantaleon Agathocles Apollodotus I Demetrius II Antimachus II Menander I Zoilos I Agathokleia Lysias Strato I Antialcidas Heliokles II Polyxenos Demetrius III Philoxenus Diomedes Amyntas Epander Theophilos Peukolaos Thraso Nicias Menander II Artemidoros Hermaeus Archebius Telephos Apollodotus II Hippostratos Dionysios Zoilos II Apollophanes Strato II Strato III

Kings of Bithynia

Boteiras Bas Zipoetes I Nicomedes I Zipoetes II Etazeta (regent) Ziaelas Prusias I Prusias II Nicomedes II Nicomedes III Nicomedes IV Socrates Chrestus

Kings of Pontus

Mithridates I Ctistes Ariobarzanes Mithridates II Mithridates III Pharnaces I Mithridates IV Philopator Philadephos Mithridates V Euergetes Mithridates VI Eupator Pharnaces II Darius Arsaces Polemon I Pythodorida Polemon II

Kings of Commagene

Ptolemaeus Sames II Mithridates I Antiochus I Mithridates II Antiochus II Mithridates III Antiochus III Antiochus IV

Kings of Cappadocia

Ariarathes I Ariarathes II Ariamnes II Ariarathes III Ariarathes IV Ariarathes V Orophernes Ariarathes VI Ariarathes VII Ariarathes VIII Ariarathes IX Ariobarzanes I Ariobarzanes II Ariobarzanes III Ariarathes X Archelaus

Kings of the Cimmerian Bosporus

Paerisades I Satyros II Prytanis Eumelos Spartokos III Hygiainon (regent) Paerisades II Spartokos IV Leukon II Spartokos V Paerisades III Paerisades IV Paerisades V Mithridates I Pharnaces Asander with Dynamis Mithridates II Asander with Dynamis Scribonius’ attempted rule with Dynamis Dynamis with Polemon Polemon with Pythodorida Aspurgus Mithridates III with Gepaepyris Mithridates III Cotys I

v t e

Pharaohs

Protodynastic to First Intermediate Period  (<3150–2040 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Protodynastic (pre-3150 BC)

Lower

Hsekiu Khayu Tiu Thesh Neheb Wazner Mekh Double Falcon

Upper

Scorpion I Crocodile Iry-Hor Ka Scorpion II Narmer
Narmer
/ Menes

Early Dynastic (3150–2686 BC)

I

Narmer
Narmer
/ Menes Hor-Aha Djer Djet Merneith
Merneith
Den Anedjib Semerkhet Qa'a Sneferka Horus Bird

II

Hotepsekhemwy Nebra/Raneb Nynetjer Ba Nubnefer Horus Sa Weneg-Nebty Wadjenes Senedj Seth-Peribsen Sekhemib-Perenmaat Neferkara I Neferkasokar Hudjefa I Khasekhemwy

Old Kingdom (2686–2181 BC)

III

Nebka Djoser Sekhemkhet Sanakht Khaba Qahedjet Huni

IV

Snefru Khufu Djedefre Khafre Bikheris Menkaure Shepseskaf Thamphthis

V

Userkaf Sahure Neferirkare
Neferirkare
Kakai Neferefre Shepseskare Nyuserre Ini Menkauhor Kaiu Djedkare Isesi Unas

VI

Teti Userkare Pepi I Merenre Nemtyemsaf I Pepi II Merenre Nemtyemsaf II Netjerkare Siptah

1st Intermediate (2181–2040 BC)

VIII

Menkare Neferkare II Neferkare III Neby Djedkare Shemai Neferkare IV Khendu Merenhor Neferkamin Nikare Neferkare V Tereru Neferkahor Neferkare VI Pepiseneb Neferkamin
Neferkamin
Anu Qakare Iby Neferkaure Neferkauhor Neferirkare Wadjkare Khuiqer Khui

IX

Meryibre Khety Neferkare VII Nebkaure Khety Setut

X

Meryhathor Neferkare VIII Wahkare Khety Merykare

Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period  (2040–1550 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Middle Kingdom (2040–1802 BC)

XI

Mentuhotep I Intef I Intef II Intef III Mentuhotep II Mentuhotep III Mentuhotep IV

Nubia

Segerseni Qakare Ini Iyibkhentre

XII

Amenemhat I Senusret I Amenemhat II Senusret II Senusret III Amenemhat III Amenemhat IV Sobekneferu
Sobekneferu

2nd Intermediate (1802–1550 BC)

XIII

Sekhemrekhutawy Sobekhotep Sonbef Nerikare Sekhemkare
Sekhemkare
Amenemhat V Ameny Qemau Hotepibre Iufni Ameny Antef Amenemhet VI Semenkare Nebnuni Sehetepibre Sewadjkare Nedjemibre Khaankhre Sobekhotep Renseneb Hor Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw Djedkheperew Sebkay Sedjefakare Wegaf Khendjer Imyremeshaw Sehetepkare Intef Seth Meribre Sobekhotep III Neferhotep I Sihathor Sobekhotep IV Merhotepre Sobekhotep Khahotepre Sobekhotep Wahibre Ibiau Merneferre Ay Merhotepre Ini Sankhenre Sewadjtu Mersekhemre Ined Sewadjkare Hori Merkawre Sobekhotep Mershepsesre Ini II Sewahenre Senebmiu Merkheperre Merkare Sewadjare Mentuhotep Seheqenre Sankhptahi

XIV

Yakbim Sekhaenre Ya'ammu Nubwoserre Qareh Khawoserre 'Ammu Ahotepre Maaibre Sheshi Nehesy Khakherewre Nebefawre Sehebre Merdjefare Sewadjkare III Nebdjefare Webenre Nebsenre Sekheperenre Djedkherewre Bebnum 'Apepi Nuya Wazad Sheneh Shenshek Khamure Yakareb Yaqub-Har

XV

Semqen 'Aper-'Anati Sakir-Har Khyan Apepi Khamudi

XVI

Djehuti Sobekhotep VIII Neferhotep III Mentuhotepi Nebiryraw I Nebiriau II Semenre Bebiankh Sekhemre Shedwast Dedumose I Dedumose II Montuemsaf Merankhre Mentuhotep Senusret IV Pepi III

Abydos

Senebkay Wepwawetemsaf Pantjeny Snaaib

XVII

Rahotep Nebmaatre Sobekemsaf I Sobekemsaf II Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef Nubkheperre Intef Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef Senakhtenre Ahmose Seqenenre Tao Kamose

New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period  (1550–664 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

New Kingdom (1550–1070 BC)

XVIII

Ahmose I Amenhotep I Thutmose I Thutmose II Thutmose III Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
Amenhotep II Thutmose IV Amenhotep III Akhenaten Smenkhkare Neferneferuaten
Neferneferuaten
Tutankhamun Ay Horemheb

XIX

Ramesses I Seti I Ramesses II Merneptah Amenmesses Seti II Siptah Twosret
Twosret

XX

Setnakhte Ramesses III Ramesses IV Ramesses V Ramesses VI Ramesses VII Ramesses VIII Ramesses IX Ramesses X Ramesses XI

3rd Intermediate (1069–664 BC)

XXI

Smendes Amenemnisu Psusennes I Amenemope Osorkon the Elder Siamun Psusennes II

XXII

Shoshenq I Osorkon I Shoshenq II Takelot I Osorkon II Shoshenq III Shoshenq IV Pami Shoshenq V Osorkon IV

XXIII

Harsiese A Takelot II Pedubast I Shoshenq VI Osorkon III Takelot III Rudamun Menkheperre Ini

XXIV

Tefnakht Bakenranef

XXV

Piye Shebitku Shabaka Taharqa Tanutamun

Late Period and Hellenistic Period  (664–30 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Late (664–332 BC)

XXVI

Necho I Psamtik I Necho II Psamtik II Wahibre Ahmose II Psamtik III

XXVII

Cambyses II Petubastis III Darius I Xerxes Artaxerxes I Darius II

XXVIII

Amyrtaeus

XXIX

Nepherites I Hakor Psammuthes Nepherites II

XXX

Nectanebo I Teos Nectanebo II

XXXI

Artaxerxes III Khabash Arses Darius III

Hellenistic (332–30 BC)

Argead

Alexander the Great Philip III Arrhidaeus Alexander IV

Ptolemaic

Ptolemy I Soter Ptolemy II Philadelphus Ptolemy III Euergetes Ptolemy IV Philopator Ptolemy V Epiphanes Ptolemy VI Philometor Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Ptolemy VIII Euergetes Ptolemy IX Soter Ptolemy X Alexander I Ptolemy XI Alexander II Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Berenice IV Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Ptolemy XV Caesarion

Dynastic genealogies

1st 4th 11th 12th 18th 19th 20th 21st to 23rd 25th 26th 27th 30th 31st Ptolemaic

List of pharaohs

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 21347488 LCCN: n93023826 ISNI: 0000 0004 3959 2

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