CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY (/ˈtɒləmi/ ; Greek : Κλαύδιος
Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos ; Latin : Claudius
Ptolemaeus; c. AD 100 – c. 170) was a mathematician , astronomer
, geographer , astrologer , and poet of a single epigram in the Greek
Anthology . He lived in the city of
Alexandria in the Roman province
Egypt , wrote in
Koine Greek , and held
Roman citizenship . Beyond
that, few reliable details of his life are known. His birthplace has
been given as
Ptolemais Hermiou in the
Thebaid in an uncorroborated
statement by the 14th-century astronomer
Theodore Meliteniotes . This
is a very late attestation, however, and there is no other reason to
suppose that he ever lived elsewhere than Alexandria, where he died
around AD 168.
Ptolemy wrote several scientific treatises, three of which were of
importance to later Byzantine , Islamic and European science. The
first is the astronomical treatise now known as the
although it was originally entitled the Mathematical Treatise
(Μαθηματικὴ Σύνταξις, Mathēmatikē Syntaxis) and
then known as the Great Treatise (Ἡ Μεγάλη Σύνταξις,
Hē Megálē Syntaxis). The second is the
Geography , which is a
thorough discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman
world. The third is the astrological treatise in which he attempted to
adapt horoscopic astrology to the Aristotelian natural philosophy of
his day. This is sometimes known as the Apotelesmatika
(Ἀποτελεσματικά) but more commonly known as the
Tetrabiblos from the Greek (Τετράβιβλος) meaning "Four
Books" or by the Latin
* 1 Background
* 2 Astronomy
* 3 The
* 4 Astrology
* 5 Music
* 6 Optics
* 7 Named after
* 8 See also
* 9 Footnotes
* 10 References
* 10.1 Texts and translations
* 11 External links
* 11.1 Primary sources
* 11.2 Secondary material
* 11.2.1 Animated illustrations
* 11.2.2 Galleries
Engraving of a crowned
Ptolemy being guided by the muse
Astronomy, from Margarita Philosophica by
Gregor Reisch , 1508.
Although Abu Ma\'shar believed
Ptolemy to be one of the Ptolemies who
Egypt after the conquest of Alexander the title ‘King
Ptolemy’ is generally viewed as a mark of respect for Ptolemy's
elevated standing in science.
Claudius is a Roman nomen ; the fact that
Ptolemy bore it
indicates he lived under the Roman rule of
Egypt with the privileges
and political rights of
Roman citizenship . It would have suited
custom if the first of Ptolemy's family to become a citizen (whether
he or an ancestor) took the nomen from a Roman called
Claudius who was
responsible for granting citizenship. If, as was common, this was the
emperor, citizenship would have been granted between AD 41 and 68
Claudius , and then
Nero , were Roman emperors). The astronomer
would also have had a praenomen , which remains unknown.
Ptolemaeus (Πτολεμαῖος – Ptolemaios) is a Greek name. It
occurs once in Greek mythology, and is of Homeric form. It was common
among the Macedonian upper class at the time of
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great ,
and there were several of this name among Alexander's army, one of
whom made himself King of
Egypt in 323 BC:
Ptolemy I Soter
Ptolemy I Soter . All the
kings after him, until
Egypt became a Roman province in 30 BC, were
also Ptolemies .
Perhaps for no other reason than the association of name, the
9th-century Persian astronomer Abu Ma\'shar assumed
Ptolemy to be a
member of Egypt's royal lineage, stating that the ten kings of Egypt
who followed Alexander were wise "and included
Ptolemy the Wise, who
composed the book of the Almagest". Abu Ma\'shar recorded a belief
that a different member of this royal line "composed the book on
astrology and attributed it to Ptolemy". We can evidence historical
confusion on this point from Abu Ma\'shar\'s subsequent remark “It
is sometimes said that the very learned man who wrote the book of
astrology also wrote the book of the Almagest. The correct answer is
not known”. There is little evidence on the subject of Ptolemy's
ancestry, apart from what can be drawn from the details of his name
(see above); however, modern scholars refer to Abu Ma’shar’s
account as erroneous, and it is no longer doubted that the astronomer
who wrote the
Almagest also wrote the
Tetrabiblos as its astrological
Ptolemy wrote in Greek and can be shown to have utilized Babylonian
astronomical data . He was a Roman citizen, but was ethnically
either a Greek or a Hellenized Egyptian . He was often known in
later Arabic sources as "the Upper Egyptian ", suggesting he may have
had origins in southern
Egypt . Later Arabic astronomers ,
geographers and physicists referred to him by his name in Arabic :
Ptolemy with an armillary sphere
Joos van Ghent and
Pedro Berruguete , 1476,
Louvre , Paris
Almagest is the only surviving comprehensive ancient
treatise on astronomy. Babylonian astronomers had developed
arithmetical techniques for calculating astronomical phenomena; Greek
astronomers such as
Hipparchus had produced geometric models for
calculating celestial motions. Ptolemy, however, claimed to have
derived his geometrical models from selected astronomical observations
by his predecessors spanning more than 800 years, though astronomers
have for centuries suspected that his models' parameters were adopted
independently of observations.
Ptolemy presented his astronomical
models in convenient tables, which could be used to compute the future
or past position of the planets. The
Almagest also contains a star
catalogue , which is a version of a catalogue created by Hipparchus.
Its list of forty-eight constellations is ancestral to the modern
system of constellations, but unlike the modern system they did not
cover the whole sky (only the sky
Hipparchus could see). Across
Europe, the Middle East and North
Africa in the Medieval period, it
was the authoritative text on astronomy, with its author becoming an
almost mythical figure, called Ptolemy, King of Alexandria. The
Almagest was preserved, like most of Classical Greek science, in
Arabic manuscripts (hence its familiar name). Because of its
reputation, it was widely sought and was translated twice into Latin
in the 12th century , once in Sicily and again in Spain. Ptolemy's
model, like those of his predecessors, was geocentric and was almost
universally accepted until the appearance of simpler heliocentric
models during the scientific revolution .
His Planetary Hypotheses went beyond the mathematical model of the
Almagest to present a physical realization of the universe as a set of
nested spheres, in which he used the epicycles of his planetary model
to compute the dimensions of the universe. He estimated the Sun was at
an average distance of 1,210
Earth radii, while the radius of the
sphere of the fixed stars was 20,000 times the radius of the Earth.
Ptolemy presented a useful tool for astronomical calculations in his
Handy Tables, which tabulated all the data needed to compute the
positions of the Sun,
Moon and planets, the rising and setting of the
stars, and eclipses of the Sun and Moon. Ptolemy's Handy Tables
provided the model for later astronomical tables or zījes . In the
Phaseis (Risings of the Fixed Stars),
Ptolemy gave a parapegma, a star
calendar or almanac , based on the hands and disappearances of stars
over the course of the solar year.
Geography by Ptolemy, Latin
manuscript of the early 15th century
Ptolemy's other main work is his
Geography (also called the
Geographia), a compilation of geographical coordinates of the part of
the world known to the
Roman Empire during his time. He relied
somewhat on the work of an earlier geographer,
Marinos of Tyre , and
on gazetteers of the Roman and ancient Persian Empire . He also
acknowledged ancient astronomer
Hipparchus for having provided the
elevation of the north pole for a few cities.
The first part of the
Geography is a discussion of the data and of
the methods he used. As with the model of the solar system in the
Ptolemy put all this information into a grand scheme.
Following Marinos, he assigned coordinates to all the places and
geographic features he knew, in a grid that spanned the globe.
Latitude was measured from the equator , as it is today, but Ptolemy
preferred to express it as climata, the length of the longest day
rather than degrees of arc : the length of the midsummer day increases
from 12h to 24h as one goes from the equator to the polar circle . In
books 2 through 7, he used degrees and put the meridian of 0 longitude
at the most western land he knew, the "Blessed Islands ", often
identified as the
Canary Islands , as suggested by the location of the
six dots labelled the "FORTUNATA" islands near the left extreme of the
blue sea of Ptolemy's map here reproduced. A 15th-century
manuscript copy of the
Ptolemy world map
Ptolemy world map , reconstituted from
Geography (circa AD 150), indicating the countries of
"Serica " and "
Sinae " (
China ) at the extreme east, beyond the island
of "Taprobane" (
Sri Lanka , oversized) and the "Aurea Chersonesus "
Malay Peninsula ). Prima
Europe tabula. A 15th century copy of
Ptolemy's map of Britain
Ptolemy also devised and provided instructions on how to create maps
both of the whole inhabited world (oikoumenè ) and of the Roman
provinces. In the second part of the Geography, he provided the
necessary topographic lists, and captions for the maps. His oikoumenè
spanned 180 degrees of longitude from the Blessed Islands in the
Atlantic Ocean to the middle of
China , and about 80 degrees of
Shetland to anti-Meroe (east coast of
Africa ); Ptolemy
was well aware that he knew about only a quarter of the globe, and an
erroneous extension of
China southward suggests his sources did not
reach all the way to the Pacific Ocean.
The maps in surviving manuscripts of Ptolemy's Geography, however,
only date from about 1300, after the text was rediscovered by Maximus
Planudes . It seems likely that the topographical tables in books
2–7 are cumulative texts – texts which were altered and added to
as new knowledge became available in the centuries after Ptolemy.
This means that information contained in different parts of the
Geography is likely to be of different dates. A printed map from
the 15th century depicting Ptolemy's description of the
(1482, Johannes Schnitzer, engraver).
Maps based on scientific principles had been made since the time of
Eratosthenes , in the 3rd century BC, but
Ptolemy improved map
projections . It is known from a speech by
Eumenius that a world map,
an orbis pictus, doubtless based on the Geography, was on display in a
school in Augustodunum ,
Gaul in the third century. In the 15th
Geography began to be printed with engraved maps;
the earliest printed edition with engraved maps was produced in
Bologna in 1477, followed quickly by a Roman edition in 1478
(Campbell, 1987). An edition printed at
Ulm in 1482, including woodcut
maps, was the first one printed north of the
Alps . The maps look
distorted when compared to modern maps, because Ptolemy's data were
inaccurate. One reason is that
Ptolemy estimated the size of the Earth
as too small: while
Eratosthenes found 700 stadia for a great circle
degree on the globe,
Ptolemy uses 500 stadia in the Geography. It is
highly probable that these were the same stadion, since Ptolemy
switched from the former scale to the latter between the Syntaxis and
the Geography, and severely readjusted longitude degrees accordingly.
Ancient Greek units of measurement and
History of geodesy .
Ptolemy derived many of his key latitudes from crude longest
day values, his latitudes are erroneous on average by roughly a degree
(2 degrees for Byzantium, 4 degrees for Carthage), though capable
ancient astronomers knew their latitudes to more like a minute.
(Ptolemy's own latitude was in error by 14'.) He agreed (Geography
1.4) that longitude was best determined by simultaneous observation of
lunar eclipses, yet he was so out of touch with the scientists of his
day that he knew of no such data more recent than 500 years before
(Arbela eclipse). When switching from 700 stadia per degree to 500, he
(or Marinos) expanded longitude differences between cities accordingly
(a point first realized by P.Gosselin in 1790), resulting in serious
over-stretching of the Earth's east-west scale in degrees, though not
distance. Achieving highly precise longitude remained a problem in
geography until the application of Galileo 's Jovian moon method in
the 18th century. It must be added that his original topographic list
cannot be reconstructed: the long tables with numbers were transmitted
to posterity through copies containing many scribal errors, and people
have always been adding or improving the topographic data: this is a
testimony to the persistent popularity of this influential work in the
history of cartography .
Tetrabiblos The mathematician
'the Alexandrian', as depicted by a 16th-century engraving
Ptolemy has been referred to as “a pro-astrological authority of
the highest magnitude”. His astrological treatise, a work in four
parts, is known by the Greek term
Tetrabiblos , or the Latin
equivalent Quadripartitum: ‘Four Books’. Ptolemy's own title is
unknown, but may have been the term found in some Greek manuscripts:
Apotelesmatika, roughly meaning 'Astrological Outcomes,' 'Effects' or
As a source of reference, the
Tetrabiblos is said to have "enjoyed
almost the authority of a Bible among the astrological writers of a
thousand years or more". It was first translated from Arabic into
Plato of Tivoli (Tiburtinus) in 1138, while he was in Spain.
Tetrabiblos is an extensive and continually reprinted treatise on
the ancient principles of horoscopic astrology . That it did not quite
attain the unrivaled status of the
Almagest was, perhaps, because it
did not cover some popular areas of the subject, particularly
electional astrology (interpreting astrological charts for a
particular moment to determine the outcome of a course of action to be
initiated at that time), and medical astrology , which were later
The great popularity that the
Tetrabiblos did possess might be
attributed to its nature as an exposition of the art of astrology, and
as a compendium of astrological lore, rather than as a manual. It
speaks in general terms, avoiding illustrations and details of
Ptolemy was concerned to defend astrology by defining its
limits, compiling astronomical data that he believed was reliable and
dismissing practices (such as considering the numerological
significance of names) that he believed to be without sound basis.
Much of the content of the
Tetrabiblos was collected from earlier
sources; Ptolemy's achievement was to order his material in a
systematic way, showing how the subject could, in his view, be
rationalized. It is, indeed, presented as the second part of the study
of astronomy of which the
Almagest was the first, concerned with the
influences of the celestial bodies in the sublunar sphere. Thus
explanations of a sort are provided for the astrological effects of
the planets , based upon their combined effects of heating, cooling,
moistening, and drying.
Ptolemy's astrological outlook was quite practical: he thought that
astrology was like medicine , that is conjectural, because of the many
variable factors to be taken into account: the race , country , and
upbringing of a person affects an individual's personality as much as,
if not more than, the positions of the Sun, Moon, and planets at the
precise moment of their birth, so
Ptolemy saw astrology as something
to be used in life but in no way relied on entirely.
A collection of one hundred aphorisms about astrology called the
Centiloquium , ascribed to Ptolemy, was widely reproduced and
commented on by Arabic, Latin and Hebrew scholars, and often bound
together in medieval manuscripts after the
Tetrabiblos as a kind of
summation. It is now believed to be a much later pseudepigraphical
composition. The identity and date of the actual author of the work,
referred to now as
Pseudo-Ptolemy , remains the subject of conjecture.
Ptolemy also wrote an influential work, Harmonics, on music theory
and the mathematics of music. After criticizing the approaches of his
Ptolemy argued for basing musical intervals on
mathematical ratios (in contrast to the followers of
in agreement with the followers of
Pythagoras ), backed up by
empirical observation (in contrast to the overly theoretical approach
Ptolemy wrote about how musical notes could be
translated into mathematical equations and vice versa in Harmonics.
This is called Pythagorean tuning because it was first discovered by
Pythagoras believed that the mathematics of music
should be based on the specific ratio of 3:2, whereas
believed that it should just generally involve tetrachords and octaves
. He presented his own divisions of the tetrachord and the octave,
which he derived with the help of a monochord . His Harmonics never
had the influence of his
Almagest or Planetary Hypotheses, but a part
of it (Book III) did encourage
Kepler in his own musings on the
harmony of the world (Kepler, Harmonice Mundi, Appendix to Book V).
Ptolemy's astronomical interests also appeared in a discussion of the
"music of the spheres ". See: Ptolemy\'s intense diatonic scale .
His Optics is a work that survives only in a poor Arabic translation
and in about twenty manuscripts of a Latin version of the Arabic,
which was translated by
Eugene of Palermo (c. 1154). In it Ptolemy
writes about properties of light , including reflection , refraction ,
and colour . The work is a significant part of the early history of
optics and influenced the more famous 11th-century
Book of Optics by
Alhazen (Ibn al-Haytham). It contains the earliest surviving table of
refraction from air to water, for which the values (with the exception
of the 60° angle of incidence), although historically praised as
experimentally derived, appear to have been obtained from an
The work is also important for the early history of perception.
Ptolemy combined the mathematical, philosophical and physiological
traditions. He held an extramission-intromission theory of vision: the
rays (or flux) from the eye formed a cone, the vertex being within the
eye, and the base defining the visual field. The rays were sensitive,
and conveyed information back to the observer’s intellect about the
distance and orientation of surfaces. Size and shape were determined
by the visual angle subtended at the eye combined with perceived
distance and orientation. This was one of the early statements of
size-distance invariance as a cause of perceptual size and shape
constancy, a view supported by the Stoics.
explanations for many phenomena concerning illumination and colour,
size, shape, movement and binocular vision. He also divided illusions
into those caused by physical or optical factors and those caused by
judgmental factors. He offered an obscure explanation of the sun or
moon illusion (the enlarged apparent size on the horizon) based on the
difficulty of looking upwards.
NAMED AFTER PTOLEMY
There are several characters or items named after Ptolemy, including:
* The crater Ptolemaeus on the
* The crater Ptolemaeus on
* The asteroid
4001 Ptolemaeus ;
Ptolemy Stone used in the mathematics courses at both St.
John\'s College campuses.
* Ptolemy\'s theorem on distances in a cyclic quadrilateral , and
its generalization, Ptolemy\'s inequality , to non-cyclic
* Ptolemaic graphs , the graphs whose distances obey Ptolemy's
* Atlas portal
* Astronomy portal
* Cosmology portal
Messier 7 –
Ptolemy Cluster, star cluster described by
* Ptolemy\'s Canon – a dated list of kings used by ancient
* Ptolemy\'s table of chords
* ^ A B Since no contemporary depictions or descriptions of Ptolemy
are known to have existed, later artist's impressions are unlikely to
have reproduced his appearance accurately
* ^ A B http://www.britannica.com/biography/Ptolemy
* ^ "
Ptolemy Accomplishments, Biography, & Facts". Encyclopædia
Britannica. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
* ^ Select Epigrams from the
Greek Anthology By John William
Mackail Page 246 ISBN 1406922943 , 2007
* ^ Mortal am I, the creature of a day..
* ^ See 'Background' section on his status as a Roman citizen
* ^ A B G. J. Toomer, "
Claudius Ptolemaeus). " Complete
Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 2008. Retrieved from
Encyclopedia.com. 21 Jan, 2013.
* ^ Jean Claude Pecker (2001), Understanding the Heavens: Thirty
Centuries of Astronomical Ideas from Ancient Thinking to Modern
Cosmology, p. 311, Springer, ISBN 3-540-63198-4 .
* ^ Πτολεμαῖος, Georg Autenrieth, A Homeric Dictionary,
* ^ Abu Ma’shar, De magnis coniunctionibus, ed.-transl. K.
Yamamoto, Ch. Burnett, Leiden, 2000, 2 vols. (Arabic 4.1.4.
* ^ Jones (2010) ‘Ptolemy’s Doctrine of the Terms and Its
Reception’ by Stephan Heilen, p. 68.
* ^ Robbins,
Tetrabiblos ‘Introduction’; p. x.
Asger Aaboe , Episodes from the Early History of Astronomy, New
York: Springer, 2001, pp. 62–65.
* ^ Alexander Jones, "The Adaptation of Babylonian Methods in Greek
Numerical Astronomy," in The Scientific Enterprise in Antiquity and
the Middle Ages, p. 99.
* ^ Britannica.com Encyclopædia Britannica 2007, "Claudius
* ^ A B Victor J. Katz (1998). A History of Mathematics: An
Introduction, p. 184. Addison Wesley, ISBN 0-321-01618-1 : "But what
we really want to know is to what extent the Alexandrian
mathematicians of the period from the first to the fifth centuries
C.E. were Greek. Certainly, all of them wrote in Greek and were part
of the Greek intellectual community of Alexandria. And most modern
studies conclude that the Greek community coexisted So should we
Ptolemy and Diophantus, Pappus and
Hypatia were ethnically
Greek, that their ancestors had come from Greece at some point in the
past but had remained effectively isolated from the Egyptians? It is,
of course, impossible to answer this question definitively. But
research in papyri dating from the early centuries of the common era
demonstrates that a significant amount of intermarriage took place
between the Greek and Egyptian communities And it is known that Greek
marriage contracts increasingly came to resemble Egyptian ones. In
addition, even from the founding of Alexandria, small numbers of
Egyptians were admitted to the privileged classes in the city to
fulfill numerous civic roles. Of course, it was essential in such
cases for the Egyptians to become "Hellenized," to adopt Greek habits
and the Greek language. Given that the Alexandrian mathematicians
mentioned here were active several hundred years after the founding of
the city, it would seem at least equally possible that they were
ethnically Egyptian as that they remained ethnically Greek. In any
case, it is unreasonable to portray them with purely European features
when no physical descriptions exist."
* ^ "Ptolemy." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 2006. Answers.com 20 Jul. 2008.
George Sarton (1936). "The Unity and Diversity of the
Mediterranean World", Osiris 2, p. 406–463 .
* ^ John Horace Parry (1981). The Age of Reconnaissance, p. 10.
University of California Press
University of California Press . ISBN 0-520-04235-2 .
* ^ J. F. Weidler (1741). Historia astronomiae, p. 177. Wittenberg:
Martin Bernal (1992). "Animadversions on the Origins of
Western Science", Isis 83 (4), p. 596–607 .)
Martin Bernal (1992). "Animadversions on the Origins of Western
Science", Isis 83 (4), p. 596–607 .
* ^ Shahid Rahman; Tony Street; Hassan Tahiri, eds. (2008). "The
Birth of Scientific Controversies, The Dynamics of the Arabic
Tradition and Its Impact on the Development of Science: Ibn
al-Haytham’s Challenge of Ptolemy’s Almagest". The Unity of
Science in the Arabic Tradition. 11. Springer Netherlandsdoi
=10.1007/978-1-4020-8405-8. pp. 183–225 . ISBN 978-1-4020-8404-1 .
doi :10.1007/978-1-4020-8405-8 .
* ^ "Dennis Rawlins". The International Journal of Scientific
History. Retrieved 2009-10-07.
* ^ Goldstein, Bernard R. (1997). "Saving the Phenomena: The
Background to Ptolemy's Planetary Theory". Journal for the History of
Astronomy. 28 (1): 1–12. doi :10.1177/002182869702800101 .
* ^ S. C. McCluskey, Astronomies and Cultures in Early Medieval
Europe, Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1998, pp. 20–21.
* ^ Charles
Homer Haskins, Studies in the History of Mediaeval
Science, New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing, 1967, reprint of the
Cambridge, Mass., 1927 edition
* ^ Dennis Duke, Ptolemy\'s Cosmology
* ^ Bernard R. Goldstein, ed., The Arabic Version of Ptolemy's
Planetary Hypotheses, Transactions of the American Philosophical
Society 57, no. 4 (1967), pp. 9–12.
* ^ Shcheglov D.A. (2002–2007): "Hipparchus’ Table of Climata
and Ptolemy’s Geography", Orbis Terrarum 9 (2003–2007), 177–180.
* ^ Book 8
* ^ Bagrow 1945.
* ^ Talbert, Richard J. A. (2012). "Urbs Roma to Orbis Romanus". In
Talbert. Ancient Perspectives:
Maps and Their Places in Mesopotamia,
Egypt, Greece and Rome. Chicago. pp. 170–72. ISBN 978-0-226-78940-8
* ^ Jones (2010) ‘The Use and Abuse of Ptolemy’s
Renaissance and Early Modern Europe’ by H. Darrel Rutkin, p. 135.
* ^ Robbins,
Tetrabiblos , 'Introduction' p. x.
* ^ Jones (2010) p. xii.
* ^ Robbins,
Tetrabiblos , 'Introduction' p. xii.
* ^ FA Robbins, 1940; Thorndike 1923
* ^ Hetherington, Norriss S. Encyclopedia of Cosmology (Routledge
Revivals): Historical, Philosophical, and Scientific Foundations of
Modern Cosmology Routledge, 8 apr. 2014 ISBN 978-1317677666 p 527
* ^ Smith, A. Mark (1996). Ptolemy\'s Theory of Visual
Perception– An English translation of the Optics. The American
Philosophical Society. ISBN 0-87169-862-5 . Retrieved 27 June 2009.
Carl Benjamin Boyer , The Rainbow: From Myth to Mathematics
* ^ H. W. Ross and C. Plug, "The History of Size Constancy and Size
Illusions", in V. Walsh & J. Kulikowski (eds.) Perceptual Constancy:
Why Things Look as They Do. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
1998, pp. 499–528.
* ^ H. E. Ross and G. M. Ross, "Did
Ptolemy Understand the Moon
Illusion?", Perception 5 (1976): 377–395.
* ^ A. I. Sabra, "Psychology Versus Mathematics:
Alhazen on the
Moon Illusion", in E. Grant & J. E. Murdoch (eds.)
Mathematics and Its Application to Science and Natural Philosophy in
the Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987, pp.
Mars Labs. Google Maps.
TEXTS AND TRANSLATIONS
* Bagrow, L. (January 1, 1945). "The Origin of Ptolemy's
Geographia". Geografiska Annaler. Geografiska Annaler, Vol. 27. 27:
318–387. ISSN 1651-3215 .
JSTOR 520071 . doi :10.2307/520071 .
* Berggren, J. Lennart, and Alexander Jones. 2000. Ptolemy's
Geography: An Annotated Translation of the Theoretical Chapters.
Princeton and Oxford:
Princeton University Press
Princeton University Press . ISBN 0-691-01042-0
* Campbell, T. (1987). The Earliest Printed Maps. British Museum
* Hübner, Wolfgang, ed. 1998.
Claudius Ptolemaeus, Opera quae
exstant omnia Vol III/Fasc 1: ΑΠΟΤΕΛΕΣΜΑΤΙΚΑ (=
Tetrabiblos). De Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-598-71746-8 (Bibliotheca
scriptorum Graecorum et Romanorum Teubneriana). (The most recent
edition of the Greek text of Ptolemy's astrological work, based on
earlier editions by F. Boll and E. Boer.)
* Lejeune, A. (1989) L'Optique de Claude Ptolémée dans la version
latine d'après l'arabe de l'émir Eugène de Sicile. . Collection de
travaux de l'Académie International d'Histoire des Sciences, No. 31.
* Neugebauer, Otto (1975). A History of Ancient Mathematical
Astronomy. I-III. Berlin and New York: Sprnger Verlag.
* Nobbe, C. F. A., ed. 1843. Claudii Ptolemaei Geographia. 3 vols.
Leipzig: Carolus Tauchnitus. (The most recent edition of the complete
* Ptolemy. 1930. Die Harmonielehre des Klaudios Ptolemaios, edited
by Ingemar Düring. Göteborgs högskolas årsskrift 36, 1930:1.
Göteborg: Elanders boktr. aktiebolag. Reprint, New York: Garland
* Ptolemy. 2000. Harmonics, translated and commentary by Jon
Solomon. Mnemosyne, Bibliotheca Classica Batava, Supplementum,
0169-8958, 203. Leiden and Boston:
Brill Publishers . ISBN
* Robbins, Frank E. (ed.) 1940.
Ptolemy Tetrabiblos. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: Harvard University Press (Loeb Classical Library). ISBN
* Smith, A.M. (1996) Ptolemy's theory of visual perception: An
English translation of the Optics with introduction and commentary.
Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 86, Part 2.
Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society.
* Stevenson, Edward Luther (trans. and ed.). 1932.
The Geography. New York: New York Public Library. Reprint, New York:
Dover, 1991. (This is the only complete English translation of
Ptolemy's most famous work. Unfortunately, it is marred by numerous
mistakes and the placenames are given in Latinised forms, rather than
in the original Greek).
* Stückelberger, Alfred, and Gerd Graßhoff (eds). 2006.
Ptolemaios, Handbuch der Geographie, Griechisch-Deutsch. 2 vols.
Basel: Schwabe Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7965-2148-5 . (Massive 1018 pp.
scholarly edition by a team of a dozen scholars that takes account of
all known manuscripts, with facing Greek and German text, footnotes on
manuscript variations, color maps, and a CD with the geographical
* Taub, Liba Chia (1993). Ptolemy's Universe: The Natural
Philosophical and Ethical Foundations of Ptolemy's Astronomy. Chicago:
Open Court Press. ISBN 0-8126-9229-2 .
* Ptolemy's Almagest, Translated and annotated by
G. J. Toomer .
Princeton University Press, 1998
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