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The PTOLEMAIC KINGDOM (/ˌtɒləˈmeɪ.ɪk/ ; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic
Hellenistic
kingdom based in Egypt
Egypt
. It was ruled by the Ptolemaic dynasty which started with Ptolemy I Soter
Ptolemy I Soter
's accession after the death of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in 323 BC and which ended with the death of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC.

The Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
was founded in 305 BC by Ptolemy I Soter
Ptolemy I Soter
, who declared himself Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Egypt
Egypt
and created a powerful Hellenistic dynasty that ruled an area stretching from southern Syria
Syria
to Cyrene and south to Nubia
Nubia
. Alexandria
Alexandria
became the capital city and a major center of Greek culture
Greek culture
and trade. To gain recognition by the native Egyptian populace, they named themselves the successors to the Pharaohs. The later Ptolemies took on Egyptian traditions by marrying their siblings, had themselves portrayed on public monuments in Egyptian style and dress, and participated in Egyptian religious life. The Ptolemies had to fight native rebellions and were involved in foreign and civil wars that led to the decline of the kingdom and its final annexation by Rome . Hellenistic
Hellenistic
culture continued to thrive in Egypt
Egypt
throughout the Roman and Byzantine periods until the Muslim conquest .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Background * 1.2 Establishment * 1.3 Ptolemy I
Ptolemy I
* 1.4 Ptolemy II * 1.5 Ptolemy III * 1.6 Decline of the Ptolemies * 1.7 Later Ptolemies * 1.8 Cleopatra
Cleopatra
* 1.9 Roman rule

* 2 Culture

* 2.1 Art * 2.2 Religion * 2.3 Social situation * 2.4 Coinage * 2.5 Military

* 3 Cities

* 3.1 Naucratis
Naucratis
* 3.2 Alexandria
Alexandria
* 3.3 Ptolemais

* 4 Demographics

* 4.1 Arabs under the Ptolemies * 4.2 Jews
Jews
under the Ptolemies

* 5 Agriculture * 6 List of Ptolemaic rulers * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

HISTORY

The era of Ptolemaic reign in Egypt
Egypt
is one of the best-documented time periods of the Hellenistic
Hellenistic
Era; a wealth of papyri written in Greek and Egyptian of the time have been discovered in Egypt.

BACKGROUND

Bust of Ptolemy I Soter
Ptolemy I Soter
, king of Egypt
Egypt
(305 BC–282 BC) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty
Ptolemaic dynasty
A bust depicting King Ptolemy II Philadelphus 309–246 BC

In 332 BC, Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
, King of Macedon
Macedon
invaded the Achaemenid satrapy of Egypt
Egypt
. He visited Memphis , and traveled to the oracle of Amun
Amun
at the Oasis of Siwa . The oracle declared him to be the son of Amun
Amun
. He conciliated the Egyptians
Egyptians
by the respect he showed for their religion , but he appointed Macedonians to virtually all the senior posts in the country, and founded a new Greek city, Alexandria
Alexandria
, to be the new capital. The wealth of Egypt
Egypt
could now be harnessed for Alexander's conquest of the rest of the Persian Empire
Empire
. Early in 331 BC he was ready to depart, and led his forces away to Phoenicia
Phoenicia
. He left Cleomenes as the ruling nomarch to control Egypt in his absence. Alexander never returned to Egypt.

ESTABLISHMENT

Following Alexander's death in Babylon
Babylon
in 323 BC, a succession crisis erupted among his generals. Initially, Perdiccas ruled the empire as regent for Alexander's half-brother Arrhidaeus, who became Philip III of Macedon
Macedon
, and then as regent for both Philip III and Alexander's infant son Alexander IV of Macedon
Macedon
, who had not been born at the time of his father's death. Perdiccas appointed Ptolemy , one of Alexander's closest companions, to be satrap of Egypt. Ptolemy ruled Egypt
Egypt
from 323 BC, nominally in the name of the joint kings Philip III and Alexander IV. However, as Alexander the Great's empire disintegrated, Ptolemy soon established himself as ruler in his own right. Ptolemy successfully defended Egypt
Egypt
against an invasion by Perdiccas in 321 BC, and consolidated his position in Egypt
Egypt
and the surrounding areas during the Wars of the Diadochi
Diadochi
(322–301 BC). In 305 BC, Ptolemy took the title of King. As Ptolemy I
Ptolemy I
Soter ("Saviour"), he founded the Ptolemaic dynasty
Ptolemaic dynasty
that was to rule Egypt for nearly 300 years.

All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name "Ptolemy", while princesses and queens preferred the names Cleopatra
Cleopatra
, Arsinoe and Berenice. Because the Ptolemaic kings adopted the Egyptian custom of marrying their sisters, many of the kings ruled jointly with their spouses, who were also of the royal house. This custom made Ptolemaic politics confusingly incestuous, and the later Ptolemies were increasingly feeble. The only Ptolemaic Queens to officially rule on their own were Berenice III and Berenice IV . Cleopatra
Cleopatra
V did co-rule, but it was with another female, Berenice IV. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII officially co-ruled with Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator , Ptolemy XIV , and Ptolemy XV , but effectively, she ruled Egypt
Egypt
alone.

The early Ptolemies did not disturb the religion or the customs of the Egyptians
Egyptians
, and indeed built magnificent new temples for the Egyptian gods and soon adopted the outward display of the Pharaohs of old. During the reign of Ptolemies II and III thousands of Macedonian veterans were rewarded with grants of farm lands, and Macedonians were planted in colonies and garrisons or settled themselves in the villages throughout the country. Upper Egypt
Egypt
, farthest from the centre of government, was less immediately affected, even though Ptolemy I
Ptolemy I
established the Greek colony of Ptolemais Hermiou to be its capital. But within a century Greek influence had spread through the country and intermarriage had produced a large Greco-Egyptian educated class. Nevertheless, the Greeks
Greeks
always remained a privileged minority in Ptolemaic Egypt. They lived under Greek law, received a Greek education, were tried in Greek courts, and were citizens of Greek cities.

PTOLEMY I

The first part of Ptolemy I
Ptolemy I
's reign was dominated by the Wars of the Diadochi
Diadochi
between the various successor states to the empire of Alexander. His first object was to hold his position in Egypt securely, and secondly to increase his domain. Within a few years he had gained control of Libya
Libya
, Coele- Syria
Syria
(including Judea ), and Cyprus
Cyprus
. When Antigonus , ruler of Syria
Syria
, tried to reunite Alexander's empire, Ptolemy joined the coalition against him. In 312 BC, allied with Seleucus , the ruler of Babylonia
Babylonia
, he defeated Demetrius , the son of Antigonus, in the battle of Gaza .

In 311 BC, a peace was concluded between the combatants, but in 309 BC war broke out again, and Ptolemy occupied Corinth
Corinth
and other parts of Greece, although he lost Cyprus
Cyprus
after a sea-battle in 306 BC. Antigonus then tried to invade Egypt
Egypt
but Ptolemy held the frontier against him. When the coalition was renewed against Antigonus in 302 BC, Ptolemy joined it, but neither he nor his army were present when Antigonus was defeated and killed at Ipsus . He had instead taken the opportunity to secure Coele- Syria
Syria
and Palestine, in breach of the agreement assigning it to Seleucus, thereby setting the scene for the future Syrian Wars . Thereafter Ptolemy tried to stay out of land wars, but he retook Cyprus
Cyprus
in 295 BC.

Feeling the kingdom was now secure, Ptolemy shared rule with his son Ptolemy II by Queen Berenice in 285 BC. He then may have devoted his retirement to writing a history of the campaigns of Alexander—which unfortunately was lost but was a principal source for the later work of Arrian . Ptolemy I
Ptolemy I
died in 283 BC at the age of 84. He left a stable and well-governed kingdom to his son.

PTOLEMY II

Ptolemy II Philadelphus
Ptolemy II Philadelphus
, who succeeded his father as King of Egypt in 283 BC, was a peaceful and cultured king, and no great warrior. He did not need to be, because his father had left Egypt
Egypt
strong and prosperous. Three years of campaigning at the start of his reign (called the First Syrian War ) left Ptolemy the master of the eastern Mediterranean, controlling the Aegean islands (the Nesiotic League ) and the coastal districts of Cilicia , Pamphylia
Pamphylia
, Lycia
Lycia
and Caria . However, some of these territories were lost near the end of his reign as a result of the Second Syrian War . In the 270s BC, Ptolemy II defeated the Kingdom of Kush in war, gaining the Ptolemies free access to Kushite territory and control of important gold-mining areas south of Egypt
Egypt
known as Dodekasoinos. As a result, the Ptolemies established hunting stations and ports as far south as Port Sudan
Sudan
, from where raiding parties containing hundreds of men searched for war elephants. Hellenistic
Hellenistic
culture would acquire an important influence on Kush at this time.

Ptolemy's first wife, Arsinoe I , daughter of Lysimachus , was the mother of his legitimate children. After her repudiation he followed Egyptian custom and married his sister, Arsinoe II
Arsinoe II
, beginning a practice that, while pleasing to the Egyptian population, had serious consequences in later reigns. The material and literary splendour of the Alexandrian court was at its height under Ptolemy II. Callimachus , keeper of the Library
Library
of Alexandria
Alexandria
, Theocritus
Theocritus
and a host of other poets, glorified the Ptolemaic family. Ptolemy himself was eager to increase the library and to patronise scientific research. He spent lavishly on making Alexandria
Alexandria
the economic, artistic and intellectual capital of the Hellenistic
Hellenistic
world. It is to the academies and libraries of Alexandria
Alexandria
that we owe the preservation of so much Greek literary heritage.

PTOLEMY III

Coin depicting King Ptolemy III . Ptolemaic Egypt.

Ptolemy III Euergetes ("the benefactor") succeeded his father in 246 BC. He abandoned his predecessors' policy of keeping out of the wars of the other Macedonian successor kingdoms, and plunged into the Third Syrian War with the Seleucids of Syria
Syria
, when his sister, Queen Berenice , and her son were murdered in a dynastic dispute. Ptolemy marched triumphantly into the heart of the Seleucid realm, as far as Babylonia
Babylonia
, while his fleets in the Aegean made fresh conquests as far north as Thrace
Thrace
.

This victory marked the zenith of the Ptolemaic power. Seleucus II Callinicus kept his throne, but Egyptian fleets controlled most of the coasts of Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and Greece. After this triumph Ptolemy no longer engaged actively in war, although he supported the enemies of Macedon in Greek politics. His domestic policy differed from his father's in that he patronised the native Egyptian religion more liberally: he left larger traces among the Egyptian monuments. In this his reign marks the gradual "Egyptianisation" of the Ptolemies.

DECLINE OF THE PTOLEMIES

Ptolemaic Empire
Empire
in 200 BC. Also showing neighboring powers. Ring of Ptolemy VI Philometor as Egyptian pharaoh . Louvre Museum .

In 221 BC, Ptolemy III died and was succeeded by his son Ptolemy IV Philopator , a weak and corrupt king under whom the decline of the Ptolemaic kingdom began. His reign was inaugurated by the murder of his mother, and he was always under the influence of royal favourites , male and female, who controlled the government. Nevertheless, his ministers were able to make serious preparations to meet the attacks of Antiochus III the Great on Coele-Syria, and the great Egyptian victory of Raphia in 217 BC secured the kingdom. A sign of the domestic weakness of his reign was the rebellions by native Egyptians that took away over half the country for over 20 years. Philopator was devoted to orgiastic religions and to literature. He married his sister Arsinoë , but was ruled by his mistress Agathoclea.

Ptolemy V Epiphanes
Ptolemy V Epiphanes
, son of Philopator and Arsinoë, was a child when he came to the throne, and a series of regents ran the kingdom. Antiochus III
Antiochus III
of The Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
and Philip V of Macedon
Macedon
made a compact to seize the Ptolemaic possessions. Philip seized several islands and places in Caria and Thrace
Thrace
, while the battle of Panium in 200 BC transferred Coele- Syria
Syria
from Ptolemaic to Seleucid control. After this defeat Egypt
Egypt
formed an alliance with the rising power in the Mediterranean, Rome. Once he reached adulthood Epiphanes became a tyrant, before his early death in 180 BC. He was succeeded by his infant son Ptolemy VI Philometor .

In 170 BC, Antiochus IV Epiphanes invaded Egypt
Egypt
and deposed Philometor. In some versions of the Bible
Bible
, the book of I Macabees 1:16-19, translates the passage as:

Now when the kingdom was established before Antiochus, he thought to reign over Egypt
Egypt
that he might have the dominion of two realms. Wherefore he entered into Egypt
Egypt
with a great multitude, with chariots, and elephants, and horsemen, and a great navy, and made war against Ptolemy king of Egypt: but Ptolemy was afraid of him, and fled; and many were wounded to death. Thus they got the strong cities in the land of Egypt
Egypt
and he took the spoils thereof.

Philometor's younger brother (later Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II ) was installed as a puppet king. When Antiochus withdrew, the brothers agreed to reign jointly with their sister Cleopatra
Cleopatra
II . They soon fell out, however, and quarrels between the two brothers allowed Rome to interfere and to steadily increase its influence in Egypt. Eventually Philometor regained the throne. In 145 BC he was killed in the Battle of Antioch .

LATER PTOLEMIES

Philometor was succeeded by yet another infant, his son Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator . But Euergetes soon returned, killed his young nephew, seized the throne and as Ptolemy VIII soon proved himself a cruel tyrant. On his death in 116 BC he left the kingdom to his wife Cleopatra
Cleopatra
III and her son Ptolemy IX Philometor Soter II . The young king was driven out by his mother in 107 BC, who reigned jointly with Euergetes's youngest son Ptolemy X Alexander I . In 88 BC Ptolemy IX again returned to the throne, and retained it until his death in 80 BC. He was succeeded by Ptolemy XI Alexander II , the son of Ptolemy X. He was lynched by the Alexandrian mob after murdering his stepmother, who was also his cousin, aunt and wife. These sordid dynastic quarrels left Egypt
Egypt
so weakened that the country became a de facto protectorate of Rome, which had by now absorbed most of the Greek world.

Ptolemy XI was succeeded by a son of Ptolemy IX, Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos
Dionysos
, nicknamed Auletes, the flute-player. By now Rome was the arbiter of Egyptian affairs, and annexed both Libya
Libya
and Cyprus
Cyprus
. In 58 BC Auletes was driven out by the Alexandrian mob, but the Romans restored him to power three years later. He died in 51 BC, leaving the kingdom to his ten-year-old son, Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator , who reigned jointly with his 17-year-old sister and wife, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII .

CLEOPATRA

Coin of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII, with her effigy

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII ascended the Egyptian throne at the age of eighteen upon the death of her father, Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos. She reigned as queen "philopator" and pharaoh with various male co-regents from 51 to 30 BC when she died at the age of 39.

The demise of the Ptolemies' power coincided with the rise of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. Having little choice, and witnessing one city after another falling to Macedon
Macedon
and the Seleucid empire, the Ptolemies chose to ally with the Romans, a pact that lasted over 150 years. During the rule of the later Ptolemies, Rome gained more and more power over Egypt, and was eventually declared guardian of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Cleopatra's father, Ptolemy XII, paid vast sums of Egyptian wealth and resources in tribute to the Romans in order to secure his throne. After his death, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and her younger brother inherited the throne, but their relationship soon degenerated. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was stripped of authority and title by Ptolemy XIII's advisors. Fleeing into exile, she would attempt to raise an army to reclaim the throne. Ptolemy XII , father of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII as Pharaoh
Pharaoh
. Found at the Temple of Crocodile, Fayoum
Fayoum

Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
left Rome for Alexandria
Alexandria
in 48 BC in order to quell the looming civil war, as war in Egypt, which was one of Rome's greatest suppliers of grain and other expensive goods, would have had a detrimental effect on trade. During his stay in the Alexandrian palace, he received 22-year-old Cleopatra, allegedly carried to him in secret wrapped in a carpet. She counted on Caesar's support to alienate Ptolemy XIII. With the arrival of Roman reinforcements, and after the battles in Alexandria
Alexandria
, Ptolemy XIII was defeated at the Battle of the Nile
Nile
. He later drowned in the river, although the circumstances of his death are unclear. Relief of Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII and Caesarion, Dendera Temple, Egypt.

In the summer of 47 BC, having married her younger brother Ptolemy XIV , Cleopatra
Cleopatra
embarked with Caesar for a two-month trip along the Nile. Together, they visited Dendara , where Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was being worshiped as pharaoh, an honor beyond Caesar's reach. They became lovers, and she bore him a son, Caesarion
Caesarion
. In 45 BC, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and Caesarion
Caesarion
left Alexandria
Alexandria
for Rome, where they stayed in a palace built by Caesar in their honor.

In 44 BC, Caesar was murdered in Rome by several Senators . With his death, Rome split between supporters of Mark Antony and Octavian . When Mark Antony seemed to prevail, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
supported him and, shortly after, they too became lovers and eventually married in Egypt (though their marriage was never recognized by Roman law, as Antony was married to a Roman woman). Their union produced three children; the twins Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Selene and Alexander Helios , and another son, Ptolemy Philadelphos .

Mark Antony's alliance with Cleopatra
Cleopatra
angered Rome even more. Branded a power-hungry enchantress by the Romans, she was accused of seducing Antony to further her conquest of Rome. Further outrage followed at the donations of Alexandria
Alexandria
ceremony in autumn of 34 BC in which Tarsus , Cyrene , Crete
Crete
, Cyprus
Cyprus
, and Israel
Israel
were all to be given as client monarchies to Antony's children by Cleopatra. In his will Antony expressed his desire to be buried in Alexandria, rather than taken to Rome in the event of his death, which Octavian used against Antony, sowing further dissent in the Roman populace.

Octavian was quick to declare war on Antony and Cleopatra
Cleopatra
while public opinion of Antony was low. Their naval forces at Actium , where the forces of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa defeated the navy of Cleopatra and Antony. Octavian waited for a year before he claimed Egypt
Egypt
as a Roman province. He arrived in Alexandria
Alexandria
and easily defeated Mark Antony's remaining forces outside the city. Facing certain death at the hands of Octavian , Antony attempted suicide by falling on his own sword. He survived briefly, however, and was taken to Cleopatra, who had barricaded herself in her mausoleum, where he died soon after.

Knowing that she would be taken to Rome to be paraded in Octavian's triumph (and likely executed thereafter), Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and her handmaidens committed suicide on 12 August, 30 BC. Legend and numerous ancient sources claim that she died by way of the venomous bite of an asp , though others state that she used poison, or that Octavian ordered her death himself.

Caesarion, her son by Julius Caesar, nominally succeeded Cleopatra until his capture and supposed execution in the weeks after his mother's death. Cleopatra's children by Antony were spared by Octavian and given to his sister (and Antony's Roman wife) Octavia Minor , to be raised in her household. Their daughter Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Selene was eventually married through arrangement by Octavian into the Mauretanian royal line. Through her offspring the Ptolemaic line intermarried back into the Roman nobility.

With the deaths of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and Caesarion, the dynasty of Ptolemies and the entirety of pharaonic Egypt
Egypt
came to an end. Alexandria remained capital of the country, but Egypt
Egypt
itself became a Roman province.

ROMAN RULE

Bust of Roman Nobleman, ca. 30 BC– 50 AD, 54.51, Brooklyn Museum Main article: Aegyptus (Roman province)

In 30 BC, following the death of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII , the Roman Empire declared that Egypt
Egypt
was a province (Aegyptus ), and that it was to be governed by a prefect selected by the Emperor from the Equestrian class and not a governor from the Senatorial order, to prevent interference by the Roman Senate . The main Roman interest in Egypt was always the reliable delivery of grain to the city of Rome. To this end the Roman administration made no change to the Ptolemaic system of government, although Romans replaced Greeks
Greeks
in the highest offices. But Greeks
Greeks
continued to staff most of the administrative offices and Greek remained the language of government except at the highest levels. Unlike the Greeks, the Romans did not settle in Egypt
Egypt
in large numbers. Culture, education and civic life largely remained Greek throughout the Roman period. The Romans, like the Ptolemies, respected and protected Egyptian religion and customs, although the cult of the Roman state and of the Emperor was gradually introduced.

Around 25 BC, the Greek geographer , philosopher and historian, Strabo
Strabo
sailed up the Nile
Nile
until reaching Philae, after which point there is little record of his proceedings until AD 17.

CULTURE

Ptolemy I, perhaps with advice from Demetrius of Phalerum , founded the Museum and Library
Library
of Alexandria
Alexandria
. The Museum was a research centre supported by the king. It was located in the royal sector of the city. The scholars were housed in the same sector and funded by the Ptolemaic rulers. The chief librarian served also as the crown prince's tutor. For the first hundred and fifty years of its existence this library and research centre drew the top Greek scholars. It was a key academic, literary and scientific centre.

Greek culture
Greek culture
had a long but minor presence in Egypt
Egypt
long before Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
founded the city of Alexandria. It began when Greek colonists, encouraged by the many Pharaohs, set up the trading post of Naucratis
Naucratis
, which became an important link between the Greek world and Egypt's grain. As Egypt
Egypt
came under foreign domination and decline, the Pharaohs depended on the Greeks
Greeks
as mercenaries and even advisors. When the Persians took over Egypt, Naucratis
Naucratis
remained an important Greek port and the colonist population were used as mercenaries by both the rebel Egyptian princes and the Persian kings, who later gave them land grants, spreading the Greek culture
Greek culture
into the valley of the Nile. When Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
arrived, he established Alexandria
Alexandria
on the site of the Persian fort of Rhakortis. Following Alexander's death, control passed into the hands of the Lagid (Ptolemaic) dynasty; they built Greek cities across their empire and gave land grants across Egypt
Egypt
to the veterans of their many military conflicts. Hellenistic civilization
Hellenistic civilization
continued to thrive even after Rome annexed Egypt
Egypt
after the battle of Actium and did not decline until the Islamic conquests . Ptolemaic Queen ( Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII?), 50-30 BC, 71.12, Brooklyn Museum
Brooklyn Museum

ART

Further information: Hellenistic art A detail of the Nile mosaic of Palestrina , showing Ptolemaic Egypt
Egypt
circa 100 BC Ptolemaic gold stater coin depicting war elephants Quadrigia Cyrenaica

Hellenistic art is richly diverse in subject matter and in stylistic development. It was created during an age characterized by a strong sense of history. For the first time, there were museums and great libraries, such as those at Alexandria
Alexandria
and Pergamon. Hellenistic artists copied and adapted earlier styles, and also made great innovations. Representations of Greek gods took on new forms. The popular image of a nude Aphrodite, for example, reflects the increased secularization of traditional religion. Also prominent in Hellenistic art are representations of Dionysos
Dionysos
, the god of wine and legendary conqueror of the East, as well as those of Hermes, the god of commerce. In strikingly tender depictions, Eros , the Greek personification of love, is portrayed as a young child. Head of an Egyptian Official, ca. 50 BC. Diorite, 16 5/16 x 11 1/4 x 13 7/8 in. (41.4 x 28.5 x 35.2 cm). Brooklyn Museum
Brooklyn Museum

Most of the Ptolemaic magical stele were connected with matters of health. They were commonly of limestone; the Greeks
Greeks
tended to use marble or bronze for private sculpture. The most striking change in depiction of figures is the range from idealizing to nearly grotesque realism in portrayal of men. Previously Egyptian depictions tended toward the idealistic but stiff, not with an attempt at likeness. Likeness was still not the goal of art under the Ptolemies. The influence of Greek sculpture under the Ptolemies was shown in its emphasis on the face more than in the past. Smiles suddenly appear. Toward the end of the Ptolemaic period, the headdress sometimes gives way to tousled hair.

One significant change in Ptolemaic art is the sudden re-appearance of women, who had been absent since about the Twenty-sixth Dynasty. Some of this must have been due to the importance of women, such as the series of Cleopatras, who acted as co-regents or sometimes occupied the throne by themselves. Although women were present in artwork, they were shown less realistically than men in this era. Even with the Greek influence on art, the notion of the individual portrait still had not supplanted Egyptian artistic norms during the Ptolemaic Dynasty.

Ways of presenting text on columns and reliefs became formal and rigid during the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Bronze allegorical group of a Ptolemy (identifiable by his diadem ) overcoming an adversary, in Hellenistic
Hellenistic
style , ca early 2nd century BC ( Walters Art Museum
Walters Art Museum
)

RELIGION

When Ptolemy I Soter
Ptolemy I Soter
made himself king of Egypt, he created a new god, Serapis
Serapis
, which was a combination of two Egyptian gods: Apis and Osiris, plus the main Greek gods: Zeus, Hades, Asklepios, Dionysos, and Helios. Serapis
Serapis
had powers over fertility, the sun, corn, funerary rites, and medicine. Many people started to worship this god. In the time of the Ptolemies, the cult of Serapis
Serapis
included the worship of the new Ptolemaic line of pharaohs. Alexandria
Alexandria
supplanted Memphis as the preeminent religious city. Ptolemy I
Ptolemy I
also promoted the cult of the deified Alexander , who became the state god of the Ptolemaic kingdom; the Ptolemies eventually associated themselves with the cult as gods.

The wife of Ptolemy II , Arsinoe II
Arsinoe II
, was often depicted in the form of the Greek goddess Aphrodite , but she wore the crown of lower Egypt, with ram's horns, ostrich feathers, and other traditional Egyptian indicators of royalty and/or deification. She wore the vulture headdress only on the religious portion of a relief. Cleopatra VII , the last of the Ptolemaic line, was often depicted with characteristics of the goddess Isis
Isis
. She often had either a small throne as her headdress or the more traditional sun disk between two horns.

The traditional table for offerings disappeared from reliefs during the Ptolemaic period. Male gods were no longer portrayed with tails in attempt to make them more humanlike.

The wealthy and connected of Egyptian society seemed to put more stock in magical stela during the Ptolemaic period. These were religious objects produced for private individuals, something uncommon in earlier Egyptian times.

SOCIAL SITUATION

The Greeks
Greeks
now formed the new upper classes in Egypt
Egypt
, replacing the old native aristocracy. In general, the Ptolemies undertook changes that went far beyond any other measures that earlier foreign rulers had imposed. They used the religion and traditions to increase their own power and wealth. Although they established a prosperous kingdom, enhanced with fine buildings, the native population enjoyed few benefits, and there were frequent uprisings. These expressions of nationalism reached a peak in the reign of Ptolemy IV Philopator (221–205 BC) when others gained control over one district and ruled as a line of native "pharaohs." This was only curtailed nineteen years later when Ptolemy V Epiphanes
Ptolemy V Epiphanes
(205–181 BC) succeeded in subduing them, but the underlying grievances continued and there were riots again later in the dynasty.

Family conflicts affected the later years of the dynasty when Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II fought his brother Ptolemy VI Philometor and briefly seized the throne. The struggle was continued by his sister and niece (who both became his wives) until they finally issued an Amnesty Decree in 118 BC. Example of a large Ptolemaic bronze coin minted during the reign of Ptolemy V.

COINAGE

Ptolemaic Egypt
Egypt
was noted for its extensive series of coinage in gold, silver and bronze. It was especially noted for its issues of large coins in all three metals, most notably gold pentadrachm and octadrachm, and silver tetradrachm , decadrachm and pentakaidecadrachm. This was especially noteworthy as it would not be until the introduction of the Guldengroschen in 1486 that coins of substantial size (particularly in silver) would be minted in significant quantities.

MILITARY

Hellenistic
Hellenistic
soldiers in tunic , 100 BC, detail of the Nile mosaic of Palestrina . Main article: Ptolemaic Army

Ptolemaic Egypt, along with the other Hellenistic
Hellenistic
states outside of the Greek mainland after Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
, had its armies based on the Macedonian phalanx and featured Macedonian and native troops fighting side by side.

The Ptolemaic military was filled with diverse peoples from across their territories. At first most of the military was made up of a pool of Greek settlers who, in exchange for military service, were given land grants. These made up the majority of the army.

With the many wars the Ptolemies were involved in, their pool of Macedonian troops dwindled and there was little Greek immigration from the mainland so they were kept in the royal bodyguard and as generals and officers. Native troops were looked down upon and distrusted due to their disloyalty and frequent tendency to aid local revolts. However, with the decline of royal power, they gained influence and became common in the military.

The Ptolemies used the great wealth of Egypt
Egypt
to their advantage by hiring vast amounts of mercenaries from across the known world. Black Ethiopians are also known to have served in the military along with the Galatians, Mysians and others.

With their vast amount of territory spread along the Eastern Mediterranean such as Cyprus
Cyprus
, Crete
Crete
, the islands of the Aegean and even Thrace
Thrace
, the Ptolemies required a large navy to defend these far-flung strongholds from enemies like the Seleucids and Macedonians .

CITIES

Egyptian faience torso of a king, for an applique on wood

While ruling Egypt
Egypt
, the Ptolemaic Dynasty built many Greek settlements throughout their Empire, to either Hellenize new conquered peoples or reinforce the area. Egypt
Egypt
had only three main Greek cities— Alexandria
Alexandria
, Naucratis
Naucratis
, and Ptolemais .

NAUCRATIS

Of the three Greek cities, Naucratis
Naucratis
, although its commercial importance was reduced with the founding of Alexandria, continued in a quiet way its life as a Greek city-state. During the interval between the death of Alexander and Ptolemy's assumption of the style of king, it even issued an autonomous coinage. And the number of Greek men of letters during the Ptolemaic and Roman period, who were citizens of Naucratis, proves that in the sphere of Hellenic culture Naucratis held to its traditions. Ptolemy II bestowed his care upon Naucratis. He built a large structure of limestone, about 330 feet (100 m) long and 60 feet (18 m) wide, to fill up the broken entrance to the great Temenos ; he strengthened the great block of chambers in the Temenos, and re-established them. At the time when Sir Flinders Petrie
Flinders Petrie
wrote the words just quoted the great Temenos was identified with the Hellenion. But Mr. Edgar has recently pointed out that the building connected with it was an Egyptian temple, not a Greek building. Naucratis, therefore, in spite of its general Hellenic character, had an Egyptian element. That the city flourished in Ptolemaic times "we may see by the quantity of imported amphorae, of which the handles stamped at Rhodes and elsewhere are found so abundantly." The Zeno papyri show that it was the chief port of call on the inland voyage from Memphis to Alexandria, as well as a stopping-place on the land-route from Pelusium to the capital. It was attached, in the administrative system, to the Saïte nome.

ALEXANDRIA

Main article: Alexandria
Alexandria
Alexander the Great, 356 BC – 323 BC Brooklyn Museum
Brooklyn Museum

A major Mediterranean port of Egypt, in ancient times and still today, Alexandria
Alexandria
was founded in 331 BC by Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
. According to Plutarch, the Alexandrians believed that Alexander the Great's motivation to build the city was his wish to "found a large and populous Greek city that should bear his name." Located 20 miles (32 km) west of the Nile's westernmost mouth, the city was immune to the silt deposits that persistently choked harbors along the river. Alexandria
Alexandria
became the capital of the Hellenized Egypt
Egypt
of King Ptolemy I (reigned 323—283 BC). Under the wealthy Ptolemaic dynasty, the city soon surpassed Athens as the cultural center of the Hellenic world .

Laid out on a grid pattern, Alexandria
Alexandria
occupied a stretch of land between the sea to the north and Lake Mareotis to the south; a man-made causeway, over three-quarters of a mile long, extended north to the sheltering island of Pharos , thus forming a double harbor, east and west. On the east was the main harbor, called the Great Harbor; it faced the city's chief buildings, including the royal palace and the famous Library
Library
and Museum. At the Great Harbor's mouth, on an outcropping of Pharos, stood the lighthouse , built c. 280 BC. Now vanished, the lighthouse was reckoned as one of the Seven Wonders of the World for its unsurpassed height (perhaps 460 feet); it was a square, fenestrated tower, topped with a metal fire basket and a statue of Zeus the Savior.

The Library
Library
, at that time the largest in the world, contained several hundred thousand volumes and housed and employed scholars and poets. A similar scholarly complex was the Museum (Mouseion, "hall of the Muses"). During Alexandria's brief literary golden period, c. 280–240 BC, the Library
Library
subsidized three poets— Callimachus
Callimachus
, Apollonius of Rhodes , and Theocritus
Theocritus
—whose work now represents the best of Hellenistic
Hellenistic
literature. Among other thinkers associated with the Library
Library
or other Alexandrian patronage were the mathematician Euclid
Euclid
(ca. 300 BC), the inventor Archimedes
Archimedes
(287 BC – c. 212 BC), and the polymath Eratosthenes
Eratosthenes
(ca. 225 BC).

Cosmopolitan and flourishing, Alexandria
Alexandria
possessed a varied population of Greeks, Egyptians
Egyptians
and other Oriental peoples, including a sizable minority of Jews, who had their own city quarter. Periodic conflicts occurred between Jews
Jews
and ethnic Greeks
Greeks
. According to Strabo, Alexandria
Alexandria
had been inhabited during Polybius' lifetime by local Egyptians, foreign mercenaries and the tribe of the Alexandrians, whose origin and customs Polybius identified as Greek.

The city enjoyed a calm political history under the Ptolemies. It passed, with the rest of Egypt, into Roman hands in 30 BC, and became the second city of the Roman Empire.

PTOLEMAIS

Main article: Ptolemais Hermiou

The second Greek city founded after the conquest of Egypt
Egypt
was Ptolemais , 400 miles (640 km) up the Nile
Nile
, where there was a native village called Psoï, in the nome called after the ancient Egyptian city of Thinis . If Alexandria
Alexandria
perpetuated the name and cult of the great Alexander, Ptolemais was to perpetuate the name and cult of the founder of the Ptolemaic time. Framed in by the barren hills of the Nile
Nile
Valley and the Egyptian sky, here a Greek city arose, with its public buildings and temples and theatre, no doubt exhibiting the regular architectural forms associated with Greek culture
Greek culture
, with a citizen-body Greek in blood, and the institutions of a Greek city. If there is some doubt whether Alexandria
Alexandria
possessed a council and assembly, there is none in regard to Ptolemais. It was more possible for the kings to allow a measure of self-government to a people removed at that distance from the ordinary residence of the court. We have still, inscribed on stone, decrees passed in the assembly of the people of Ptolemais, couched in the regular forms of Greek political tradition: It seemed good to the boule and to the demos: Hermas son of Doreon, of the deme Megisteus, was the proposer: Whereas the prytaneis who were colleagues with Dionysius the son of Musaeus in the 8th year, etc.

DEMOGRAPHICS

A stele of Dioskourides, dated 2nd century BC, showing a Ptolemaic thureophoros soldier. It is a characteristic example of the "Romanization" of the Ptolemaic army .

The Ptolemaic kingdom was diverse in the people who settled and made Egypt
Egypt
their home at this time. During this period, Macedonian troops under Ptolemy I Soter
Ptolemy I Soter
were given land grants and brought their families encouraging tens of thousands of Greeks
Greeks
to settle the country making themselves the new ruling class. Native Egyptians
Egyptians
continued having a role, albeit a small one, in the Ptolemaic government--mostly in lower posts--and outnumbered the foreigners. During the reign of the Ptolemaic Pharaohs, many Jews
Jews
were imported from neighboring Judea by the thousands for being renowned fighters and established an important presence there. Other foreign groups settled during this time and even Galatian mercenaries were invited. Of the aliens who had come to settle in Egypt, the ruling group, Greeks, were the most important element. They were partly spread as allotment-holders over the country, forming social groups, in the country towns and villages, side by side with the native population, partly gathered in the three Greek cities — the old Naucratis
Naucratis
, founded before 600 BC (in the interval of Egyptian independence after the expulsion of the Assyrians and before the coming of the Persians), and the two new cities, Alexandria
Alexandria
by the sea, and Ptolemais in Upper Egypt. Alexander and his Seleucid successors founded many Greek cities all over their dominions.

Greek culture
Greek culture
was so much bound up with the life of the city-state that any king who wanted to present himself to the world as a genuine champion of Hellenism had to do something in this direction, but the king of Egypt, whilst as ambitious as any to shine as a Hellene, would find Greek cities, with their republican tradition and aspirations to independence, inconvenient elements in a country that lent itself, as no other did, to bureaucratic centralization. The Ptolemies therefore limited the number of Greek city-states in Egypt
Egypt
to Alexandria, Ptolemais, and Naucratis.

Outside of Egypt, they had Greek cities under their dominion—including the old Greek cities in the Cyrenaica, in Cyprus, on the coasts and islands of the Aegean— but they were smaller than the three big ones in Egypt. There were indeed country towns with names such as Ptolemais, Arsinoe, and Berenice, in which Greek communities existed with a certain social life; there were similar groups of Greeks
Greeks
in many of the old Egyptian towns, but they were not communities with the political forms of a city-state. Yet if they had no place of political assembly, they would have their gymnasium, the essential sign of Hellenism, serving something of the purpose of a university for the young men. Far up the Nile
Nile
at Ombi a gymnasium of the local Greeks
Greeks
was found in 136–135 BC, which passed resolutions and corresponded with the king. Also, in 123 BC, when there was trouble in Upper Egypt
Egypt
between the towns of Crocodilopolis and Hermonthis, the negotiators sent from Crocodilopolis were the young men attached to the gymnasium, who, according to the Greek tradition, ate bread and salt with the negotiators from the other town. All Greek dialects of the Greek world gradually became assimilated in the Koine Greek dialect that was the common language of the Hellenistic
Hellenistic
world. Generally the Greeks
Greeks
of Ptolemaic Egypt
Egypt
felt like representatives of a higher civilization yet were curious about the native culture of Egypt. Ptolemaic Era bust of a man, circa 300-250 B.C, Altes Museum

ARABS UNDER THE PTOLEMIES

Arab nomads of the eastern desert penetrated in small bodies into the cultivated land of the Nile, as they do today. The Greeks
Greeks
called all the land on the eastern side of the Nile
Nile
"Arabia", and villages were to be found here and there with a population of Arabs who had exchanged the life of tent-dwellers for that of settled agriculturists. Apollonius tells of one such village, Poïs, in the Memphite nome, two of whose inhabitants send a letter on September 20, 152 BC. The letter is in Greek; it had to be written for the two Arabs by the young Macedonian Apollonius, the Arabs apparently being unable to write. Apollonius writes their names as Myrullas and Chalbas, the first probably, and the second certainly, Semitic. A century earlier Arabs farther west, in the Fayûm, organized under a leader of their own, and working mainly as herdsmen on the dorea of Apollonius the dioiketes ; but these Arabs bear Greek and Egyptian names.

In 1990, more than 2,000 papyri written by Zeno of Caunus from the time of Ptolemy II Philadelphus
Ptolemy II Philadelphus
were discovered, which contained at least 19 references to Arabs in the area between the Nile
Nile
and the Red Sea , and mentioned their jobs as police officers in charge of "ten person units", while some others were mentioned as shepherds.

Arabs in the Ptolemaic kingdom had provided camel convoys to the armies of some Ptolemaic leaders during their invasions, but they didn't have allegiance towards any of the kingdoms of Egypt
Egypt
or Syria, and also managed to raid and attack both sides of the conflict between the Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
and its enemies.

JEWS UNDER THE PTOLEMIES

The Jews
Jews
who lived in Egypt
Egypt
had originally immigrated from Israel. The Jews
Jews
absorbed Greek, the dominant language of Egypt
Egypt
at the time, while heavily mixing it with Hebrew It was during this period that the Septuagint , the Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures, appeared. The Septuagint was written by Seventy Jewish Translators under royal compulsion during Ptolemy II's reign. This is confirmed by historian Flavius Josephus , who writes that Ptolemy, desirous to collect every book in the habitable earth, applied Demetrius Phalereus to the task of organizing an effort with the Jewish high priests to translate the Jewish books of the Law for his library. This testimony of Josephus places the origins of the Septuagint in the 3rd century BC, as that is the time when Demetrius and Ptolemy II lived. According to Jewish Legend, the seventy translators wrote their translations independently from memory, and the resultant works were identical at every letter.

AGRICULTURE

The early Ptolemies increased cultivatable land through irrigation and introduced crops such as cotton and better wine-producing grapes. They also increased the availability of luxury goods through foreign trade. They enriched themselves and absorbed Egyptian culture. Ptolemy and his descendants adopted Egyptian royal trappings and added Egypt's religion to their own, worshiping Egyptian gods and building temples to them, and even being mummified and buried in sarcophagi covered with hieroglyphs.

LIST OF PTOLEMAIC RULERS

Main article: List of Ptolemaic rulers

SEE ALSO

* Ancient Greece
Greece
portal

* Antipatrid dynasty * Antigonid dynasty * Cup of the Ptolemies * Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
* Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
* History of Egypt
Egypt
* Kingdom of Pontus
Kingdom of Pontus
* Indo- Greeks
Greeks
* Library
Library
of Alexandria
Alexandria
* Lighthouse
Lighthouse
of Alexandria
Alexandria
* Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire

REFERENCES

* ^ Buraselis, Stefanou and Thompson ed; The Ptolemies, the Sea and the Nile: Studies in Waterborne Power. * ^ North Africa in the Hellenistic
Hellenistic
and Roman Periods, 323 BC to AD 305, R.C.C. Law, THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF AFRICA, Vol. 2 ed. J. D. Fage, Roland Anthony Oliver, (Cambridge University Press, 1979), 154. * ^ Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
, Bibliotheca historica, 18.21.9 * ^ Lewis, Naphtali (1986). Greeks
Greeks
in Ptolemaic Egypt: Case Studies in the Social History of the Hellenistic
Hellenistic
World. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 5. ISBN 0-19-814867-4 . * ^ Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art. "The Achaemenid Persian Empire
Empire
(550–330 B.C.)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/acha/hd_acha.htm (October 2004) Source: The Achaemenid Persian Empire
Empire
(550–330 B.C.) Thematic Essay Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History The Metropolitan Museum of Art * ^ Hemingway, Colette, and Seán Hemingway. "The Rise of Macedonia and the Conquests of Alexander the Great". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/alex/hd_alex.htm (October 2004) Source: The Rise of Macedonia and the Conquests of Alexander the Great Thematic Essay Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History The Metropolitan Museum of Art * ^ Grabbe, L. L. (2008). A History of the Jews
Jews
and Judaism in the Second Temple Period. Volume 2 – The Coming of the Greeks: The Early Hellenistic
Hellenistic
Period (335 – 175 BC). T&T Clark. ISBN 978-0-567-03396-3 . * ^ Ptolemy II Philadelphus
Ptolemy II Philadelphus

* Bingen, Jean. Hellenistic
Hellenistic
Egypt. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007 (hardcover, ISBN 0-7486-1578-4 ; paperback, ISBN 0-7486-1579-2 ). Hellenistic
Hellenistic
Egypt: Monarchy, Society, Economy, Culture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007 (hardcover, ISBN 0-520-25141-5 ; paperback, ISBN 0-520-25142-3 ). * Bowman, Alan Keir. 1996. Egypt
Egypt
After the Pharaohs: 332 BC–AD 642; From Alexander to the Arab Conquest. 2nd ed. Berkeley: University of California Press * Burstein, Stanley Meyer (December 1, 2007). The Reign of Cleopatra. University of Oklahoma Press . ISBN 0806138718 . Retrieved April 6, 2015. * Chauveau, Michel. 2000.