San Pedro cactus
List of psychedelic drugs
List of psilocybin mushrooms
History of lysergic acid diethylamide
Summer of Love
William Leonard Pickard
Drug policy of the Netherlands
Legality of cannabis
Legal status of psilocybin mushrooms
Legal status of Salvia divinorum
Philosophy of psychedelics
Prohibition of drugs
Recreational drug use
Pharmacy and Pharmacology portal
Psychedelic rock is a diverse style of rock music inspired,
influenced, or representative of psychedelic culture, which is centred
around perception-altering hallucinogenic drugs.
Psychedelic rock is
intended to replicate and enhance the mind-altering experiences of
psychedelic drugs, most notably LSD. Many psychedelic groups differ in
style, and the label is often used indiscriminately.
Originating in the mid-1960s among British and American musicians, the
sounds of psychedelic rock invokes three core effects of LSD:
depersonalization, dechronicization, and dynamization; all of which
detach the user from reality. Musically, the effects may be
represented via novelty studio tricks, electronic or non-Western
instrumentation, disjunctive song structures, and extended
instrumental segments. Some of the earlier 1960s psychedelic rock
musicians were based in folk, jazz, and the blues, while others
showcased an explicit
Indian classical influence called "raga rock".
In the 1960s, there existed two main variants of the genre: the
whimsical British pop-psychedelia and the harder American West Coast
acid rock. While "acid rock" is sometimes deployed interchangeably
with the term "psychedelic rock", it also refers more specifically to
the heavier and more extreme ends of the genre.
The peak years of psychedelic rock were between 1966 and 1969, with
milestone events including the 1967
Summer of Love
Summer of Love and the 1969
Woodstock Rock Festival, becoming an international musical movement
associated with a widespread counterculture before beginning a decline
as changing attitudes, the loss of some key individuals and a
back-to-basics movement, led surviving performers to move into new
musical areas. The genre bridged the transition from early blues and
folk-based rock to progressive rock and hard rock, and as a result
contributed to the development of sub-genres such as heavy metal.
Since the late 1970s it has been revived in various forms of
2 Original psychedelic era
2.1 1960–65: Precursors and influences
2.2 1965: Formative psychedelic scenes and sounds
2.3 1966: Growth and early popularity
2.4 1967–69: Continued development and international variants
2.5 1969–71: Decline
3 Revivals and successors
3.1 Soul and funk
3.2 Prog, heavy metal, and krautrock
Neo-psychedelia and stoner rock
4 See also
Further information: Psychedelic music
See also: Acid rock
As a musical style, psychedelic rock attempted to replicate the
effects of and enhance the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic
drugs, incorporating new electronic sound effects and recording
effects, extended solos, and improvisation. Common features
electric guitars, often used with feedback, wah wah and fuzzbox
elaborate studio effects, such as backwards tapes, panning, phasing,
long delay loops, and extreme reverb;
elements of Eastern music, specifically Indian music,
non-Western instruments, specifically those originally used in Indian
classical music, such as the sitar and tabla;
elements of free-form jazz
a strong keyboard presence, especially electronic organs,
harpsichords, or the
Mellotron (an early tape-driven 'sampler');
extended instrumental segments, especially guitar solos, or jams;
disjunctive song structures, occasional key and time signature
changes, modal melodies and drones;
electronic instruments such as synthesizers and the theremin;
lyrics that made direct or indirect reference to hallucinogenic drugs,
as in Jimi Hendrix's "Purple Haze" or Jefferson Airplane's "White
surreal, whimsical, esoterically or literary-inspired, lyrics.
The term "psychedelic" was first coined in 1956 by psychiatrist
Humphry Osmond as an alternative descriptor for hallucinogenic drugs
in the context of psychedelic psychotherapy. As the
countercultural scene developed in San Francisco, the terms acid rock
and psychedelic rock were used in 1966 to describe the new
drug-influenced music and were being widely used by 1967. The
terms psychedelic rock and acid rock are often used
interchangeably, but acid rock may be distinguished as a more
extreme variation that was heavier, louder, relied on long jams,
focused more directly on LSD, and made greater use of distortion.
Original psychedelic era
Main article: Psychedelic era
1960–65: Precursors and influences
Recording studio as musical instrument
Recording studio as musical instrument and Psychedelic folk
The Beatles working in the studio with their producer, George Martin,
In the popular music of the early 1960s, it was common for producers,
songwriters, and engineers to freely experiment with musical form,
arrangements, unnatural reverb, and other sound effects. Some of the
best known examples are Phil Spector's
Wall of Sound
Wall of Sound production
formula and Joe Meek's use of homemade electronics for acts like the
Andy Partridge interprets the music of psychedelic
groups as a "grown-up" version of children's novelty records,
believing that many acts were trying to emulate those records that
they grew up with; "They use exactly the same techniques—sped-up
bits, slowed-down bits, too much echo, too much reverb, that bit goes
backwards. ... There was no transition to be made. You go from things
like 'Flying Purple People Eater' to 'I Am the Walrus'. They go
hand-in-hand." Music critic
Richie Unterberger says that attempts
to "pin down" the first psychedelic record are therefore "nearly as
elusive as trying to name the first rock & roll record". Some of
the "far-fetched claims" include the instrumental "Telstar" (produced
by Meek for the Tornados in 1962) and the Dave Clark Five's "massively
reverb-laden" "Any Way You Want It" (1964). The first mention of
LSD on a rock record was the Gamblers' 1960 surf instrumental "LSD
25".[nb 1] A 1962 single by The Ventures, "The 2000 Pound Bee",
issued forth the buzz of a distorted, "fuzztone" guitar, and the quest
into "the possibilities of heavy, transistorised distortion" and other
effects, like improved reverb and echo began in earnest on London's
fertile rock 'n' roll scene. By 1964 fuzztone could be heard on
singles by P.J. Proby, and the Beatles had employed feedback in "I
Feel Fine", their 6th consecutive No. 1 hit in the UK.
American folk singer
Bob Dylan was a massive influence on mid 1960s
rock music. He led directly to the creation of folk rock and the
psychedelic rock musicians that followed, and his lyrics were a
touchstone for the psychedelic songwriters of the late 1960s.
Ravi Shankar had begun in 1956 a mission to bring
Indian classical music to the West, inspiring jazz, classical and folk
musicians; and by the mid-1960s, a generation of young rock musicians
who would make raga rock part of the psychedelic rock aesthetic
and one of the many intersecting cultural motifs of the era.
Meanwhile, in British folk, blues, drugs, jazz and eastern influences
blended in the early 1960s work of Davy Graham, who adopted modal
guitar tunings to transpose Indian ragas and Celtic reels. Graham was
a "profound influence" on Scottish folk virtuoso
Bert Jansch and other
pioneering guitarists across a spectrum of styles and genres in the
Jazz saxophonist and composer John Coltrane
had a similar impact, as the exotic sounds on his albums My Favorite
Things (1960) and
A Love Supreme
A Love Supreme (1964), the latter influenced by the
ragas of Shankar, were source material for guitar players and others
looking to improvise or "jam".
1965: Formative psychedelic scenes and sounds
Main article: Psychedelia
Counterculture of the 1960s, Folk rock, and
"Swinging London", Carnaby Street, circa 1966.
According to music journalist Barry Miles: "Hippies didn't just pop up
overnight, but 1965 was the first year in which a discernible youth
movement began to emerge. Many of the key "psychedelic" rock bands
formed this year." On the West Coast, underground chemist Augustus
Owsley Stanley III and
Ken Kesey (along with his followers known as
the "Merry Pranksters") helped thousands of people take uncontrolled
trips at Kesey's "Acid Tests" and in the new psychedelic dance halls.
Michael Hollingshead opened the World Psychedelic Centre
Beat Generation poets Allen Ginsberg,
Lawrence Ferlinghetti and
Gregory Corso read at the Royal Albert Hall. Miles adds: "The readings
acted as a catalyst for underground activity in London, as people
suddenly realized just how many like-minded people there were around.
This was also the year that London began to blossom into colour with
the opening of the
Granny Takes a Trip and
Hung On You
Hung On You clothes
shops." Thanks to media coverage, use of LSD became
Molly Longman of mic.com writes that, in terms of bridging the
relationship between music and hallucinogens, the Beatles and the
Beach Boys were the era's most pivotal acts. In 1965, the Beach
Brian Wilson started exploring song composition while
under the influence of psychedelic drugs, and after being
introduced to cannabis in 1964 by Dylan, members of the Beatles also
began using LSD. The considerable success enjoyed by these two
bands allowed them the freedom to experiment with new technology over
entire albums. Producer George Martin, who was initially known as
a specialist in comedy and novelty records, responded to the
Beatles' requests by providing a range of studio tricks that ensured
the band played a key role in the development of psychedelic
effects, including the drug-inspired drone on "Ticket to Ride"
Terry Melcher in the studio with the Byrds'
Gene Clark and
David Crosby, 1965
In Unterberger's opinion, the Byrds, emerging from the Los Angeles
folk rock scene, and the Yardbirds, from England's blues scene, were
more responsible than the Beatles for "sounding the psychedelic
siren". Drug use and attempts at psychedelic music moved out of
acoustic folk-based music towards rock soon after the Byrds "plugged
in" to electric guitars to produce a chart topping version of Dylan's
"Mr. Tambourine Man" in the summer of 1965, which became a folk rock
The Yardbirds' "Heart Full of Soul" (1965)
Excerpt with guitar solo and chorus
Problems playing this file? See media help.
On the Yardbirds, Unterberger identifies lead guitarist
Jeff Beck as
having "laid the blueprint for psychedelic guitar", and the band for
defining psychedelic rock's "manic eclecticism ... With their ominous
minor key melodies, hyperactive instrumental breaks (called rave-ups),
and use of Gregorian chants." All were present on Having a Rave-Up
the Yardbirds U.S.-only album on which Beck "emerged as a full-fledged
guitar hero", in the view of Guitar Player magazine. "Heart Full
of Soul" (June 1965) was a hit single driven by a distorted fuzz
guitar riff by Beck made to simulate the drone of a sitar, which
"carried the energy of a new scene"[according to whom?] and herald the
arrival of new Eastern sounds.
The Kinks would also incorporate guitars to mimic the drones of Indian
music on "See My Friends", another Top 10 hit just a few weeks
later. The Beatles' "Norwegian Wood" from the December 1965 album
Rubber Soul marked the first released recording on which a member of a
Western rock group played the sitar.[nb 5] The song is generally
credited for sparking the sitar craze of the mid-1960s – a trend
which fueled the growth raga rock as the India exotic became part of
the essence of psychedelic rock.[nb 6] Rock author George Case
Rubber Soul as one of two Beatles albums that "marked the
authentic beginning of the psychedelic era".[nb 7]
A number of Californian-based folk acts followed the Byrds into
folk-rock, bringing their psychedelic influences with them, to produce
San Francisco Sound".[nb 8] The
San Francisco music scene
developed in the city's Haight-Asbury neighborhood in 1965 at basement
shows organised by
Chet Helms of the Family Dog; and as Jefferson
Airplane founder Marty Balin and investors opened The Matrix nightclub
that summer and began booking his and other local bands, such as the
The Steve Miller Band
The Steve Miller Band and Country Joe & the
Fish. Helms and
San Francisco Mime Troupe manager Bill Graham in
fall of 1965 organised larger scale multi-media community
events/benefits featuring the Airplane, the Diggers and poet Alan
Ginsberg. By early 1966 Graham had secured booking at The Fillmore,
and Helms at the Avalon Ballroom, where in-house psychedelic-themed
light shows replicated the visual effects of the psychedelic
experience. Graham would become a major figure in the growth of
psychedelic rock, attracting most of the major psychedelic rock bands
of the day to The Fillmore.[nb 9]
According to Kevin T. McEneaney, the
Grateful Dead "invented" acid
rock in front of a crowd of concertgoers in
San Jose, California
San Jose, California on
December 4, 1965, the date of the second Acid Test held by novelist
Ken Kesey and The Merry Pranksters. Their stage performance involved
the use of strobe lights to reproduce LSD's "surrealistic fragmenting"
or "vivid isolating of caught moments". The Acid Test experiments
subsequently launched the entire psychedelic subculture.
1966: Growth and early popularity
See also: Psychedelic pop
Musicologist William Echard writes that in 1966, "the psychedelic
implications" advanced by recent rock experiments "became fully
explicit and much more widely distributed," and by the end of the
year, "most of the key elements of psychedelic topicality had been at
least broached." Author
Jim DeRogatis says the birth date of
psychedelic (or acid) rock is "best listed at 1966". Music
journalists Pete Prown and Harvey P. Newquist locate the "peak years"
of psychedelic rock between 1966 and 1969. 1966 saw the media
coverage of rock music change considerably as the music became
reevaluated as a new form of art in tandem with the growing
The Byrds' "Eight Miles High" (1966)
Excerpt of intro with guitar figure and part of first verse
In February, the Yardbirds released "Shapes of Things", which is
frequently considered the first psychedelic rock song.
Reaching No. 3 in the UK and 11 in the US, the work continued
the Yardbirds' exploration of guitar effects, Eastern-sounding
scales,[nb 10] and shifting rhythms that began with their 1965
singles. By overdubbing guitar parts, Beck layered multiple takes
for his solo, which included extensive use of fuzz tone and
harmonic feedback. The Yardbirds' lyrics, described as
"stream-of-consciousness", have been interpreted as
pro-environmental or anti-war. Another record often considered the
first psychedelic rock song is the Byrds' "Eight Miles High" (March
1966). For their new single, the Byrds moved away from
their earlier folk rock with Roger McGuinn's 12-string Rickenbacker
guitar interpretation of free jazz (Coltrane) and Indian raga-sounding
scales (Shankar). The Byrds' lyrics were widely taken to refer to
drug use, although the group denied it at the time.[nb 11] "Eight
Miles High" peaked at No. 14 in the US. and No. 24 in the UK.
According to author David Simonelli, despite being released a month
apart from each other, both songs "achieved the same status" as the
first "psychedelic" hit, and the Yardbirds became the first British
band to have the term applied to one of its songs.
The Beatles' "Rain" (1966)
23-second segment of chorus
Contributing to psychedelia's emergence into the pop mainstream was
the release of Beach Boys'
Pet Sounds (May 1966) and the Beatles'
Revolver (August 1966). Often considered one of the earliest
albums in the canon of psychedelic rock,[nb 12] Pet Sounds
contained many elements that would be incorporated into psychedelia,
with its artful experiments, psychedelic lyrics based on emotional
longings and self-doubts, elaborate sound effects and new sounds on
both conventional and unconventional instruments. The album
track "I Just Wasn't Made for These Times" contained the first use of
theremin sounds on a rock record. Scholar Philip Auslander says
that even though psychedelic music is not normally associated with the
Beach Boys, the "odd directions" and experiments in
Pet Sounds "put it
all on the map. ... basically that sort of opened the door — not for
groups to be formed or to start to make music, but certainly to become
as visible as say
Jefferson Airplane or somebody like that." Like
Pet Sounds, Revolver explored musical soundscapes that could not be
replicated in concert, even with the addition of an orchestra. The
Beatles' May 1966 B-side "Rain", recorded during the Revolver
sessions, was the first pop recording to include reversed sounds.
It makes full use of an assortment of studio tricks such as varispeed
and backwards taping, combining them with a droning melody that
further highlights a growing interest in non-Western musical form.
Author Simon Philo believes the song to be "the birth of British
psychedelic rock". Author Steve Turner recognises the Beatles'
success in conveying an LSD-inspired worldview on Revolver,
particularly on "Tomorrow Never Knows", as having "opened the doors to
psychedelic rock (or acid rock)".
In October 1966, the Texas band 13th Floor Elevators debuted with The
Psychedelic Sounds of the 13th Floor Elevators. They were the first
group to advertise themselves as psychedelic rock, having done so
since the end of 1965.[nb 13] The Beach Boys' October 1966 single
"Good Vibrations" was another early pop song to incorporate
psychedelic lyrics and sounds. Upon release, the single prompted
an unexpected revival in theremins and increased the awareness of
analog synthesizers. As psychedelia gained prominence, Beach
Boys-style harmonies would be ingrained into the newer psychedelic
1967–69: Continued development and international variants
See also: Canterbury scene,
Psychedelic rock in Australia and New
Psychedelic rock in Latin America
1967 was when psychedelic rock received widespread media attention and
a larger audience beyond local psychedelic communities. From 1967
to 1968, psychedelic rock was the prevailing sound of rock music,
either in the whimsical British variant, or the harder American West
Coast acid rock. Since most of the US acts had yet to release
records in the UK, most of the British groups based their sound on
what they'd simply read or heard about psychedelic music.[nb 14]
Compared with American psychedelia, British psychedelic music was
often more arty in its experimentation, and it tended to stick within
pop song structures. Pink Floyd's "Arnold Layne" (March 1967) and
"See Emily Play" (June 1967), both written by Syd Barrett, helped set
the pattern for British pop-psychedelia.
A poster for Jefferson Airplane's song "White Rabbit", the lyrics of
which describe the surreal world depicted in Alice in Wonderland.
Surrealistic Pillow (February 1967) was the first
album to come out of
San Francisco during this era, which sold well
enough to bring the city's music scene to the attention of the record
industry: from it they took two of the earliest[contradictory]
psychedelic hit singles: "White Rabbit" and "Somebody to Love".
That same month, the Beatles released the double A-side "Strawberry
Fields Forever" and "Penny Lane", which
Ian MacDonald says opened a
strain of "British pop-pastoral" music explored by late 1960s groups
like Pink Floyd, Traffic, Family, and Fairport Convention. Soon,
British clubs like the UFO Club, Middle Earth Club, The Roundhouse,
the Country Club and the Art Lab were drawing capacity audiences with
psychedelic rock and ground-breaking liquid light shows. A major
figure in the development of British psychedelia was the American
promoter and record producer Joe Boyd, who moved to London in 1966. He
co-founded venues including the UFO Club, produced Pink Floyd's first
single, "Arnold Layne", and went on to manage folk and folk rock acts
including Nick Drake, the
Incredible String Band
Incredible String Band and Fairport
Psychedelic rock's popularity accelerated following the success of the
Monterey Pop Festival
Monterey Pop Festival and the release of the Beatles' album Sgt.
Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band in the same week of June. The
album was the first commercially successful work that critics heralded
as a landmark aspect of psychedelia, and the Beatles' mass appeal
meant that the album would be played virtually everywhere. The
Summer of Love
Summer of Love of 1967 saw a huge number of young people from across
America and the world travel to the
Haight-Ashbury district of San
Francisco, boosting the population from 15,000 to around 100,000.
It was prefaced by the
Human Be-In event in March and reached its peak
Monterey Pop Festival
Monterey Pop Festival in June, the latter helping to make major
American stars of Janis Joplin, lead singer of Big Brother and the
Holding Company, Jimi Hendrix, and the Who. Existing "British
Invasion" acts now joined the psychedelic revolution, including Eric
Burdon (previously of The Animals) and The Who, whose
The Who Sell Out
(December 1967) included psychedelic influenced tracks "I Can See for
Miles" and "Armenia City in the Sky". The Incredible String
The 5000 Spirits or the Layers of the Onion
The 5000 Spirits or the Layers of the Onion (July 1967)
developed their folk music into full blown psychedelia, which would be
a major influence on psychedelic rock.
According to author Edward Macan, there ultimately existed three
distinct wings of British psychedelic music. The first was based
on a heavy, electric reinterpretation of the blues played by the
Rolling Stones, adding guitarist
Pete Townshend of the Who's
pioneering power chord style to the mix. Groups of this nature were
dominated by Cream, the Yardbirds, and Hendrix.  The second drew
strongly from jazz sources and was represented early on by Traffic,
Colosseum, If, and the
Canterbury scene spearheaded by Soft Machine
and Caravan. Their music was considerably more complex than the
Cream/Hendrix/Yardbirds approach. The third wing was represented
by the Moody Blues, Pink Floyd, and the Nice, who were influenced by
the later music of the Beatles, unlike the other two wings.
Several of the English psychedelic bands who followed in the wake of
the Beatles' psychedelic Sgt. Pepper's developed characteristics of
the Beatles' music (specifically their classical influence) further
than either the Beatles or contemporaneous West Coast psychedelic
The US and UK were the major centres of psychedelic music, but in the
late 1960s scenes began to develop across the world, including
continental Europe, Australasia, Asia and south and Central
America. In the later 1960s psychedelic scenes developed in a
large number of countries in continental Europe, including the
Netherlands with bands like The Outsiders, Denmark where it was
pioneered by Steppeulvene, and Germany, where musicians began to
fuse music of psychedelia and the electronic avant-garde. 1968 saw the
German rock festival in Essen, and the foundation of
Zodiak Free Arts Lab in
Berlin by Hans-Joachim Roedelius, and
Conrad Schnitzler, which helped bands like
Tangerine Dream and Amon
Düül achieve cult status. A thriving psychedelic music scene in
Cambodia, influenced by psychedelic rock and soul broadcast by US
forces radio in Vietnam, was pioneered by artists such as Sinn
Sisamouth and Ros Sereysothea. In South Korea, Shin Jung-Hyeon,
often considered the godfather of Korean rock, played
psychedelic-influenced music for the American soldiers stationed in
the country. Following Shin Jung-Hyeon, the band San Ul Lim (Mountain
Echo) often combined psychedelic rock with a more folk sound. In
Anatolian rock artist
Erkin Koray blended classic Turkish
music and Middle Eastern themes into his psychedelic-driven rock,
helping to found the Turkish rock scene with artists such as Cem
Mogollar and Baris Manco. In Brasil the Tropicalia
movement merged Brazilian and African rhythms with psychedelic rock.
Musicians who were part of the movement include Caetano Veloso,
Gilberto Gil, Os Mutantes, Gal Costa, Tom Zé, and the poet/lyricist
Torquato Neto, all of whom participated in the 1968 album Tropicália:
ou Panis et Circencis, which served as a musical manifesto.
Progressive rock and Heavy metal music
The stage at the
Woodstock Festival in 1969
Psychedelic trends climaxed in the 1969 Woodstock festival, which saw
performances by most of the major psychedelic acts, including Jimi
Hendrix, Jefferson Airplane, and the Grateful Dead. By the end of
the 1960s, psychedelic rock was in retreat. In 1966, LSD had been made
illegal in the US and UK. In 1969, the murders of
Sharon Tate and
Leno and Rosemary LaBianca
Leno and Rosemary LaBianca by
Charles Manson and his cult of
followers, claiming to have been inspired by Beatles' songs such as
"Helter Skelter", has been seen as contributing to an anti-hippie
backlash. At the end of the same year, the Altamont Free Concert
in California, headlined by the Rolling Stones, became notorious for
the fatal stabbing of black teenager Meredith Hunter by Hells Angel
Brian Wilson of the Beach Boys,
Brian Jones of the Rolling Stones,
Peter Green of
Fleetwood Mac and
Syd Barrett of
Pink Floyd were early
"acid casualties", helping to shift the focus of the respective bands
of which they had been leading figures. Some groups, such as the
Jimi Hendrix Experience and Cream, broke up. Hendrix died in
London in September 1970, shortly after recording Band of Gypsys
Janis Joplin died of a heroin overdose in October 1970 and
they were closely followed by
Jim Morrison of the Doors, who died in
Paris in July 1971. Many surviving acts moved away from
psychedelia into either more back-to-basics "roots rock",
traditional-based, pastoral or whimsical folk, the wider
experimentation of progressive rock, or riff-based heavy rock.
Revivals and successors
This section possibly contains inappropriate or misinterpreted
citations that do not verify the text. Please help improve this
article by checking for citation inaccuracies. (August 2016) (Learn
how and when to remove this template message)
Soul and funk
Psychedelic soul and Psychedelic funk
Following the lead of Hendrix in rock, psychedelia began to influence
African American musicians, particularly the stars of the Motown
label. This psychedelic soul was influenced by the civil rights
movement, giving it a darker and more political edge than much
psychedelic rock. Building on the funk sound of James Brown, it
was pioneered from about 1968 by
Sly and the Family Stone
Sly and the Family Stone and The
Temptations. Acts that followed them into this territory included
Edwin Starr and the Undisputed Truth.[verification needed] George
Funkadelic and Parliament ensembles and their
various spin-offs took the genre to its most extreme lengths making
funk almost a religion in the 1970s, producing over forty
singles, including three in the US top ten, and three platinum
While psychedelic rock began to waver at the end of the 1960s,
psychedelic soul continued into the 1970s, peaking in popularity in
the early years of the decade, and only disappearing in the late 1970s
as tastes began to change. Acts like Earth, Wind and Fire, Kool
and the Gang and Ohio Players, who began as psychedelic soul artists,
incorporated its sounds into funk music and eventually the disco which
partly replaced it.
Prog, heavy metal, and krautrock
Main articles: Progressive rock, Heavy metal music, and Krautrock
Many of the British musicians and bands that had embraced psychedelia
went on to create progressive rock in the 1970s, including Pink Floyd,
Soft Machine and members of Yes. King Crimson's album In the Court of
the Crimson King (1969) has been seen as an important link between
psychedelia and progressive rock. While bands such as Hawkwind
maintained an explicitly psychedelic course into the 1970s, most
dropped the psychedelic elements in favour of wider
experimentation. The incorporation of jazz into the music of
Soft Machine and Can also contributed to the development of
the jazz rock of bands like Colosseum. As they moved away from
their psychedelic roots and placed increasing emphasis on electronic
experimentation, German bands like Kraftwerk, Tangerine Dream, Can and
Faust developed a distinctive brand of electronic rock, known as
kosmische musik, or in the British press as "
Kraut rock". The
adoption of electronic synthesisers, pioneered by Popol Vuh from 1970,
together with the work of figures like
Brian Eno (for a time the
keyboard player with Roxy Music), would be a major influence on
subsequent electronic rock.
Psychedelic rock, with its distorted guitar sound, extended solos and
adventurous compositions, has been seen as an important bridge between
blues-oriented rock and later heavy metal. American bands whose loud,
repetitive psychedelic rock emerged as early heavy metal included the
Amboy Dukes and Steppenwolf. From England, two former guitarists
with the Yardbirds,
Jeff Beck and Jimmy Page, moved on to form key
acts in the genre, The
Jeff Beck Group and Led Zeppelin
respectively. Other major pioneers of the genre had begun as
blues-based psychedelic bands, including Black Sabbath, Deep Purple,
Judas Priest and UFO.
Psychedelic music also contributed to
the origins of glam rock, with
Marc Bolan changing his psychedelic
folk duo into rock band T. Rex and becoming the first glam rock star
from 1970.[verification needed] From 1971
David Bowie moved on
from his early psychedelic work to develop his Ziggy Stardust persona,
incorporating elements of professional make up, mime and performance
into his act.
Neo-psychedelia and stoner rock
There were occasional mainstream acts that dabbled in neo-psychedelia,
a style of music which emerged in late 1970s post-punk circles.
Although it has mainly been an influence on alternative and indie rock
bands, neo-psychedelia sometimes updated the approach of 1960s
psychedelic rock. In the US in the early 1980s it was joined by
Paisley Underground movement, based in Los Angeles and fronted by
acts such as Dream Syndicate,
The Bangles and Rain Parade.
Emerging in the 1990s, stoner rock combined elements of psychedelic
rock and doom metal. Typically using a slow-to-mid tempo and featuring
low-tuned guitars in a bass-heavy sound, with melodic vocals, and
'retro' production, it was pioneered by the Californian bands
Kyuss and Sleep. Modern festivals focusing on psychedelic
music include Austin Psych Fest in Texas, founded in 2008 and
Liverpool Psych Fest.
Rock music portal
List of electric blues musicians
List of psychedelic rock artists
^ Their keyboardist, Bruce Johnston, would go on to join the Beach
Boys in 1965. He would recall: "[LSD is] something I've never thought
about and never done."
^ According to Stewart Hope, Graham was "the key early figure ...
Influential but without much commercial impact, Graham's mix of folk,
blues, jazz, and eastern scales backed on his solo albums with bass
and drums was a precursor to and ultimately an integral part of the
folk rock movement of the later sixties. ... It would be difficult to
underestimate Graham's influence on the growth of hard drug use in
^ The growth of underground culture in Britain was facilitated by the
emergence of alternative weekly publications like IT (International
OZ magazine which featured psychedelic and progressive
music together with the counterculture lifestyle, which involved long
hair, and the wearing of wild shirts from shops like Mr Fish, Granny
Takes a Trip and old military uniforms from
Carnaby Street (Soho) and
Kings Road (Chelsea) boutiques.
^ In the song's lyric, the narrator requests: "Take me on a trip upon
your magic swirling ship". Whether this was intended as a drug
reference was unclear, but the line would enter rock music when the
song was a hit for the Byrds later in the year. Dylan indicated
that he had smoked cannabis, but has denied using hard drugs.
Nevertheless, his lyrics would continue to contain apparent drug
^ While Beck's influence had been
Ravi Shankar records, the Kinks'
Ray Davies was inspired during a trip to Bombay, where he heard the
early morning chanting of Indian fisherman.
The Byrds were also
delving into the raga sound in 1965, their "music of choice" being
Coltrane and Shankar records. That summer they would share their
enthusiasm for Shankar's music and its transcendental qualities with
George Harrison and John Lennon, during a group acid trip in Los
Angeles. Though unfamiliar with Shankar and
Indian classical music
then, Harrison was intrigued, and soon hooked. The sitar and its
attending spiritual philosophies would for him become a lifelong
pursuit, as he and Shankar would "elevate
Indian music and culture to
^ Previously, Indian instrumentation had been included in Ken Thorne's
orchestral score for the band's Help! film soundtrack.
^ The other being their August 1966 follow-up Revolver.
^ Particularly prominent[according to whom?] products of the scene
Grateful Dead (who had effectively become the house band of
the Acid Tests), Country Joe and the Fish, The Great Society, Big
Brother and the Holding Company, The Charlatans, Moby Grape,
Quicksilver Messenger Service
Quicksilver Messenger Service and Jefferson Airplane.
^ When this proved too small he took over
Winterland and then the
Fillmore West (in San Francisco) and the
Fillmore East (in New York
City), where the major rock artists, from both the US and the UK, came
^ Writing in Revolution in the Head: The Beatles' Records and the
Sixties, Beatles' historian
Ian MacDonald notes that Paul McCartney's
guitar solo on "Taxman" from Revolver "goes far beyond anything in the
Indian style Harrison had done on guitar, the probable inspiration
being Jeff Beck's ground-breaking solo on the Yardbirds' astonishing
'Shapes of Things'".
^ The result of this directness was limited airplay, and there was a
similar reaction when Dylan, who had also electrified to produce his
own brand of folk rock, released "Rainy Day Women ♯ 12 & 35"
(April 1966), with its repeating chorus of "Everybody must get
Brian Boyd of
The Irish Times
The Irish Times credits the Byrds' Fifth Dimension
(July 1966) with being the first psychedelic album.
^ The term was first used in print in the Austin American Statesman in
an article about the band titled "Unique Elevators shine with
psychedelic rock", dated 10 February 1966. Wondering Sound
contributor Rachael Maddux writes that even though
Pet Sounds and
Psychedelic Sounds are considered early psychedelic rock albums, there
are "obvious differences" in their music: "Even the album covers are a
study in contrasts."
^ Before 1967, British media outlets for psychedelic culture were
limited to stations like Radio Luxembourg and pirate radio like Radio
London, particularly the programmes hosted by DJ John Peel.
^ Hoffmann 2004, p. 1725, "
Psychedelic rock was sometimes
referred to as 'acid rock.'"; Browne & Browne 2001, p. 8,
"acid rock, also known as psychedelic rock"; DeRogatis 2003,
p. 9, "now regularly called 'psychedelic' or 'acid'-rock"; Larson
2004, p. 140, "known as acid rock or psychedelic rock"
^ a b Hicks 2000, p. 63.
^ Hicks 2000, pp. 63–66.
^ a b c Prown & Newquist 1997, p. 48.
^ S. Borthwick and R. Moy, Popular Music Genres: an Introduction
(Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2004),
ISBN 0-7486-1745-0, pp. 52–4.
^ a b Pop/Rock » Psychedelic/Garage, Allmusic
^ R. Rubin and J. P. Melnick, Immigration and American Popular
Culture: an Introduction (New York, NY: New York University Press,
2007), ISBN 0-8147-7552-7, pp. 162–4.[not in citation
^ D. W. Marshall, Mass Market Medieval: Essays on the Middle Ages in
Popular Culture (Jefferson NC: McFarland, 2007),
ISBN 0-7864-2922-4, p. 32.
^ a b c d Hicks 2000, pp. 64–66.
^ DeRogatis 2003, p. 230.
^ R. Unterberger, Samb Hicks, Jennifer Dempsey, "Music USA: the Rough
Guide", (Rough Guides, 1999), ISBN 1-85828-421-X, p. 391.
^ a b c Browne & Browne 2001, p. 8.
^ G. Thompson, Please Please Me: Sixties British Pop, Inside Out
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), ISBN 0-19-533318-7, p.
^ a b c d e f g Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002,
^ N. Murray, Aldous Huxley: A Biography (Hachette, 2009),
ISBN 0-7481-1231-6, p. 419.
^ "Logical Outcome of fifty years of art", LIFE, 9 September 1966, p.
^ a b c DeRogatis 2003, pp. 8–9.
Psychedelic rock at AllMusic
^ Eric V. d. Luft, Die at the Right Time!: A Subjective Cultural
History of the American Sixties (Gegensatz Press, 2009),
ISBN 0-9655179-2-6, p. 173.
^ Blake 2009, p. 45.
^ Partridge & Bernhardt 2016.
^ a b Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, p. 1322.
^ a b DeRogatis 2003, p. 7.
^ a b Power, Martin (2014). Hot Wired Guitar: The Life of Jeff Beck.
books.google.com: Omnibus Press. pp. Chapter 2.
^ Womack, Kenneth (2017).
The Beatles Encyclopedia: Everything Fab
Four. books.google.com: Greenwood. p. 222.
^ DeRogatis 2003, pp. 87, 242.
^ Lavezzoli, Peter (2006). The Dawn of Indian Music in the West.
books.google.com: Continuum Books. pp. 142, forward.
^ Bellman, pp. 294-295
^ "How to Play Like DADGAD Pioneer Davey Graham". Guitar World.
2017-03-16. Retrieved 2017-08-08.
^ Hope 2005, p. 137.
^ C. Grunenberg and J. Harris, Summer of Love: Psychedelic Art, Social
Counterculture in the 1960s (Liverpool: Liverpool
University Press, 2005), ISBN 0-85323-919-3, p. 137.
^ Hicks, Michael (1999). Sixties Rock: Garage, Psychedelic and Other
Satisfactions. books.google.com: University of Illinois Press.
p. 61. ISBN 0-252-02427-3.
^ a b c Miles 2005, p. 26.
^ P. Gorman, The Look: Adventures in Pop & Rock Fashion
(Sanctuary, 2001), ISBN 1-86074-302-1.
^ a b Longman, Molly (May 20, 2016). "Had LSD Never Been Discovered
Over 75 Years Ago, Music History Would Be Entirely Different".
^ Carlin 2006, p. 65.
^ DeRogatis 2003, pp. 14–15.
^ Pepper, Andrew (April 25, 2009). "Top 10 Life Changing Beatles
^ Hoffmann 2016, p. 269.
^ MacDonald 1998, p. 128.
^ R. Unterberger, Eight Miles High: Folk-Rock's Flight from
Haight-Ashbury to Woodstock (London: Backbeat Books, 2003),
ISBN 0-87930-743-9, p. 1.
^ R. Unterberger. "Folk Rock: An Overview". Richieunterberger.com.
Retrieved 15 March 2010.
^ Guitar Player Magazine, editors (1989). Rock Guitar.
books.google.com: Hal Leonard Corp. p. 114.
^ Echard 2017, p. 5.
^ Bellman 1998, pp. 294–95.
^ a b Lavezzoli 2006, p. 173.
^ Power 2014, Ch.4: Fuzzbox Voodoo.
^ Rogan, Johnny (2015). Ray Davies: A Complicated Life. London: The
Bodley Head. p. 239. ISBN 9781847923172.
^ Lavezzoli, pg. 154
^ Thomsen, Graeme (2013). George Harrison. books.google.com: Omnibus
Press. pp. Chapter 6. ISBN 0857128582.
^ Thomsen 2013, Ch.6: Rising Sun.
^ Lavezzoli 2006, p. 147.
^ Bellman 1998, p. 292.
^ Case, George (2010). Out of Our Heads: Rock 'n' Roll Before the
Drugs Wore Off. Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books. p. 27.
^ Case 2010, p. 27.
^ Hicks 2000, p. 60.
^ Yehling, Robert (22 February 2005). "The High Times Interview: Marty
Balin". Balin Miracles. Archived from the original on 22 February
2005. Retrieved 8 August 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url
status unknown (link)
^ Misiroglu 2015, p. 10.
^ a b McEneaney 2009, p. 45.
^ Talevski 2006, p. 218.
^ N. Talevski, Knocking on Heaven's Door: Rock Obituaries (Omnibus
Press, 2006), ISBN 1-84609-091-1, p. 218.
^ McEneaney 2009, p. 46.
^ Echard 2017.
^ DeRogatis 2003, p. 9.
^ a b c Shephard & Leonard 2013, p. 184.
^ Hall 2014, p. 117.
^ a b Bennett 2005, p. 76.
^ Perone 2009, p. 136.
^ "Yardbirds – Singles". Official Charts. Retrieved August 4,
^ Billboard (May 14, 1966). "Hot 100". Billboard. 78 (20): 22.
^ MacDonald 2007, p. 201 fn1.
^ Santoro 1991, p. 17.
^ Echard 2017, p. 36.
^ a b Unterberger, Richie. "
The Yardbirds – Biography". AllMusic.
Retrieved August 4, 2017.
^ Unterberger 2002, p. 1322.
^ Power 2011, p. 83.
^ Hanley 2015, p. 37.
^ a b Simonelli 2013, p. 100.
^ Hanley 2015, p. 39.
^ R. Unterberger, Eight Miles High: Folk-Rock's Flight from
Haight-Ashbury to Woodstock (London: Backbeat Books, 2003),
ISBN 0-87930-743-9, p. 4.
^ Billboard (May 21, 1966). "Hot 100". Billboard. 78 (21): 24.
^ "Byrds – Singles". Official Charts. Retrieved August 4,
^ McPadden, Mike (May 13, 2016). "The Beach Boys'
Pet Sounds and 50
Years of Acid-Pop Copycats". TheKindland.
^ a b Anon. "Psychedelic Pop". AllMusic.
^ a b Maddux, Rachael (16 May 2011). "Six Degrees of The Beach Boys'
Pet Sounds". Wondering Sound. Archived from the original on 4 March
^ Boyd, Brian (Jun 4, 2016). "The Beatles,
Bob Dylan and The Beach
Boys: 12 months that changed music". The Irish Times.
^ R. Unterberger, "British Psychedelic", Allmusic. Retrieved 7 June
^ DeRogatis 2003, pp. 35–40.
^ Lambert 2007, p. 240.
^ DeRogatis 2003, p. 14.
^ Reising & LeBlanc 2009, p. 95.
^ Philo 2014, p. 111.
^ Turner, Steve (2016). Beatles '66: The Revolutionary Year. New York,
NY: HarperLuxe. p. 626. ISBN 978-0-06-249713-0.
^ a b DeRogatis 2003, pp. 33–39.
^ Pinch & Trocco 2009, pp. 102–103.
^ Brend 2005, p. 88.
^ Schinder & Schwartz 2008, p. 437.
^ Pirate Radio, Ministry of Rock.co.uk. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
Psychedelia at AllMusic
^ Kitts & Tolinski 2002, p. 6.
^ P. Frame, Rock Family Trees (London: Omnibus Press, 1980),
ISBN 0-86001-414-2, p. 9.
^ MacDonald 1998, p. 216.
^ C. Grunenberg and J. Harris, Summer of Love: Psychedelic Art, Social
Counterculture in the 1960s (Liverpool: Liverpool
University Press, 2005), ISBN 0-85323-919-3, pp. 83–4.
^ R. Unterberger, "Nick Drake: biography", Allmusic. Retrieved 7 May
^ B. Sweers, Electric Folk: The Changing Face of English Traditional
Music (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005),
ISBN 0-19-515878-4, p. 86.
^ Shephard & Leonard 2013, p. 186.
^ G. Falk and U. A. Falk, Youth Culture and the Generation Gap (New
York, NY: Algora, 2005), ISBN 0-87586-368-X, p. 186.
^ W. E. Studwell and D. F. Lonergan, The Classic Rock and Roll Reader:
Rock Music from its Beginnings to the mid-1970s (London: Routledge,
1999), ISBN 0-7890-0151-9, p. 223.
^ Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, pp. pp. 29, 1027, 1220.
^ DeRogatis 2003, p. 120.
^ a b Macan 1997, p. 19.
^ a b Macan 1997, p. 20.
^ Macan 1997, p. 21.
^ S. Borthwick and R. Moy, Popular Music Genres: an Introduction
(Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2004),
ISBN 0-7486-1745-0, p. 44.
^ R. Unterberger, Unknown Legends of Rock 'n' Roll: Psychedelic
Unknowns, Mad Geniuses, Punk Pioneers, Lo-fi Mavericks & More
(Miller Freeman, 1998), ISBN 0-87930-534-7, p. 411.
^ P. Houe and S. H. Rossel, Images of America in Scandinavia
(Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1998), ISBN 90-420-0611-0, p. 77.
^ P. Buckley, The Rough Guide to Rock, (Rough Guides , 1999),
ISBN 1-85828-457-0, p.26
^ P. Stump, Digital Gothic: a Critical Discography of Tangerine Dream
(Wembley, Middlesex: SAF, 1997), ISBN 0-946719-18-7, p. 33.
^ M. Wood, "Dengue Fever: Multiclti Angelanos craft border-bluring
grooves" Spin, January 2008, p. 46.
^ R. Unterberger, "Various Artists: Cambodian Rocks Vol. 1: review",
Allmusic retrieved 1 April 2012.
^ "KOREAN PSYCH & ACID FOLK, part 1". Progressive.homestead.com.
^ V. Karaege,
Erkin Koray Allmusic. Retrieved 1 April 2012.
^ A. Bennett, Remembering Woodstock (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004),
^ I. Inglis, The Beatles, Popular Music and Society: a Thousand Voices
(London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2000), ISBN 0-312-22236-X, p. 46.
^ D. A. Nielsen, Horrible Workers: Max Stirner, Arthur Rimbaud, Robert
Johnson, and the
Charles Manson Circle: Studies in Moral Experience
and Cultural Expression (Lanham MD: Lexington Books, 2005),
ISBN 0-7391-1200-7, p. 84.
^ J. Wiener, Come Together:
John Lennon in his Time (Chicago IL:
University of Illinois Press, 1991), ISBN 0-252-06131-4,
^ "Garage rock", Billboard, 29 July 2006, 118 (30), p. 11.
^ D. Gomery, Media in America: the Wilson Quarterly Reader (Washington
DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2nd edn., 1998),
ISBN 0-943875-87-0, pp. 181–2.
^ S. Whiteley, Too Much Too Young: Popular Music, Age and Gender
(London: Routledge, 2005), ISBN 0-415-31029-6, p. 147.
^ a b c d "Psychedelic soul", Allmusic. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
^ J. S. Harrington, Sonic Cool: the Life & Death of Rock 'n' Roll
(Milwaukie, MI: Hal Leonard Corporation, 2002),
ISBN 0-634-02861-8, pp. 249–50.
^ Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, p. 226.
^ A. Bennett, Rock and Popular Music: Politics, Policies, Institutions
(Abingdon: Routledge, 1993), ISBN 0-203-99196-6, p. 239.
^ DeRogatis 2003, p. 169.
^ Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, p. 515.
^ A. Blake, The Land Without Music: Music, Culture and Society in
Twentieth-Century Britain (Manchester: Manchester University Press,
1997), ISBN 0-7190-4299-2, pp. 154–5.
^ P. Bussy, Kraftwerk: Man, Machine and Music (London: SAF, 3rd end.,
2004), ISBN 0-946719-70-5, pp. 15–17.
^ Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, pp. 1330–1331.
^ a b B. A. Cook, Europe Since 1945: an Encyclopedia, Volume 2
(London: Taylor & Francis, 2001), ISBN 0-8153-1336-5, p.
^ DeRogatis 2003, p. 212.
^ P. Auslander, Performing Glam Rock: Gender and Theatricality in
Popular Music (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2006),
ISBN 0-472-06868-7, p. 196.
^ P. Auslander, "Watch that man David Bowie: Hammersmith Odeon,
London, July 3, 1973" in I. Inglis, ed., Performance and Popular
Music: History, Place and Time (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006),
ISBN 0-7546-4057-4, p. 72.
^ Cite error: The named reference AllMusicNeoP was invoked but never
defined (see the help page).
^ R. Unterberger, S. Hicks and J. Dempsey, Music USA: the Rough Guide
(London: Rough Guides, 1999), ISBN 1-85828-421-X, p. 401.
^ G. Sharpe-Young, "
Kyuss biography", MusicMight. Retrieved 10
^ "Stoner Metal", Allmusic. Retrieved 22 May 2009.
^ E. Rivadavia "Kyuss", Allmusic. Retrieved 10 December 2007.
^ E. Rivadavia, "Sleep", Allmusic. Retrieved 22 May 2009.
^ E. Gossett, "Austin Psych Fest announces 2014 lineup", Paste, 4
December 2013, retrieved 7 December 2013.
^ "Liverpool Psych Fest", NME, 30 September 2013, retrieved 7 December
Bellman, Jonathan (1998). The Exotic in Western Music. Northeastern
University Press. ISBN 1-55553-319-1.
Bennett, Graham (2010). Soft Machine: Out-bloody-rageous. SAF.
Blake, Andrew (2009). "Recording practices and the role of the
producer". In Cook, Nicholas; Clarke, Eric; Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel.
The Cambridge Companion to Recorded Music. Cambridge University Press.
Bogdanov, Vladimir; Woodstra, Chris; Erlewine, Stephen Thomas, eds.
All Music Guide to Rock: The Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop,
and Soul. Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0-87930-653-3.
Brend, Mark (2005). Strange Sounds: Offbeat Instruments and Sonic
Experiments in Pop. Hal Leonard Corporation.
Browne, Ray Broadus; Browne, Pat (2001). The Guide to United States
Popular Culture. Popular Press. ISBN 978-0-87972-821-2.
Carlin, Peter Ames (2006). Catch a Wave: The Rise, Fall, and
Redemption of the Beach Boys' Brian Wilson. Rodale.
DeRogatis, Jim (2003). Turn on Your Mind: Four Decades of Great
Psychedelic Rock. Hal Leonard Corporation.
Echard, William (2017). Psychedelic Popular Music: A History through
Musical Topic Theory. Indiana University Press.
Everett, Walter (1999).
The Beatles as Musicians: Revolver Through the
Anthology. New York, Ny: Oxford University Press.
Hall, Mitchell K. (2014). The Emergence of Rock and Roll: Music and
the Rise of American Youth Culture. New York City: Routledge.
Hanley, Jason (2015). We Rock! (Music Lab): A Fun Family Guide for
Exploring Rock Music History: From Elvis and the Beatles to Ray
Charles and The Ramones, Includes Bios, Historical Context, Extensive
Playlists, and Rocking Activities for the Whole Family!. Quarry Books.
Hicks, Michael (2000). Sixties Rock: Garage, Psychedelic, and Other
Satisfactions. University of Illinois Press.
Hoffmann, Frank (2004). Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound. Routledge.
Hoffmann, Frank (2016). Chronology of American Popular Music,
1900-2000. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-86886-4.
Lambert, Philip (2007). Inside the Music of Brian Wilson: The Songs,
Sounds, and Influences of the Beach Boys' Founding Genius. Bloomsbury
Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4411-0748-0.
Larson, Tom (2004). History of Rock and Roll. Kendall Hunt.
Lavezzoli, Peter (2006). The Dawn of Indian Music in the West:
Bhairavi. Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-1815-5.
Macan, Edward (1997). Rocking the Classics: English Progressive Rock
and the Counterculture. Oxford University Press.
MacDonald, Ian (1998). Revolution in the Head: The Beatles' Records
and the Sixties. London: Pimlico. ISBN 978-0-7126-6697-8.
MacDonald, Ian (2007). Revolution in the Head:
The Beatles Records and
the Sixties (3rd ed.). Chicago: Chicago Review Press.
McEneaney, Kevin T. (2009). Tom Wolfe's America: Heroes, Pranksters,
and Fools. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-36545-4.
Miles, Barry (2005). Hippie. Sterling.
Partridge, Andy; Bernhardt, Todd (2016). Complicated Game: Inside the
Songs of XTC. Jawbone Press. ISBN 978-1908279781.
Perone, James E. (2009). Mods, Rockers, and the Music of the British
Invasion. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Pinch, T. J; Trocco, Frank (2009). Analog Days: The Invention and
Impact of the Moog Synthesizer. Harvard University Press.
Power, Martin (2011). Hot Hired Guitar: The Life of Jeff Beck. London:
Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-1-84938-869-6.
Prown, Pete; Newquist, Harvey P. (1997). Legends of Rock Guitar: The
Essential Reference of Rock's Greatest Guitarists. Hal Leonard
Corporation. ISBN 978-0-7935-4042-6.
Reising, Russell; LeBlanc, Jim (2009). "Magical Mystery Tours, and
Other Trips: Yellow submarines, newspaper taxis, and the Beatles'
psychedelic years". In Womack, Kenneth (ed.). The Cambridge Companion
to the Beatles. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 978-0-521-68976-2. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list
Santoro, Gene (1991).
Beckology (Boxed set booklet). Jeff Beck. New
York City: Epic Records/Legacy Recordings. OCLC 144959074.
Schinder, Scott; Schwartz, Andy, eds. (2008). Icons of Rock: An
Encyclopedia of the Legends Who Changed Music Forever. Westport,
Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0313338458.
Shephard, Tim; Leonard, Anne, eds. (2013). The
Routledge Companion to
Music and Visual Culture. New York, NY: Routledge.
Simonelli, David (2013). Working Class Heroes: Rock Music and British
Society in the 1960s and 1970s. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books.
Unterberger, Richie (2002). "Psychedelic Rock". In Bogdanov, Vladimir;
Woodstra, Chris; Erlewine, Stephen Thomas.
All Music Guide to Rock:
The Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (3rd ed.). San Francisco:
Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0879306533.
Italian occult psychedelia
Counterculture of the 1960s
New Age travellers
San Francisco Sound
Second Summer of Love
Summer of Love
Acid rock artists
Psychedelic folk artists
Psychedelic pop artists
Psychedelic rock artists
Palm Desert Scene
History of LSD
New Age movement
Sitar in popular music
Category:Psychedelic musical groups
decade of origin
Rock and roll
Pub rock (United Kingdom)
Pub rock (Australia)
Adult album alternative
Progressive rock (radio format)
Origins of rock and roll
Electronics in rock music
Rock Against Communism
Rock Against Racism
Rock Against Sexism
Rock music and the fall of communism
Rockism and poptimism
Women in rock
List of rock genres
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Wall of Sound