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Psychedelic rock
Psychedelic rock
is a diverse style of rock music inspired, influenced, or representative of psychedelic culture, which is centred around perception-altering hallucinogenic drugs. Psychedelic rock
Psychedelic rock
is intended to replicate and enhance the mind-altering experiences of psychedelic drugs, most notably LSD. Many psychedelic groups differ in style, and the label is often used indiscriminately.[2] Originating in the mid-1960s among British and American musicians, the sounds of psychedelic rock invokes three core effects of LSD: depersonalization, dechronicization, and dynamization; all of which detach the user from reality.[2] Musically, the effects may be represented via novelty studio tricks, electronic or non-Western instrumentation, disjunctive song structures, and extended instrumental segments.[3] Some of the earlier 1960s psychedelic rock musicians were based in folk, jazz, and the blues, while others showcased an explicit Indian classical
Indian classical
influence called "raga rock". In the 1960s, there existed two main variants of the genre: the whimsical British pop-psychedelia and the harder American West Coast acid rock. While "acid rock" is sometimes deployed interchangeably with the term "psychedelic rock", it also refers more specifically to the heavier and more extreme ends of the genre. The peak years of psychedelic rock were between 1966 and 1969, with milestone events including the 1967 Summer of Love
Summer of Love
and the 1969 Woodstock Rock Festival, becoming an international musical movement associated with a widespread counterculture before beginning a decline as changing attitudes, the loss of some key individuals and a back-to-basics movement, led surviving performers to move into new musical areas. The genre bridged the transition from early blues and folk-based rock to progressive rock and hard rock, and as a result contributed to the development of sub-genres such as heavy metal. Since the late 1970s it has been revived in various forms of neo-psychedelia.


1 Definition 2 Original psychedelic era

2.1 1960–65: Precursors and influences 2.2 1965: Formative psychedelic scenes and sounds 2.3 1966: Growth and early popularity 2.4 1967–69: Continued development and international variants 2.5 1969–71: Decline

3 Revivals and successors

3.1 Soul and funk 3.2 Prog, heavy metal, and krautrock 3.3 Neo-psychedelia
and stoner rock

4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Bibliography

Definition[edit] Further information: Psychedelic music See also: Acid rock As a musical style, psychedelic rock attempted to replicate the effects of and enhance the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs, incorporating new electronic sound effects and recording effects, extended solos, and improvisation.[4] Common features include:

electric guitars, often used with feedback, wah wah and fuzzbox effects units;[4] elaborate studio effects, such as backwards tapes, panning, phasing, long delay loops, and extreme reverb;[5] elements of Eastern music, specifically Indian music,[6] non-Western instruments, specifically those originally used in Indian classical music, such as the sitar and tabla;[7] elements of free-form jazz[6] a strong keyboard presence, especially electronic organs, harpsichords, or the Mellotron
(an early tape-driven 'sampler');[8] extended instrumental segments, especially guitar solos, or jams;[9] disjunctive song structures, occasional key and time signature changes, modal melodies and drones;[9] electronic instruments such as synthesizers and the theremin;[10][11] lyrics that made direct or indirect reference to hallucinogenic drugs, as in Jimi Hendrix's "Purple Haze" or Jefferson Airplane's "White Rabbit";[12] surreal, whimsical, esoterically or literary-inspired, lyrics.[13][14]

The term "psychedelic" was first coined in 1956 by psychiatrist Humphry Osmond as an alternative descriptor for hallucinogenic drugs in the context of psychedelic psychotherapy.[15] As the countercultural scene developed in San Francisco, the terms acid rock and psychedelic rock were used in 1966 to describe the new drug-influenced music[16] and were being widely used by 1967.[17] The terms psychedelic rock and acid rock are often used interchangeably,[12] but acid rock may be distinguished as a more extreme variation that was heavier, louder, relied on long jams,[18] focused more directly on LSD, and made greater use of distortion.[19] Original psychedelic era[edit] Main article: Psychedelic era 1960–65: Precursors and influences[edit] See also: Recording studio as musical instrument
Recording studio as musical instrument
and Psychedelic folk

The Beatles
The Beatles
working in the studio with their producer, George Martin, circa 1965

In the popular music of the early 1960s, it was common for producers, songwriters, and engineers to freely experiment with musical form, arrangements, unnatural reverb, and other sound effects. Some of the best known examples are Phil Spector's Wall of Sound
Wall of Sound
production formula and Joe Meek's use of homemade electronics for acts like the Tornados.[20] XTC's Andy Partridge
Andy Partridge
interprets the music of psychedelic groups as a "grown-up" version of children's novelty records, believing that many acts were trying to emulate those records that they grew up with; "They use exactly the same techniques—sped-up bits, slowed-down bits, too much echo, too much reverb, that bit goes backwards. ... There was no transition to be made. You go from things like 'Flying Purple People Eater' to 'I Am the Walrus'. They go hand-in-hand."[21] Music critic Richie Unterberger
Richie Unterberger
says that attempts to "pin down" the first psychedelic record are therefore "nearly as elusive as trying to name the first rock & roll record". Some of the "far-fetched claims" include the instrumental "Telstar" (produced by Meek for the Tornados in 1962) and the Dave Clark Five's "massively reverb-laden" "Any Way You Want It" (1964).[22] The first mention of LSD on a rock record was the Gamblers' 1960 surf instrumental "LSD 25".[23][nb 1] A 1962 single by The Ventures, "The 2000 Pound Bee", issued forth the buzz of a distorted, "fuzztone" guitar, and the quest into "the possibilities of heavy, transistorised distortion" and other effects, like improved reverb and echo began in earnest on London's fertile rock 'n' roll scene.[24] By 1964 fuzztone could be heard on singles by P.J. Proby,[24] and the Beatles had employed feedback in "I Feel Fine", their 6th consecutive No. 1 hit in the UK.[25] American folk singer Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
was a massive influence on mid 1960s rock music. He led directly to the creation of folk rock and the psychedelic rock musicians that followed, and his lyrics were a touchstone for the psychedelic songwriters of the late 1960s.[26] Virtuoso sitarist Ravi Shankar
Ravi Shankar
had begun in 1956 a mission to bring Indian classical
Indian classical
music to the West, inspiring jazz, classical and folk musicians; and by the mid-1960s, a generation of young rock musicians who would make raga rock[27] part of the psychedelic rock aesthetic and one of the many intersecting cultural motifs of the era.[28] Meanwhile, in British folk, blues, drugs, jazz and eastern influences blended in the early 1960s work of Davy Graham, who adopted modal guitar tunings to transpose Indian ragas and Celtic reels. Graham was a "profound influence" on Scottish folk virtuoso Bert Jansch
Bert Jansch
and other pioneering guitarists across a spectrum of styles and genres in the mid-1960s.[29][30][nb 2] Jazz
saxophonist and composer John Coltrane had a similar impact, as the exotic sounds on his albums My Favorite Things (1960) and A Love Supreme
A Love Supreme
(1964), the latter influenced by the ragas of Shankar, were source material for guitar players and others looking to improvise or "jam".[32] 1965: Formative psychedelic scenes and sounds[edit] Main article: Psychedelia See also: Counterculture
of the 1960s, Folk rock, and Raga

"Swinging London", Carnaby Street, circa 1966.

According to music journalist Barry Miles: "Hippies didn't just pop up overnight, but 1965 was the first year in which a discernible youth movement began to emerge. Many of the key "psychedelic" rock bands formed this year."[33] On the West Coast, underground chemist Augustus Owsley Stanley
Owsley Stanley
III and Ken Kesey
Ken Kesey
(along with his followers known as the "Merry Pranksters") helped thousands of people take uncontrolled trips at Kesey's "Acid Tests" and in the new psychedelic dance halls. In Britain, Michael Hollingshead opened the World Psychedelic Centre and Beat Generation
Beat Generation
poets Allen Ginsberg, Lawrence Ferlinghetti
Lawrence Ferlinghetti
and Gregory Corso
Gregory Corso
read at the Royal Albert Hall. Miles adds: "The readings acted as a catalyst for underground activity in London, as people suddenly realized just how many like-minded people there were around. This was also the year that London began to blossom into colour with the opening of the Granny Takes a Trip and Hung On You
Hung On You
clothes shops."[33] Thanks to media coverage, use of LSD became widespread.[33][nb 3] Molly Longman of mic.com writes that, in terms of bridging the relationship between music and hallucinogens, the Beatles and the Beach Boys were the era's most pivotal acts.[35] In 1965, the Beach Boys' leader Brian Wilson
Brian Wilson
started exploring song composition while under the influence of psychedelic drugs,[36] and after being introduced to cannabis in 1964 by Dylan, members of the Beatles also began using LSD.[14] The considerable success enjoyed by these two bands allowed them the freedom to experiment with new technology over entire albums.[37] Producer George Martin, who was initially known as a specialist in comedy and novelty records,[38] responded to the Beatles' requests by providing a range of studio tricks that ensured the band played a key role in the development of psychedelic effects,[39] including the drug-inspired drone on "Ticket to Ride" (1965).[40]

Producer Terry Melcher
Terry Melcher
in the studio with the Byrds' Gene Clark
Gene Clark
and David Crosby, 1965

In Unterberger's opinion, the Byrds, emerging from the Los Angeles folk rock scene, and the Yardbirds, from England's blues scene, were more responsible than the Beatles for "sounding the psychedelic siren".[14] Drug use and attempts at psychedelic music moved out of acoustic folk-based music towards rock soon after the Byrds "plugged in" to electric guitars to produce a chart topping version of Dylan's "Mr. Tambourine Man" in the summer of 1965, which became a folk rock standard.[41][42][nb 4]

The Yardbirds' "Heart Full of Soul" (1965)

Excerpt with guitar solo and chorus

Problems playing this file? See media help.

On the Yardbirds, Unterberger identifies lead guitarist Jeff Beck
Jeff Beck
as having "laid the blueprint for psychedelic guitar", and the band for defining psychedelic rock's "manic eclecticism ... With their ominous minor key melodies, hyperactive instrumental breaks (called rave-ups), and use of Gregorian chants."[22] All were present on Having a Rave-Up the Yardbirds U.S.-only album on which Beck "emerged as a full-fledged guitar hero", in the view of Guitar Player magazine.[43] "Heart Full of Soul" (June 1965) was a hit single driven by a distorted fuzz guitar riff by Beck made to simulate the drone of a sitar, which "carried the energy of a new scene"[according to whom?] and herald the arrival of new Eastern sounds.[44] The Kinks would also incorporate guitars to mimic the drones of Indian music on "See My Friends", another Top 10 hit just a few weeks later.[45] The Beatles' "Norwegian Wood" from the December 1965 album Rubber Soul
Rubber Soul
marked the first released recording on which a member of a Western rock group played the sitar.[46][nb 5] The song is generally credited for sparking the sitar craze of the mid-1960s – a trend which fueled the growth raga rock as the India exotic became part of the essence of psychedelic rock.[53][nb 6] Rock author George Case recognises Rubber Soul
Rubber Soul
as one of two Beatles albums that "marked the authentic beginning of the psychedelic era".[54][nb 7] A number of Californian-based folk acts followed the Byrds into folk-rock, bringing their psychedelic influences with them, to produce the " San Francisco
San Francisco
Sound".[14][nb 8] The San Francisco
San Francisco
music scene developed in the city's Haight-Asbury neighborhood in 1965 at basement shows organised by Chet Helms of the Family Dog; and as Jefferson Airplane founder Marty Balin and investors opened The Matrix nightclub that summer and began booking his and other local bands, such as the Grateful Dead, The Steve Miller Band
The Steve Miller Band
and Country Joe & the Fish.[57] Helms and San Francisco
San Francisco
Mime Troupe manager Bill Graham in fall of 1965 organised larger scale multi-media community events/benefits featuring the Airplane, the Diggers and poet Alan Ginsberg. By early 1966 Graham had secured booking at The Fillmore, and Helms at the Avalon Ballroom, where in-house psychedelic-themed light shows[58] replicated the visual effects of the psychedelic experience.[59] Graham would become a major figure in the growth of psychedelic rock, attracting most of the major psychedelic rock bands of the day to The Fillmore.[60][nb 9] According to Kevin T. McEneaney, the Grateful Dead
Grateful Dead
"invented" acid rock in front of a crowd of concertgoers in San Jose, California
San Jose, California
on December 4, 1965, the date of the second Acid Test held by novelist Ken Kesey
Ken Kesey
and The Merry Pranksters. Their stage performance involved the use of strobe lights to reproduce LSD's "surrealistic fragmenting" or "vivid isolating of caught moments".[59] The Acid Test experiments subsequently launched the entire psychedelic subculture.[62] 1966: Growth and early popularity[edit] See also: Psychedelic pop Musicologist William Echard writes that in 1966, "the psychedelic implications" advanced by recent rock experiments "became fully explicit and much more widely distributed," and by the end of the year, "most of the key elements of psychedelic topicality had been at least broached."[63] Author Jim DeRogatis says the birth date of psychedelic (or acid) rock is "best listed at 1966".[64] Music journalists Pete Prown and Harvey P. Newquist locate the "peak years" of psychedelic rock between 1966 and 1969.[4] 1966 saw the media coverage of rock music change considerably as the music became reevaluated as a new form of art in tandem with the growing psychedelic community.[65]

The Byrds' "Eight Miles High" (1966)

Excerpt of intro with guitar figure and part of first verse

In February, the Yardbirds released "Shapes of Things", which is frequently considered the first psychedelic rock song.[66][67][68] Reaching No. 3 in the UK[69] and 11 in the US,[70] the work continued the Yardbirds' exploration of guitar effects, Eastern-sounding scales,[nb 10] and shifting rhythms that began with their 1965 singles.[67] By overdubbing guitar parts, Beck layered multiple takes for his solo,[72] which included extensive use of fuzz tone and harmonic feedback.[73][74] The Yardbirds' lyrics, described as "stream-of-consciousness",[75] have been interpreted as pro-environmental or anti-war.[76] Another record often considered the first psychedelic rock song is the Byrds' "Eight Miles High" (March 1966).[77][78][74] For their new single, the Byrds moved away from their earlier folk rock with Roger McGuinn's 12-string Rickenbacker guitar interpretation of free jazz (Coltrane) and Indian raga-sounding scales (Shankar).[79] The Byrds' lyrics were widely taken to refer to drug use, although the group denied it at the time.[14][nb 11] "Eight Miles High" peaked at No. 14 in the US.[81] and No. 24 in the UK.[82] According to author David Simonelli, despite being released a month apart from each other, both songs "achieved the same status" as the first "psychedelic" hit, and the Yardbirds became the first British band to have the term applied to one of its songs.[78]

The Beatles' "Rain" (1966)

23-second segment of chorus

Contributing to psychedelia's emergence into the pop mainstream was the release of Beach Boys' Pet Sounds
Pet Sounds
(May 1966)[83] and the Beatles' Revolver (August 1966).[84] Often considered one of the earliest albums in the canon of psychedelic rock,[85][nb 12] Pet Sounds contained many elements that would be incorporated into psychedelia, with its artful experiments, psychedelic lyrics based on emotional longings and self-doubts, elaborate sound effects and new sounds on both conventional and unconventional instruments.[87][88] The album track "I Just Wasn't Made for These Times" contained the first use of theremin sounds on a rock record.[89] Scholar Philip Auslander says that even though psychedelic music is not normally associated with the Beach Boys, the "odd directions" and experiments in Pet Sounds
Pet Sounds
"put it all on the map. ... basically that sort of opened the door — not for groups to be formed or to start to make music, but certainly to become as visible as say Jefferson Airplane
Jefferson Airplane
or somebody like that."[35] Like Pet Sounds, Revolver explored musical soundscapes that could not be replicated in concert, even with the addition of an orchestra.[90] The Beatles' May 1966 B-side "Rain", recorded during the Revolver sessions, was the first pop recording to include reversed sounds.[91] It makes full use of an assortment of studio tricks such as varispeed and backwards taping, combining them with a droning melody that further highlights a growing interest in non-Western musical form. Author Simon Philo believes the song to be "the birth of British psychedelic rock".[92] Author Steve Turner recognises the Beatles' success in conveying an LSD-inspired worldview on Revolver, particularly on "Tomorrow Never Knows", as having "opened the doors to psychedelic rock (or acid rock)".[93] In October 1966, the Texas band 13th Floor Elevators debuted with The Psychedelic Sounds of the 13th Floor Elevators. They were the first group to advertise themselves as psychedelic rock, having done so since the end of 1965.[9][nb 13] The Beach Boys' October 1966 single "Good Vibrations" was another early pop song to incorporate psychedelic lyrics and sounds.[94] Upon release, the single prompted an unexpected revival in theremins and increased the awareness of analog synthesizers.[95] As psychedelia gained prominence, Beach Boys-style harmonies would be ingrained into the newer psychedelic pop.[84] 1967–69: Continued development and international variants[edit] See also: Canterbury scene, Psychedelic rock
Psychedelic rock
in Australia and New Zealand, and Psychedelic rock
Psychedelic rock
in Latin America 1967 was when psychedelic rock received widespread media attention and a larger audience beyond local psychedelic communities.[65] From 1967 to 1968, psychedelic rock was the prevailing sound of rock music, either in the whimsical British variant, or the harder American West Coast acid rock.[96] Since most of the US acts had yet to release records in the UK, most of the British groups based their sound on what they'd simply read or heard about psychedelic music.[97][nb 14] Compared with American psychedelia, British psychedelic music was often more arty in its experimentation, and it tended to stick within pop song structures.[99] Pink Floyd's "Arnold Layne" (March 1967) and "See Emily Play" (June 1967), both written by Syd Barrett, helped set the pattern for British pop-psychedelia.[100]

A poster for Jefferson Airplane's song "White Rabbit", the lyrics of which describe the surreal world depicted in Alice in Wonderland.

Jefferson Airplane's Surrealistic Pillow
Surrealistic Pillow
(February 1967) was the first album to come out of San Francisco
San Francisco
during this era, which sold well enough to bring the city's music scene to the attention of the record industry: from it they took two of the earliest[contradictory] psychedelic hit singles: "White Rabbit" and "Somebody to Love".[101] That same month, the Beatles released the double A-side "Strawberry Fields Forever" and "Penny Lane", which Ian MacDonald
Ian MacDonald
says opened a strain of "British pop-pastoral" music explored by late 1960s groups like Pink Floyd, Traffic, Family, and Fairport Convention.[102] Soon, British clubs like the UFO Club, Middle Earth Club, The Roundhouse, the Country Club and the Art Lab were drawing capacity audiences with psychedelic rock and ground-breaking liquid light shows.[103] A major figure in the development of British psychedelia was the American promoter and record producer Joe Boyd, who moved to London in 1966. He co-founded venues including the UFO Club, produced Pink Floyd's first single, "Arnold Layne", and went on to manage folk and folk rock acts including Nick Drake, the Incredible String Band
Incredible String Band
and Fairport Convention.[104][105] Psychedelic rock's popularity accelerated following the success of the Monterey Pop Festival
Monterey Pop Festival
and the release of the Beatles' album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band in the same week of June.[65] The album was the first commercially successful work that critics heralded as a landmark aspect of psychedelia, and the Beatles' mass appeal meant that the album would be played virtually everywhere.[106] The Summer of Love
Summer of Love
of 1967 saw a huge number of young people from across America and the world travel to the Haight-Ashbury
district of San Francisco, boosting the population from 15,000 to around 100,000.[107] It was prefaced by the Human Be-In
Human Be-In
event in March and reached its peak at the Monterey Pop Festival
Monterey Pop Festival
in June, the latter helping to make major American stars of Janis Joplin, lead singer of Big Brother and the Holding Company, Jimi Hendrix, and the Who.[108] Existing "British Invasion" acts now joined the psychedelic revolution, including Eric Burdon (previously of The Animals) and The Who, whose The Who
The Who
Sell Out (December 1967) included psychedelic influenced tracks "I Can See for Miles" and "Armenia City in the Sky".[109] The Incredible String Band's The 5000 Spirits or the Layers of the Onion
The 5000 Spirits or the Layers of the Onion
(July 1967) developed their folk music into full blown psychedelia, which would be a major influence on psychedelic rock.[110] According to author Edward Macan, there ultimately existed three distinct wings of British psychedelic music.[111] The first was based on a heavy, electric reinterpretation of the blues played by the Rolling Stones, adding guitarist Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
of the Who's pioneering power chord style to the mix. Groups of this nature were dominated by Cream, the Yardbirds, and Hendrix. [111] The second drew strongly from jazz sources and was represented early on by Traffic, Colosseum, If, and the Canterbury scene spearheaded by Soft Machine and Caravan. Their music was considerably more complex than the Cream/Hendrix/Yardbirds approach.[112] The third wing was represented by the Moody Blues, Pink Floyd, and the Nice, who were influenced by the later music of the Beatles, unlike the other two wings.[112] Several of the English psychedelic bands who followed in the wake of the Beatles' psychedelic Sgt. Pepper's developed characteristics of the Beatles' music (specifically their classical influence) further than either the Beatles or contemporaneous West Coast psychedelic bands.[113] The US and UK were the major centres of psychedelic music, but in the late 1960s scenes began to develop across the world, including continental Europe, Australasia, Asia and south and Central America.[114] In the later 1960s psychedelic scenes developed in a large number of countries in continental Europe, including the Netherlands with bands like The Outsiders,[115] Denmark where it was pioneered by Steppeulvene,[116] and Germany, where musicians began to fuse music of psychedelia and the electronic avant-garde. 1968 saw the first major German rock festival in Essen,[117] and the foundation of the Zodiak Free Arts Lab in Berlin
by Hans-Joachim Roedelius, and Conrad Schnitzler, which helped bands like Tangerine Dream
Tangerine Dream
and Amon Düül achieve cult status.[118] A thriving psychedelic music scene in Cambodia, influenced by psychedelic rock and soul broadcast by US forces radio in Vietnam,[119] was pioneered by artists such as Sinn Sisamouth and Ros Sereysothea.[120] In South Korea, Shin Jung-Hyeon, often considered the godfather of Korean rock, played psychedelic-influenced music for the American soldiers stationed in the country. Following Shin Jung-Hyeon, the band San Ul Lim (Mountain Echo) often combined psychedelic rock with a more folk sound.[121] In Turkey, Anatolian rock artist Erkin Koray blended classic Turkish music and Middle Eastern themes into his psychedelic-driven rock, helping to found the Turkish rock scene with artists such as Cem Karaca, Mogollar
and Baris Manco.[122] In Brasil the Tropicalia movement merged Brazilian and African rhythms with psychedelic rock. Musicians who were part of the movement include Caetano Veloso, Gilberto Gil, Os Mutantes, Gal Costa, Tom Zé, and the poet/lyricist Torquato Neto, all of whom participated in the 1968 album Tropicália: ou Panis et Circencis, which served as a musical manifesto. 1969–71: Decline[edit] See also: Progressive rock
Progressive rock
and Heavy metal music

The stage at the Woodstock Festival
Woodstock Festival
in 1969

Psychedelic trends climaxed in the 1969 Woodstock festival, which saw performances by most of the major psychedelic acts, including Jimi Hendrix, Jefferson Airplane, and the Grateful Dead.[123] By the end of the 1960s, psychedelic rock was in retreat. In 1966, LSD had been made illegal in the US and UK.[124] In 1969, the murders of Sharon Tate
Sharon Tate
and Leno and Rosemary LaBianca
Leno and Rosemary LaBianca
by Charles Manson
Charles Manson
and his cult of followers, claiming to have been inspired by Beatles' songs such as "Helter Skelter", has been seen as contributing to an anti-hippie backlash.[125] At the end of the same year, the Altamont Free Concert in California, headlined by the Rolling Stones, became notorious for the fatal stabbing of black teenager Meredith Hunter by Hells Angel security guards.[126] Brian Wilson
Brian Wilson
of the Beach Boys,[94] Brian Jones
Brian Jones
of the Rolling Stones, Peter Green of Fleetwood Mac
Fleetwood Mac
and Syd Barrett
Syd Barrett
of Pink Floyd
Pink Floyd
were early "acid casualties", helping to shift the focus of the respective bands of which they had been leading figures.[127] Some groups, such as the Jimi Hendrix
Jimi Hendrix
Experience and Cream, broke up.[128] Hendrix died in London in September 1970, shortly after recording Band of Gypsys (1970), Janis Joplin
Janis Joplin
died of a heroin overdose in October 1970 and they were closely followed by Jim Morrison
Jim Morrison
of the Doors, who died in Paris in July 1971.[129] Many surviving acts moved away from psychedelia into either more back-to-basics "roots rock", traditional-based, pastoral or whimsical folk, the wider experimentation of progressive rock, or riff-based heavy rock.[14] Revivals and successors[edit]

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Soul and funk[edit] Main articles: Psychedelic soul
Psychedelic soul
and Psychedelic funk Following the lead of Hendrix in rock, psychedelia began to influence African American musicians, particularly the stars of the Motown label.[130] This psychedelic soul was influenced by the civil rights movement, giving it a darker and more political edge than much psychedelic rock.[130] Building on the funk sound of James Brown, it was pioneered from about 1968 by Sly and the Family Stone
Sly and the Family Stone
and The Temptations. Acts that followed them into this territory included Edwin Starr
Edwin Starr
and the Undisputed Truth.[130][verification needed] George Clinton's interdependent Funkadelic and Parliament ensembles and their various spin-offs took the genre to its most extreme lengths making funk almost a religion in the 1970s,[131] producing over forty singles, including three in the US top ten, and three platinum albums.[132] While psychedelic rock began to waver at the end of the 1960s, psychedelic soul continued into the 1970s, peaking in popularity in the early years of the decade, and only disappearing in the late 1970s as tastes began to change.[130] Acts like Earth, Wind and Fire, Kool and the Gang and Ohio Players, who began as psychedelic soul artists, incorporated its sounds into funk music and eventually the disco which partly replaced it.[133] Prog, heavy metal, and krautrock[edit] Main articles: Progressive rock, Heavy metal music, and Krautrock Many of the British musicians and bands that had embraced psychedelia went on to create progressive rock in the 1970s, including Pink Floyd, Soft Machine
Soft Machine
and members of Yes. King Crimson's album In the Court of the Crimson King (1969) has been seen as an important link between psychedelia and progressive rock.[134] While bands such as Hawkwind maintained an explicitly psychedelic course into the 1970s, most dropped the psychedelic elements in favour of wider experimentation.[135] The incorporation of jazz into the music of bands like Soft Machine
Soft Machine
and Can also contributed to the development of the jazz rock of bands like Colosseum.[136] As they moved away from their psychedelic roots and placed increasing emphasis on electronic experimentation, German bands like Kraftwerk, Tangerine Dream, Can and Faust developed a distinctive brand of electronic rock, known as kosmische musik, or in the British press as " Kraut rock".[137] The adoption of electronic synthesisers, pioneered by Popol Vuh from 1970, together with the work of figures like Brian Eno
Brian Eno
(for a time the keyboard player with Roxy Music), would be a major influence on subsequent electronic rock.[138] Psychedelic rock, with its distorted guitar sound, extended solos and adventurous compositions, has been seen as an important bridge between blues-oriented rock and later heavy metal. American bands whose loud, repetitive psychedelic rock emerged as early heavy metal included the Amboy Dukes and Steppenwolf.[12] From England, two former guitarists with the Yardbirds, Jeff Beck
Jeff Beck
and Jimmy Page, moved on to form key acts in the genre, The Jeff Beck
Jeff Beck
Group and Led Zeppelin respectively.[139] Other major pioneers of the genre had begun as blues-based psychedelic bands, including Black Sabbath, Deep Purple, Judas Priest
Judas Priest
and UFO.[139][140] Psychedelic music
Psychedelic music
also contributed to the origins of glam rock, with Marc Bolan
Marc Bolan
changing his psychedelic folk duo into rock band T. Rex and becoming the first glam rock star from 1970.[141][verification needed] From 1971 David Bowie
David Bowie
moved on from his early psychedelic work to develop his Ziggy Stardust persona, incorporating elements of professional make up, mime and performance into his act.[142] Neo-psychedelia
and stoner rock[edit] There were occasional mainstream acts that dabbled in neo-psychedelia, a style of music which emerged in late 1970s post-punk circles. Although it has mainly been an influence on alternative and indie rock bands, neo-psychedelia sometimes updated the approach of 1960s psychedelic rock.[143] In the US in the early 1980s it was joined by the Paisley Underground movement, based in Los Angeles and fronted by acts such as Dream Syndicate, The Bangles
The Bangles
and Rain Parade.[144] Emerging in the 1990s, stoner rock combined elements of psychedelic rock and doom metal. Typically using a slow-to-mid tempo and featuring low-tuned guitars in a bass-heavy sound,[145] with melodic vocals, and 'retro' production,[146] it was pioneered by the Californian bands Kyuss[147] and Sleep.[148] Modern festivals focusing on psychedelic music include Austin Psych Fest in Texas, founded in 2008[149] and Liverpool Psych Fest.[150]

See also[edit]

1960s portal Rock music
Rock music
portal Music portal

List of electric blues musicians List of psychedelic rock artists


^ Their keyboardist, Bruce Johnston, would go on to join the Beach Boys in 1965. He would recall: "[LSD is] something I've never thought about and never done."[23] ^ According to Stewart Hope, Graham was "the key early figure ... Influential but without much commercial impact, Graham's mix of folk, blues, jazz, and eastern scales backed on his solo albums with bass and drums was a precursor to and ultimately an integral part of the folk rock movement of the later sixties. ... It would be difficult to underestimate Graham's influence on the growth of hard drug use in British counterculture."[31] ^ The growth of underground culture in Britain was facilitated by the emergence of alternative weekly publications like IT (International Times) and OZ magazine
OZ magazine
which featured psychedelic and progressive music together with the counterculture lifestyle, which involved long hair, and the wearing of wild shirts from shops like Mr Fish, Granny Takes a Trip and old military uniforms from Carnaby Street
Carnaby Street
(Soho) and Kings Road
Kings Road
(Chelsea) boutiques.[34] ^ In the song's lyric, the narrator requests: "Take me on a trip upon your magic swirling ship".[17] Whether this was intended as a drug reference was unclear, but the line would enter rock music when the song was a hit for the Byrds later in the year.[17] Dylan indicated that he had smoked cannabis, but has denied using hard drugs. Nevertheless, his lyrics would continue to contain apparent drug references. ^ While Beck's influence had been Ravi Shankar
Ravi Shankar
records,[47] the Kinks' Ray Davies was inspired during a trip to Bombay, where he heard the early morning chanting of Indian fisherman.[48] The Byrds
The Byrds
were also delving into the raga sound in 1965, their "music of choice" being Coltrane and Shankar records.[49] That summer they would share their enthusiasm for Shankar's music and its transcendental qualities with George Harrison
George Harrison
and John Lennon, during a group acid trip in Los Angeles.[50] Though unfamiliar with Shankar and Indian classical
Indian classical
music then, Harrison was intrigued, and soon hooked.[51] The sitar and its attending spiritual philosophies would for him become a lifelong pursuit, as he and Shankar would "elevate Indian music
Indian music
and culture to mainstream consciousness".[52] ^ Previously, Indian instrumentation had been included in Ken Thorne's orchestral score for the band's Help! film soundtrack.[46] ^ The other being their August 1966 follow-up Revolver.[55] ^ Particularly prominent[according to whom?] products of the scene were The Grateful Dead
Grateful Dead
(who had effectively become the house band of the Acid Tests),[56] Country Joe and the Fish, The Great Society, Big Brother and the Holding Company, The Charlatans, Moby Grape, Quicksilver Messenger Service
Quicksilver Messenger Service
and Jefferson Airplane.[14] ^ When this proved too small he took over Winterland
and then the Fillmore West
Fillmore West
(in San Francisco) and the Fillmore East
Fillmore East
(in New York City), where the major rock artists, from both the US and the UK, came to play.[61] ^ Writing in Revolution in the Head: The Beatles' Records and the Sixties, Beatles' historian Ian MacDonald
Ian MacDonald
notes that Paul McCartney's guitar solo on "Taxman" from Revolver "goes far beyond anything in the Indian style Harrison had done on guitar, the probable inspiration being Jeff Beck's ground-breaking solo on the Yardbirds' astonishing 'Shapes of Things'".[71] ^ The result of this directness was limited airplay, and there was a similar reaction when Dylan, who had also electrified to produce his own brand of folk rock, released "Rainy Day Women ♯ 12 & 35" (April 1966), with its repeating chorus of "Everybody must get stoned!".[80] ^ Brian Boyd of The Irish Times
The Irish Times
credits the Byrds' Fifth Dimension (July 1966) with being the first psychedelic album.[86] ^ The term was first used in print in the Austin American Statesman in an article about the band titled "Unique Elevators shine with psychedelic rock", dated 10 February 1966.[9] Wondering Sound contributor Rachael Maddux writes that even though Pet Sounds
Pet Sounds
and Psychedelic Sounds are considered early psychedelic rock albums, there are "obvious differences" in their music: "Even the album covers are a study in contrasts."[85] ^ Before 1967, British media outlets for psychedelic culture were limited to stations like Radio Luxembourg and pirate radio like Radio London, particularly the programmes hosted by DJ John Peel.[98]


^ Hoffmann 2004, p. 1725, " Psychedelic rock
Psychedelic rock
was sometimes referred to as 'acid rock.'"; Browne & Browne 2001, p. 8, "acid rock, also known as psychedelic rock"; DeRogatis 2003, p. 9, "now regularly called 'psychedelic' or 'acid'-rock"; Larson 2004, p. 140, "known as acid rock or psychedelic rock" ^ a b Hicks 2000, p. 63. ^ Hicks 2000, pp. 63–66. ^ a b c Prown & Newquist 1997, p. 48. ^ S. Borthwick and R. Moy, Popular Music Genres: an Introduction (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2004), ISBN 0-7486-1745-0, pp. 52–4. ^ a b Pop/Rock » Psychedelic/Garage, Allmusic ^ R. Rubin and J. P. Melnick, Immigration and American Popular Culture: an Introduction (New York, NY: New York University Press, 2007), ISBN 0-8147-7552-7, pp. 162–4.[not in citation given] ^ D. W. Marshall, Mass Market Medieval: Essays on the Middle Ages in Popular Culture (Jefferson NC: McFarland, 2007), ISBN 0-7864-2922-4, p. 32. ^ a b c d Hicks 2000, pp. 64–66. ^ DeRogatis 2003, p. 230. ^ R. Unterberger, Samb Hicks, Jennifer Dempsey, "Music USA: the Rough Guide", (Rough Guides, 1999), ISBN 1-85828-421-X, p. 391. ^ a b c Browne & Browne 2001, p. 8. ^ G. Thompson, Please Please Me: Sixties British Pop, Inside Out (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), ISBN 0-19-533318-7, p. 197. ^ a b c d e f g Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, pp. 1322–1323. ^ N. Murray, Aldous Huxley: A Biography (Hachette, 2009), ISBN 0-7481-1231-6, p. 419. ^ "Logical Outcome of fifty years of art", LIFE, 9 September 1966, p. 68. ^ a b c DeRogatis 2003, pp. 8–9. ^ Psychedelic rock
Psychedelic rock
at AllMusic ^ Eric V. d. Luft, Die at the Right Time!: A Subjective Cultural History of the American Sixties (Gegensatz Press, 2009), ISBN 0-9655179-2-6, p. 173. ^ Blake 2009, p. 45. ^ Partridge & Bernhardt 2016. ^ a b Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, p. 1322. ^ a b DeRogatis 2003, p. 7. ^ a b Power, Martin (2014). Hot Wired Guitar: The Life of Jeff Beck. books.google.com: Omnibus Press. pp. Chapter 2. ISBN 978-1-78323-386-1.  ^ Womack, Kenneth (2017). The Beatles
The Beatles
Encyclopedia: Everything Fab Four. books.google.com: Greenwood. p. 222. ISBN 978-1-44084-426-3.  ^ DeRogatis 2003, pp. 87, 242. ^ Lavezzoli, Peter (2006). The Dawn of Indian Music in the West. books.google.com: Continuum Books. pp. 142, forward. ISBN 0-8264-1815-5.  ^ Bellman, pp. 294-295 ^ "How to Play Like DADGAD Pioneer Davey Graham". Guitar World. 2017-03-16. Retrieved 2017-08-08.  ^ Hope 2005, p. 137. ^ C. Grunenberg and J. Harris, Summer of Love: Psychedelic Art, Social Crisis and Counterculture
in the 1960s (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2005), ISBN 0-85323-919-3, p. 137. ^ Hicks, Michael (1999). Sixties Rock: Garage, Psychedelic and Other Satisfactions. books.google.com: University of Illinois Press. p. 61. ISBN 0-252-02427-3.  ^ a b c Miles 2005, p. 26. ^ P. Gorman, The Look: Adventures in Pop & Rock Fashion (Sanctuary, 2001), ISBN 1-86074-302-1. ^ a b Longman, Molly (May 20, 2016). "Had LSD Never Been Discovered Over 75 Years Ago, Music History Would Be Entirely Different". Music.mic.  ^ Carlin 2006, p. 65. ^ DeRogatis 2003, pp. 14–15. ^ Pepper, Andrew (April 25, 2009). "Top 10 Life Changing Beatles Performances". Listverse.com.  ^ Hoffmann 2016, p. 269. ^ MacDonald 1998, p. 128. ^ R. Unterberger, Eight Miles High: Folk-Rock's Flight from Haight-Ashbury
to Woodstock (London: Backbeat Books, 2003), ISBN 0-87930-743-9, p. 1. ^ R. Unterberger. "Folk Rock: An Overview". Richieunterberger.com. Retrieved 15 March 2010.  ^ Guitar Player Magazine, editors (1989). Rock Guitar. books.google.com: Hal Leonard Corp. p. 114. ISBN 088188-908-3.  ^ Echard 2017, p. 5. ^ Bellman 1998, pp. 294–95. ^ a b Lavezzoli 2006, p. 173. ^ Power 2014, Ch.4: Fuzzbox Voodoo. ^ Rogan, Johnny (2015). Ray Davies: A Complicated Life. London: The Bodley Head. p. 239. ISBN 9781847923172.  ^ Lavezzoli, pg. 154 ^ Thomsen, Graeme (2013). George Harrison. books.google.com: Omnibus Press. pp. Chapter 6. ISBN 0857128582.  ^ Thomsen 2013, Ch.6: Rising Sun. ^ Lavezzoli 2006, p. 147. ^ Bellman 1998, p. 292. ^ Case, George (2010). Out of Our Heads: Rock 'n' Roll Before the Drugs Wore Off. Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-87930-967-1.  ^ Case 2010, p. 27. ^ Hicks 2000, p. 60. ^ Yehling, Robert (22 February 2005). "The High Times Interview: Marty Balin". Balin Miracles. Archived from the original on 22 February 2005. Retrieved 8 August 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Misiroglu 2015, p. 10. ^ a b McEneaney 2009, p. 45. ^ Talevski 2006, p. 218. ^ N. Talevski, Knocking on Heaven's Door: Rock Obituaries (Omnibus Press, 2006), ISBN 1-84609-091-1, p. 218. ^ McEneaney 2009, p. 46. ^ Echard 2017. ^ DeRogatis 2003, p. 9. ^ a b c Shephard & Leonard 2013, p. 184. ^ Hall 2014, p. 117. ^ a b Bennett 2005, p. 76. ^ Perone 2009, p. 136. ^ "Yardbirds – Singles". Official Charts. Retrieved August 4, 2017.  ^ Billboard (May 14, 1966). "Hot 100". Billboard. 78 (20): 22. ISSN 0006-2510.  ^ MacDonald 2007, p. 201 fn1. ^ Santoro 1991, p. 17. ^ Echard 2017, p. 36. ^ a b Unterberger, Richie. " The Yardbirds
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to Woodstock (London: Backbeat Books, 2003), ISBN 0-87930-743-9, p. 4. ^ Billboard (May 21, 1966). "Hot 100". Billboard. 78 (21): 24. ISSN 0006-2510.  ^ "Byrds – Singles". Official Charts. Retrieved August 4, 2017.  ^ McPadden, Mike (May 13, 2016). "The Beach Boys' Pet Sounds
Pet Sounds
and 50 Years of Acid-Pop Copycats". TheKindland.  ^ a b Anon. "Psychedelic Pop". AllMusic.  ^ a b Maddux, Rachael (16 May 2011). "Six Degrees of The Beach Boys' Pet Sounds". Wondering Sound. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.  ^ Boyd, Brian (Jun 4, 2016). "The Beatles, Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
and The Beach Boys: 12 months that changed music". The Irish Times.  ^ R. Unterberger, "British Psychedelic", Allmusic. Retrieved 7 June 2011. ^ DeRogatis 2003, pp. 35–40. ^ Lambert 2007, p. 240. ^ DeRogatis 2003, p. 14. ^ Reising & LeBlanc 2009, p. 95. ^ Philo 2014, p. 111. ^ Turner, Steve (2016). Beatles '66: The Revolutionary Year. New York, NY: HarperLuxe. p. 626. ISBN 978-0-06-249713-0.  ^ a b DeRogatis 2003, pp. 33–39. ^ Pinch & Trocco 2009, pp. 102–103. ^ Brend 2005, p. 88. ^ Schinder & Schwartz 2008, p. 437. ^ Pirate Radio, Ministry of Rock.co.uk. Retrieved 9 February 2010. ^ British Psychedelia
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Bellman, Jonathan (1998). The Exotic in Western Music. Northeastern University Press. ISBN 1-55553-319-1.  Bennett, Graham (2010). Soft Machine: Out-bloody-rageous. SAF. ISBN 978-0946719846.  Blake, Andrew (2009). "Recording practices and the role of the producer". In Cook, Nicholas; Clarke, Eric; Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel. The Cambridge Companion to Recorded Music. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-82796-6.  Bogdanov, Vladimir; Woodstra, Chris; Erlewine, Stephen Thomas, eds. (2002). All Music Guide to Rock: The Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul. Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0-87930-653-3.  Brend, Mark (2005). Strange Sounds: Offbeat Instruments and Sonic Experiments in Pop. Hal Leonard Corporation.  Browne, Ray Broadus; Browne, Pat (2001). The Guide to United States Popular Culture. Popular Press. ISBN 978-0-87972-821-2.  Carlin, Peter Ames (2006). Catch a Wave: The Rise, Fall, and Redemption of the Beach Boys' Brian Wilson. Rodale. ISBN 978-1-59486-320-2.  DeRogatis, Jim (2003). Turn on Your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock. Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 978-0-634-05548-5.  Echard, William (2017). Psychedelic Popular Music: A History through Musical Topic Theory. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-02659-0.  Everett, Walter (1999). The Beatles
The Beatles
as Musicians: Revolver Through the Anthology. New York, Ny: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-512941-0.  Hall, Mitchell K. (2014). The Emergence of Rock and Roll: Music and the Rise of American Youth Culture. New York City: Routledge. ISBN 978-1135053581.  Hanley, Jason (2015). We Rock! (Music Lab): A Fun Family Guide for Exploring Rock Music History: From Elvis and the Beatles to Ray Charles and The Ramones, Includes Bios, Historical Context, Extensive Playlists, and Rocking Activities for the Whole Family!. Quarry Books. ISBN 978-1-59253-921-5.  Hicks, Michael (2000). Sixties Rock: Garage, Psychedelic, and Other Satisfactions. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-06915-4.  Hoffmann, Frank (2004). Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-94950-1.  Hoffmann, Frank (2016). Chronology of American Popular Music, 1900-2000. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-86886-4.  Lambert, Philip (2007). Inside the Music of Brian Wilson: The Songs, Sounds, and Influences of the Beach Boys' Founding Genius. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4411-0748-0.  Larson, Tom (2004). History of Rock and Roll. Kendall Hunt.  Lavezzoli, Peter (2006). The Dawn of Indian Music in the West: Bhairavi. Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-1815-5.  Macan, Edward (1997). Rocking the Classics: English Progressive Rock and the Counterculture. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-509887-7.  MacDonald, Ian (1998). Revolution in the Head: The Beatles' Records and the Sixties. London: Pimlico. ISBN 978-0-7126-6697-8.  MacDonald, Ian (2007). Revolution in the Head: The Beatles
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v t e

Psychedelic music


By prefix and style


Folk Funk Hip hop Pop Rock Soul Trance

Dub Psybient Suomisaundi


Breaks House Jazz Punk Rock Techno Trance


Krautrock Chillwave Dream-beat Goa trance Italian occult psychedelia Hypnagogic pop Neo-psychedelia

Dream pop Shoegazing

Paisley Underground Space rock Stoner rock Trip hop


Beat Generation Cannabis culture Counterculture
of the 1960s Deadhead Freak scene Grebo Hippies Jam band New Age travellers Rave
culture San Francisco
San Francisco
Sound Second Summer of Love Summer of Love UK underground


Acid rock
Acid rock
artists Neo-psychedelia
artists Psychedelic folk
Psychedelic folk
artists Psychedelic pop artists Psychedelic rock
Psychedelic rock

See also

Palm Desert Scene History of LSD New Age movement Progressive music Psychedelia Psychedelic art

LSD art

Psychedelic drug Psychedelic era Psychedelic experience Psychedelic literature Sitar
in popular music

Category:Drug culture Category: Hippie
movement Category:Psychedelic musical groups

v t e

Rock music


Backbeat Distortion Rock band

Electric guitar Electric bass Rhythm section Drum kit

Genres by decade of origin


Instrumental rock Latin rock Pop rock Rock and roll




Acid rock Anatolian rock Art rock Baroque rock Beat music Blues
rock Boogie rock Christian rock Comedy rock Country rock Electronic rock Experimental rock Folk rock Flamenco rock Garage rock Hard rock Heavy metal Jam Jazz
rock Krautrock Power pop Progressive rock Psychedelic rock Raga
rock Roots rock Samba rock Southern rock Space rock Surf music


Arena rock Cock rock Dance-rock Funk
rock Glam rock Gothic rock Heartland rock Ostrock Post-progressive Pub rock (United Kingdom) Pub rock (Australia) Punk rock Soft rock Visual kei Yacht rock


Alternative rock Rap rock Trop rock


Stoner rock Sufi rock Viking rock

Radio formats

Active rock Adult album alternative Album-oriented rock Classic rock Mainstream rock Modern rock Progressive rock
Progressive rock
(radio format)

History Culture

Origins of rock and roll Electronics in rock music Social effects

Rock Against Communism Rock Against Racism Rock Against Sexism Rock music
Rock music
and the fall of communism

Rockism and poptimism Women in rock


List of rock genres Motorik Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Progressive music Rock concert Rock musical Rock opera Rock festival Wagnerian rock Wall of Sound