Psittacidae is one of three families of true parrots. It
comprises the rough 10 species of subfamily
Psittacinae (the Old World
or Afrotropical parrots) and 157 of subfamily
New World or
Neotropical parrots), as well as several species that have gone
extinct in recent centuries. Some of the most iconic birds in
the world are represented here, such as the blue-and-gold macaw among
New World parrots and the
African grey parrot
African grey parrot among the Old World
parrots. These parrots are found in tropical and subtropical zones and
inhabit Mexico, Central and South America, the Caribbean islands,
sub-Saharan Africa, and the island of Madagascar, and the Arabian
Peninsula. Two parrots, one extinct, formerly inhabited North
This family probably had its origin early in the
(66–23 Mya) after the western half of
Gondwana had separated
into the continents of Africa and South America, before the divergence
of African and
New World lineages around 30–35 Mya.[citation
New World parrots, and by implication
Old World parrots,
last shared a common ancestor with the Australian parrots of
Cacatuidae an estimated 59 Mya. The data place most of the
diversification of psittaciforms around 40 Mya, after the
separation of Australia from West Antarctica and South America.
Divergence of the
Psittacidae from the ancestral parrots resulted from
a common radiation event from what was then West Antarctica into South
America then Africa via late
Cretaceous land bridges that survived
through the Paleogene.
Psittacidae was introduced (as Psittacea) by the French
Constantine Samuel Rafinesque
Constantine Samuel Rafinesque in 1815. The recently
revised taxonomy of the family Psittacidae, based on molecular
studies, recognizes the sister clade relationship of the Old World
New World Arini tribes of subfamily Psittacinae,
which have been raised to subfamily ranking and renamed Psittacinae
and Arinae. Subfamily
Loriinae and the other tribes of subfamily
Psittacinae are now placed in superfamily
Psittacoidea of all true
parrots which includes family Psittacidae.
Psittacus – African gray parrots (two species)
Tribe Arini – macaws and parakeets
Androglossini – Amazon and related parrots
Clade (proposed tribe Amoropsittacini)
Clade (proposed tribe Forpini) – parrotlets
Clade including Arini
Pionites – caiques (four species)
Deroptyus – red-fan parrot
Clade including Androglossini
^ Leo Joseph, Alicia Toon, Erin E. Schirtzinger, Timothy F. Wright
& Richard Schodde. (2012) A revised nomenclature and
classification for family-group taxa of parrots (Psittaciformes).
Zootaxa 3205: 26–40
^ "Zoonomen: Zoological Nomenclature Resource".
^ Forshaw, J. (2000). Parrots of the World, 3rd Ed. Australia:
Lansdowne. pp. 303, 385.
^ Tavares, Erika; Yamashita, Miyaki (Jan 2004). "Phylogenetic
Relationships Among Some Neotropical
Parrot Genera Based on
Mitochondrial Sequences". The Auk. 121 (1): 230–242.
^ Schweizer, M.; Seehausen O; Hertwig ST (2011). "Macroevolutionary
patterns in the diversification of parrots: effects of climate change,
geological events and key innovations". Journal of Biogeography. 38:
^ Wright, et.al, T. (Oct 2008). "A Multilocus Molecular Phylogeny of
the Parrots (Psittaciformes): Support for a Gondwanan Origin during
the Cretaceous". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 25 (10):
2141–2156. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn160. PMC 2727385 .
^ Remsen, Van. "Proposal (599) to South American Classification
Committee: Revise classification of the Psittaciformes". Retrieved 17
^ Rafinesque, Constantine Samuel (1815). Analyse de la nature ou,
Tableau de l'univers et des corps organisés (in French). Palermo:
Self-published. p. 64.
^ Bock, Walter J. (1994). History and Nomenclature of Avian
Family-Group Names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural
History. Number 222. New York: American Museum of Natural History.
pp. 140, 252. hdl:2246/830.
^ Collar, N. (1997). Birds of the World, Vol.4. del Hoyo.
^ Joseph, et.al (2012). "A revised nomenclature and classification for
family-group taxa of parrots (Psittaciformes)". Zootaxa (3205):
Fauna Europaea: 16695