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Prunus
Prunus
avium, commonly called wild cherry,[2] sweet cherry,[2] or gean,[2] is a species of cherry, a flowering plant in the rose family, Rosaceae. It is native to Europe, Anatolia, Maghreb, and western Asia, from the British Isles[3] south to Morocco
Morocco
and Tunisia, north to the Trondheimsfjord
Trondheimsfjord
region in Norway
Norway
and east to the Caucasus
Caucasus
and northern Iran, with a small isolated population in the western Himalaya.[4] The species is widely cultivated in other regions and has become naturalized in North America and Australia.[5][6][7] Prunus
Prunus
avium, has a diploid set of sixteen chromosomes (2n = 16).[8] All parts of the plant except for the ripe fruit are slightly toxic, containing cyanogenic glycosides.

Contents

1 Nomenclature

1.1 Mazzard

2 Description and ecology 3 Cultivation and uses

3.1 Fruit 3.2 Ornamental 3.3 Timber 3.4 Other uses

4 Contribution to other species 5 Cultural history 6 References 7 External links

Nomenclature[edit]

Flowers

The early history of its classification is somewhat confused. In the first edition of Species Plantarum
Species Plantarum
(1753), Linnaeus treated it as only a variety, Prunus
Prunus
cerasus var. avium, citing Gaspard Bauhin's Pinax theatri botanici (1596) as a synonym. [clarification needed] His description, Cerasus racemosa hortensis ("cherry with racemes, of gardens")[clarification needed] shows it was described from a cultivated plant.[9] Linnaeus then changed from a variety to a species Prunus
Prunus
avium in the second edition of his Flora Suecica in 1755.[10] Sweet cherry was known historically as gean or mazzard (also 'massard'), until recently, both were largely obsolete names in modern English. The name "wild cherry" is also commonly applied to other species of Prunus
Prunus
growing in their native habitats, particularly to the North American species Prunus
Prunus
serotina. Prunus
Prunus
avium means "bird cherry" in the Latin language,[4] but in English "bird cherry" refers to Prunus
Prunus
padus.[11] Mazzard[edit] More recently[when?] 'Mazzard' has been used to refer to a selected self-fertile cultivar that comes true from seed, and which is used as a seedling rootstock for fruiting cultivars.[12][13] This term is still used particularly for the varieties of P. avium grown in North Devon and cultivated there, particularly in the orchards at Landkey. Description and ecology[edit]

Red glands (extrafloral nectaries) on the petiole.

Prunus
Prunus
avium is a deciduous tree growing to 15–32 m (49–105 ft) tall, with a trunk up to 1.5 m (4.9 ft) in diameter. Young trees show strong apical dominance with a straight trunk and symmetrical conical crown, becoming rounded to irregular on old trees.

The bark is smooth purplish-brown with prominent horizontal grey-brown lenticels on young trees, becoming thick dark blackish-brown and fissured on old trees. The leaves are alternate, simple ovoid-acute, 7–14 cm (2.8–5.5 in) long and 4–7 cm (1.6–2.8 in) broad, glabrous matt or sub-shiny green above, variably finely downy beneath, with a serrated margin and an acuminate tip, with a green or reddish petiole 2–3.5 cm (0.79–1.38 in) long bearing two to five small red glands. The tip of each serrated edge of the leaves also bear small red glands.[14] In autumn, the leaves turn orange, pink or red before falling. The flowers are produced in early spring at the same time as the new leaves, borne in corymbs of two to six together, each flower pendent on a 2–5 cm (0.79–1.97 in) peduncle, 2.5–3.5 cm (0.98–1.38 in) in diameter, with five pure white petals, yellowish stamens, and a superior ovary; they are hermaphroditic, and pollinated by bees. The ovary contains two ovules, only one of which becomes the seed.[15] The fruit is a drupe 1–2 cm (0.39–0.79 in) in diameter (larger in some cultivated selections), bright red to dark purple when mature in midsummer, edible, variably sweet to somewhat astringent and bitter to eat fresh. Each fruit contains a single hard-shelled stone 8–12 mm long, 7–10 mm wide and 6–8 mm thick, grooved along the flattest edge; the seed (kernel) inside the stone is 6–8 mm long.

Prunus
Prunus
avium in spring

The fruit are readily eaten by numerous kinds of birds and mammals, which digest the fruit flesh and disperse the seeds in their droppings. Some rodents, and a few birds (notably the hawfinch), also crack open the stones to eat the kernel inside. All parts of the plant except for the ripe fruit are slightly toxic, containing cyanogenic glycosides.[16][17][18] See also: List of Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
that feed on Prunus The leaves provide food for some animals, including Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
such as the case-bearer moth Coleophora anatipennella. The tree exudes a gum from wounds in the bark, by which it seals the wounds to exclude insects and fungal infections.[19] Cultivation and uses[edit] Fruit[edit] Main article: Cherry

Pair of fruit growing from the same stem

Some eighteenth- and nineteenth-century botanical authors[who?] assumed a western Asia
Asia
origin for the species based on the writings of Pliny; however, archaeological finds of seeds from prehistoric Europe contradict this view. Wild cherries have been an item of human food for several thousands of years. The stones have been found in deposits at Bronze Age settlements throughout Europe, including in Britain.[12] In one dated example, wild cherry macrofossils were found in a core sample from the detritus beneath a dwelling at an Early and Middle Bronze Age pile-dwelling site on and in the shore of a former lake at Desenzano del Garda or Lonato, near the southern shore of Lake Garda, Italy. The date is estimated at Early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
IA, carbon dated there to 2077 BCE plus or minus 10 years. The natural forest was largely cleared at that time.[20] By 800 BCE, cherries were being actively cultivated in Asia
Asia
Minor, and soon after in Greece.[12] As the main ancestor of the cultivated cherry, the sweet cherry is one of the two cherry species which supply most of the world's commercial cultivars of edible cherry (the other is the sour cherry Prunus cerasus, mainly used for cooking; a few other species have had a very small input).[12] Various cherry cultivars are now grown worldwide wherever the climate is suitable; the number of cultivars is now very large.[12] The species has also escaped from cultivation and become naturalised in some temperate regions, including southwestern Canada, Japan, New Zealand, and the northeast and northwest of the United States.[4] Ornamental[edit] It is often cultivated as a flowering tree. Because of the size of the tree, it is often used in parkland, and less often as a street or garden tree. The double-flowered form, 'Plena', is commonly found, rather than the wild single-flowered forms.[21] Two interspecific hybrids, P. x schmittii (P. avium x P. canescens) and P. x fontenesiana (P. avium x P. mahaleb) are also grown as ornamental trees.[21] Timber[edit] The hard, reddish-brown wood (cherry wood) is valued as a hardwood for woodturning, and making cabinets and musical instruments.[19] Cherry wood is also used for smoking foods, particularly meats, in North America, as it lends a distinct and pleasant flavor to the product.[citation needed] Other uses[edit] The gum from bark wounds is aromatic and can be chewed as a substitute for chewing gum. Medicine can be prepared from the stalks (peduncles) of the drupes that is astringent, antitussive, and diuretic.[13] A green dye can also be prepared from the plant.[13] Wild cherry is used extensively in Europe
Europe
for the afforestation of agricultural land and it is also valued for wildlife and amenity plantings. Many European countries have gene conservation and/or breeding programmes for wild cherry.[22] Contribution to other species[edit] Prunus
Prunus
avium is thought to be one of the parent species of Prunus cerasus (sour cherry), by way of ancient crosses between it and Prunus fruticosa (dwarf cherry) in the areas where the two species overlap. All three species can breed with one another. Prunus
Prunus
cerasus is now a species in its own right, having developed beyond a hybrid and stabilised.[23] Cultural history[edit]

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Pliny distinguishes between Prunus, the plum fruit,[24] and Cerasus, the cherry fruit.[25] Already in Pliny quite a number of cultivars are cited, some possibly species or varieties, Aproniana, Lutatia, Caeciliana, and so on. Pliny grades them by flavour, including dulcis ("sweet") and acer ("sharp").[26] and goes so far as to say that before the Roman consul Lucius Licinius Lucullus
Lucullus
defeated Mithridates in 74 BC, Cerasia … non fuere in Italia, "There were no cherry trees in Italy". According to him, Lucullus
Lucullus
brought them in from Pontus and in the 120 years since that time they had spread across Europe
Europe
to Britain.[25] Although cultivated/domesticated varieties of Prunus
Prunus
avium (sweet cherry) didn’t exist in Britain or much of Europe, the tree in its wild state is native to most of Europe, including Britain. Evidence of consumption of the wild fruits has been found as far back as the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
at a Crannog
Crannog
in County Offaly, in Ireland.[27] Seeds of a number of cherry species have however been found in Bronze Age and Roman archaeological sites throughout Europe. The reference to "sweet" and "sour" supports the modern view that "sweet" was Prunus avium; there are no other candidates among the cherries found. In 1882 Alphonse de Candolle
Alphonse de Candolle
pointed out that seeds of Prunus
Prunus
avium were found in the Terramare culture
Terramare culture
of north Italy
Italy
(1500–1100 BC) and over the layers of the Swiss pile dwellings.[28] Of Pliny's statement he says (p. 210):

Since this error is perpetuated by its incessant repetition in classical schools, it must once more be said that cherry trees (at least the bird cherry) existed in Italy
Italy
before Lucullus, and that the famous gourmet did not need to go far to seek the species with the sour or bitter fruit.

De Candolle suggests that what Lucullus
Lucullus
brought back was a particular cultivar of Prunus
Prunus
avium from the Caucasus. The origin of cultivars of P. avium is still an open question. Modern cultivated cherries differ from wild ones in having larger fruit, 2–3 cm diameter. The trees are often grown on dwarfing rootstocks to keep them smaller for easier harvesting.[29] Folkard (1892) similarly identifies Lucullus's cherry as a cultivated variety. He states that it was planted in Britain a century after its introduction into Italy, but "disappeared during the Saxon period". He notes that in the fifteenth century "Cherries on the ryse" (i.e. on the twigs) was one of the street cries of London, but conjectures that these were the fruit of "the native wild Cherry, or Gean-tree". The cultivated variety was reintroduced into Britain by the fruiterer of Henry VIII, who brought it from Flanders and planted a cherry orchard at Teynham.[30] References[edit]

^ "The Plant
Plant
List: A Working List of All Plant
Plant
Species". Retrieved 27 January 2014.  ^ a b c " Prunus
Prunus
avium". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service
Agricultural Research Service
(ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 11 December 2017.  ^ British Trees Online Archived 3 September 2000 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c Den Virtuella Floran: Prunus
Prunus
avium (in Swedish; with map) ^ Atlas of Living Australia. " Prunus
Prunus
avium  : Sweet Cherry
Cherry
– Atlas of Living Australia". ala.org.au.  ^ Calflora taxon report, University of California, Prunus
Prunus
avium (L.) L. sweet cherry ^ Flora of North America, Prunus
Prunus
avium (Linnaeus) Linnaeus, 1755. Sweet cherry, cerisier des oiseaux ^ Tavaud, M.; Zanetto, A.; David, J.L.; Laigret, F.; Dirlewanger, E. (2004). Genetic relationships between diploid and allotetraploid cherry species ( Prunus
Prunus
avium, Prunus
Prunus
xgondouinii and Prunus
Prunus
cerasus). Heredity. 93(6): 631–638. ^ Linnaeus, C. (1753). Species Plantarum
Species Plantarum
1: 474. Online facsimile. ^ Linnaeus, C. (1755). Flora Suecica, ed. 2: 165. ^ Flora of NW Europe: Prunus
Prunus
padus Archived 9 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c d e Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5. ^ a b c Plants for a Future: Prunus
Prunus
avium ^ "Jim Conrad's Newsletter. Cherry
Cherry
leaf glands". Backyardnature.net. 12 June 2005. Retrieved 24 April 2012.  ^ "Sweet cherries". pollinator.ca.  ^ Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-220013-9. ^ Mitchell, A. F. (1974). Field Guide to the Trees of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-212035-6. ^ Flora of NW Europe: Prunus
Prunus
avium Archived 9 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Vedel, H., & Lange, J. (1960). Trees and Bushes in Wood
Wood
and Hedgerow. Metheun & Co. Ltd., London. ^ Marinis, R. C. de, Rapi, M., Ravazzi, C., Arpenti, E., Deaddis, M., & Perego, R. (2005). Lavagnone (Desenzano del Garda): new excavations and palaeoecology of a Bronze Age
Bronze Age
pile dwelling site in northern Italy. In: DellaCasa, P. & Trachsel, M., eds. Wetland Economies and Societies. Proceedings of the International Conference in Zurich, 10–13 March 2004. Collectio Archæologica 3: 221–232 Available online (pdf file)[permanent dead link] ^ a b European Garden Flora; Volume IV ^ Russell (2003), Wild cherry - Prunus
Prunus
avium: Technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use (PDF), European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, p. 6  ^ Stocks, Christopher (2009). "Britain's forgotten fruits". Flora. 1: 1–200.  ^ Natural History Book XV Section XII. ^ a b Pliny. Natural History Book XV Section XXX. ^ N.H. Book XV Sections XXXI–II. ^ Milner, Edward (2011). "Trees of Britain and Ireland". Flora. 1: 148.  ^ Candolle, A. de (1882). Origine des plantes cultivées. Geneva. ^ Panda, S., Martin, J. P., & Aquinagalde, I. (2003). Chloroplast DNA study in sweet cherry cultivars ( Prunus
Prunus
avium L.) using PCR-RFLP method. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 50 (5): 489–495. Abstract ^ Folkard, Richard (1892) " Plant
Plant
Lore, Legends and Lyrics", 2nd edn., Sampson, Low, Marston & Company, London.

External links[edit]

Trees portal

Data related to Prunus
Prunus
avium at Wikispecies Media related to Prunus
Prunus
avium at Wikimedia Commons Prunus
Prunus
avium - distribution map, genetic conservation units and related resources. European Forest Genetic Resources Programme (EUFORGEN)

v t e

Cherry
Cherry
cultivars

Sweet (Bigaroon, Mazzard)

Angela Bing Chelan Chinook Emperor Francis Hudson Lambert Lapins Rainier Regina Royal Ann (Napoleon) Sam Schmidt Skeena Stella Sweetheart Tieton Ulster Van

Sour (Amarelle, Morello)

Amarena Balaton Evans Griotte de Kleparow Marasca Montmorency North Star

Other edible

Nanking

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q165137 APDB: 152744 BioLib: 39516 EoL: 301092 EPPO: PRNAV FNA: 242341424 GBIF: 3020791 GRIN: 29844 iNaturalist: 61964 IPNI: 160672-3 ITIS: 24770 IUCN: 172064 NCBI: 42229 PalDat: Prunus_avium Plant
Plant
List: rjp-383 PLANTS: PRAV Tropicos: 278

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