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In Italy , a province (_provincia_) is an administrative division of intermediate level between a municipality (_comune _) and a region (_regione_). There are currently 107 provinces in Italy.

On 3 April 2014, the Italian Chamber of Deputies gave its final approval to the Law n.56/2014 which involves the transformation of the Italian provinces into "institutional bodies of second level" and the birth of 10 special Metropolitan cities . A further 4 such cities were added later. The reorganization of the Italian provinces became operative by January 2015.

The new law which transforms the provinces is preliminary to their abolition, as a revision of the second part of the Italian Constitution is needed in order to change the current bicameral parliamentary system and to abolish.

CONTENTS

* 1 Overview * 2 List of provinces

* 3 History

* 3.1 Kingdom of Italy * 3.2 Between the two World Wars * 3.3 After World War II * 3.4 Recent history

* 4 Former provinces

* 4.1 Historical abolished provinces * 4.2 Provinces of Istria and Dalmatia * 4.3 Provinces established during World War II * 4.4 Colonial provinces * 4.5 Theoretical provinces

* 5 Controversies * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links

OVERVIEW

Provinces of Italy in 2012, within related regions

A province of the Italian Republic is composed of many municipalities (_comune_). Usually several provinces together form a region; the region of Aosta Valley is the sole exception – it is not subdivided into provinces, and provincial functions are exercised by the region.

The three main functions devolved to provinces are:

* local planning and zoning; * provision of local police and fire services ; * transportation regulation (car registration, maintenance of local roads, etc.).

The number of provinces in Italy has been steadily growing in recent years, as many new ones are carved out of older ones. Usually, the province's name is the same as that of its capital city.

According to the 2014 reform, each province is headed by a President (or Commissioner) assisted by a legislative body, the Provincial Council, and an executive body, the Provincial Executive. President (Commissioner) and members of Council are elected together by mayors and city councilors of each municipality of the province. The Executive is chaired by the President (Commissioner) who appoint others members, called _assessori _. Since 2015, the President (Commissioner) and other members of the Council will not receive a salary.

In each province, there is also a Prefect (_prefetto _), a representative of the central government who heads an agency called _prefettura-ufficio territoriale del governo_. The Questor (_questore_) is the head of State's Police (_ Polizia di Stato _) in the province and his office is called _questura_. There is also a province's police force depending from local government, called provincial police (_polizia provinciale_).

The Alto Adige and Trentino are AUTONOMOUS PROVINCES: unlike all other provinces they have the same legislative powers as regions and are not subordinated to the region they are part of, namely the region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol .

LIST OF PROVINCES

ISTAT code PROVINCE ISO code Administrative Region Macro- Region Population Area (km²) Density (/km²) Comuni PRESIDENT

084 AGRIGENTO AG Sicily Insular 454,002 3,042 149 43 Marcello Maisano (commissar)

006 ALESSANDRIA AL Piedmont North-West 440,613 3,559 124 190 Liana Serrani

042 ANCONA AN Marche Centre 481,028 1,940 248 56 Patrizia Casagrande

007 AOSTA AO Valle d\'Aosta North-West 128,230 3,263 39 74 Augusto Rollandin

051 AREZZO AR Tuscany Centre 349,651 3,236 108 39 Paolo D'Erasmo

044 ASCOLI PICENO AP Marche Centre 214,068 1,228 174 33 Piero Celani

005 ASTI AT Piedmont North-West 221,687 1,515 146 118 Fabrizio Brignolo

064 AVELLINO AV Campania South 439,137 2,792 157 119 Domenico Gambacorta

072 BARI (metropolitan city) BA Apulia South 1,258,706 3,821 329 48 Antonio Decaro

110 BARLETTA-ANDRIA-TRANI BT Apulia South 392,863 1,538 255 10 Francesco Spina

025 BELLUNO BL Veneto North-East 213,474 3,676 58 69 Daniele Larese Filon

062 BENEVENTO BN Campania South 287,874 2,071 139 78 Claudio Ricci

016 BERGAMO BG Lombardy North-West 1,098,740 2,723 404 244 Matteo Rossi

096 BIELLA BI Piedmont North-West 185,768 914 203 82 Emanuele Ramella Pralungo

037 BOLOGNA (metropolitan city) BO Emilia-Romagna North-East 991,924 3,702 268 60 Virginio Merola

021 SOUTH TYROL BZ Trentino- South Tyrol North-East 507,657 7,400 69 116 Arno Kompatscher

017 BRESCIA BS Lombardy North-West 1,256,025 4,783 263 206 Pier Luigi Mottinelli

074 BRINDISI BR Apulia South 403,229 1,839 219 20 Maurizio Bruno

092 CAGLIARI (metropolitan city) CA Sardinia Insular 430,413 1,248 345 17 Massimo Zedda

085 CALTANISSETTA (free communal consortium) CL Sicily Insular 271,729 2,124 128 22 Alessandro Di Liberto (commissar)

070 CAMPOBASSO CB Molise South 231,086 2,910 79 84 Rosario De Matteis

107 CARBONIA-IGLESIAS CI Sardinia Insular 129,840 1,495 87 23 Giorgio Sanna (commissar)

061 CASERTA CE Campania South 916,467 2,640 347 104 Angelo Di Costanzo

087 CATANIA (metropolitan city) CT Sicily Insular 1,090,101 3,553 307 58 Maria Costanza Lentini (commissar)

079 CATANZARO CZ Calabria South 368,597 2,392 154 80 Enzo Bruno

069 CHIETI CH Abruzzo South 397,123 2,588 153 104 Mario Pupillo

013 COMO CO Lombardy North-West 594,988 1,288 462 160 Maria Rita Livio

078 COSENZA CS Calabria South 734,656 6,650 110 155 Mario Occhiuto

019 CREMONA CR Lombardy North-West 363,606 1,771 205 115 Carlo Vezzini

101 CROTONE KR Calabria South 174,605 1,716 102 27 Peppino Vallone

004 CUNEO CN Piedmont North-West 592,303 6,902 86 250 Federico Borgna

086 ENNA (Free communal consortium) EN Sicily Insular 172,485 2,561 67 20 Giovanni Corso (commissar)

109 FERMO FM Marche Centre 177,914 860 207 40 Fabrizio Cesetti

038 FERRARA FE Emilia-Romagna North-East 359,994 2,630 137 26 Tiziano Tagliani

048 FLORENCE (metropolitan city) FI Tuscany Centre 998,098 3,515 284 44 Dario Nardella

071 FOGGIA FG Apulia South 640,836 6,966 92 64 Francesco Miglio

040 FORLì-CESENA FC Emilia-Romagna North-East 395,489 2,376 166 30 David Drei

060 FROSINONE FR Lazio Centre 498,167 3,243 154 91 Antonello Iannarilli

010 GENOA (metropolitan city) GE Liguria North-West 882,718 1,839 480 67 Marco Doria

031 GORIZIA GO Friuli-Venezia Giulia North-East 142,407 466 306 25 Enrico Gherghetta

053 GROSSETO GR Tuscany Centre 228,157 4,501 51 28 Emilio Bonifazi

008 IMPERIA IM Liguria North-West 222,648 1,156 193 67 Fabio Natta

094 ISERNIA IS Molise South 88,694 1,528 58 52 Lorenzo Coia

011 LA SPEZIA SP Liguria North-West 223,516 881 254 32 Massimo Federici

066 L\\'AQUILA AQ Abruzzo South 309,820 5,035 62 108 Antonio De Crescentiis

059 LATINA LT Lazio Centre 555,692 2,250 247 33 Eleonora Della Penna

075 LECCE LE Apulia South 815,597 2,759 296 87 Antonio Maria Gabellone

097 LECCO LC Lombardy North-West 340,167 816 417 90 Flavio Polani

049 LIVORNO LI Tuscany Centre 342,955 1,211 283 20 Alessandro Franchi

098 LODI LO Lombardy North-West 227,655 782 291 61 Mauro Soldati

046 LUCCA LU Tuscany Centre 393,795 1,773 222 35 Stefano Baccelli

043 MACERATA MC Marche Centre 325,362 2,774 117 50 Antonio Pettinari

020 MANTUA MN Lombardy North-West 415,442 2,339 178 70 Alessandro Pastacci

045 MASSA AND CARRARA MS Tuscany Centre 203,901 1,157 176 17 Narciso Buffoni

077 MATERA MT Basilicata South 203,726 3,447 59 31 Francesco De Giacomo

106 MEDIO CAMPIDANO VS Sardinia Insular 102,409 1,516 68 28 Tizian Ledda (commissar)

083 MESSINA (metropolitan city) ME Sicily Insular 653,737 3,247 201 108 Filippo Romano (commissar)

015 MILAN (metropolitan city) MI Lombardy North-West 3,156,694 1,575 2,004 134 Giuliano Pisapia

036 MODENA MO Emilia-Romagna North-East 700,913 2,689 261 47 Pietro Luigi Ponti

108 MONZA AND BRIANZA MB Lombardy North-West 849,636 405 2,098 55 Pietro Luigi Ponti (PD )

063 NAPLES (metropolitan city) NA Campania South 3,080,873 1,171 2,631 92 Luigi De Magistris

003 NOVARA NO Piedmont North-West 371,802 1,339 278 88 Matteo Besozzi

091 NUORO NU Sardinia Insular 160,677 3,934 41 52 Costantino Tidu

105 OGLIASTRA OG Sardinia Insular 57,965 1,854 31 23 Maria Gabriella Mulas (commissar)

104 OLBIA-TEMPIO OT Sardinia Insular 157,859 3,399 46 26 Francesco Pirari (commissaR)

095 ORISTANO OR Sardinia Insular 166,244 3,040 55 88 Massimiliano De Seneen

028 PADUA PD Veneto North-East 934,216 2,143 436 104 Enoch Soranzo

082 PALERMO (metropolitan city) PA Sicily Insular 1,249,577 4,992 250 82 Manlio Munafò

034 PARMA PR Emilia-Romagna North-East 442,120 3,450 128 47 Filippo Fritelli

018 PAVIA PV Lombardy North-West 548,307 2,965 185 190 Daniele Bosone

054 PERUGIA PG Umbria Centre 671,821 6,332 106 59 Nando Mismetti

041 PESARO AND URBINO PU Marche Centre 366,963 2,564 143 60 Daniele Tagliolini

068 PESCARA PE Abruzzo South 323,184 1,225 264 46 Antonio Di Marco

033 PIACENZA PC Emilia-Romagna North-East 289,875 2,590 112 48 Francesco Rolleri

050 PISA PI Tuscany Centre 417,782 2,445 171 39 Marco Filippeschi

047 PISTOIA PT Tuscany Centre 293,061 965 304 22 Federica Fratoni

093 PORDENONE PN Friuli-Venezia Giulia North-East 315,323 2,130 148 51 Claudio Pedrotti

076 POTENZA PZ Basilicata South 383,791 6,549 59 100 Nicola Valluzzi

100 PRATO PO Tuscany Centre 249,775 365 684 7 Matteo Biffoni

088 RAGUSA (Free communal consortium) RG Sicily Insular 318,549 1,614 197 12 Dario Caltabellotta (commissar)

039 RAVENNA RA Emilia-Romagna North-East 392,458 1,858 211 18 Claudio Casadio

080 REGGIO CALABRIA RC Calabria South 566,977 3,184 178 97 Giuseppe Raffa

035 REGGIO EMILIA RE Emilia-Romagna North-East 530,343 2,292 231 45 Gianmaria Manghi

057 RIETI RI Lazio Centre 160,467 2,750 58 73 Giuseppe Rinaldi

099 RIMINI RN Emilia-Romagna North-East 329,302 863 382 27 Andrea Gnassi

058 ROME (metropolitan city) RM Lazio Centre 4,194,068 5,352 784 121 Mauro Alessandri

029 ROVIGO RO Veneto North-East 247,884 1,790 138 50 Marco Trombini

065 SALERNO SA Campania South 1,109,705 4,918 226 158 Alessandra Giudici

090 SASSARI SS Sardinia Insular 337,237 4,281 79 66 Alessandra Giudici (PD )

009 SAVONA SV Liguria North-West 287,906 1,545 186 69 Monica Giuliano

052 SIENA SI Tuscany Centre 272,638 3,823 71 36 Fabrizio Nepi

014 SONDRIO SO Lombardy North-West 183,169 3,210 57 78 Luca Della Bitta

089 SYRACUSE (Free Communal Consortium) SR Sicily Insular 404,271 2,108 192 21 Antonio Lutri (commissar)

073 TARANTO TA Apulia South 580,028 2,436 238 29 Martino Tamburrano

067 TERAMO TE Abruzzo South 312,239 1,948 160 47 Renzo Di Sabatino

055 TERNI TR Umbria Centre 234,665 2,122 111 33 Leopoldo Di Girolamo

081 TRAPANI (Free Communal Consortium) TP Sicily Insular 436,624 2,460 177 24 Giuseppe Amato (commissar)

022 TRENTINO TN Trentino-South Tyrol North-East 529,457 6,203 85 217 Ugo Rossi

026 TREVISO TV Veneto North-East 888,249 2,477 359 95 Leonardo Muraro

032 TRIESTE TS Friuli-Venezia Giulia North-East 236,556 212 1,116 6 Maria Teresa Bassa Poropat

001 TURIN (metropolitan city) TO Piedmont North-West 2,302,353 6,829 337 315 Piero Fassino

030 UDINE UD Friuli-Venezia Giulia North-East 541,522 4,904 110 136 Pietro Fontanini

012 VARESE VA Lombardy North-West 883,285 1,199 737 141 Nicola Gunnar Vincenzi

027 VENICE (metropolitan city) VE Veneto North-East 863,133 2,461 351 44 Luigi Brugnaro

103 VERBANO-CUSIO-OSSOLA VB Piedmont North-West 163,247 2,256 72 77 Stefano Costa

002 VERCELLI VC Piedmont North-West 179,562 2,088 86 86 Carlo Riva Vercellotti

023 VERONA VR Veneto North-East 920,158 3,120 295 98 Antonio Pastorello

102 VIBO VALENTIA VV Calabria South 166,560 1,139 146 50 Andrea Niglia

024 VICENZA VI Veneto North-East 870,740 2,723 320 121 Achille Variati

056 VITERBO VT Lazio Centre 320,294 3,614 89 60 Mauro Mazzola

TOTAL - - - - 60,626,442 301,338 201 8,094 -

* Sardinia - following the outcome of the regional referendums of 2012 it was decreed that such institutions should be reformed or abolished by March 2013 (thus remaining in office until February 28, 2013). In January 2014 the Sardinian Regional Administrative Court declared "unconstitutional" the abolition of the Sardinian provinces, which occurred in 2013. * Sicily - provinces were replaced by Free Communal Consortia in 2013.

HISTORY

KINGDOM OF ITALY

In 1861, at the birth of the Kingdom of Italy, there were 59 provinces. However, at that time the national territory was smaller than the current one: regions of Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino Alto Adige and Lazio were not included in the kingdom.

In 1866, following the Third Independence War , territories of Veneto, Friuli and Mantua were annexed. There were therefore nine more provinces: Belluno , Mantua , Padua , Rovigo , Treviso , Venice , Verona , Vicenza and Udine , all previously part of the Austrian Empire . Eventually, in 1870, following the annexion of Rome and its province from the Papal States , the provinces rose in number to 69.

After the First World War , new territories were annexed to Italy. The Province of Trento was created in 1920. Provinces of La Spezia , Trieste and Ionio in 1923. In 1924 the new provinces of _Fiume _, _Pola _, and _Zara _ were created, increasing the total number of provinces in Italy to 76.

BETWEEN THE TWO WORLD WARS

Provinces of Italy in 1942

In 1927, following a Royal charter , a general province rearrangement took place. 17 new provinces were created (Aosta , Vercelli , Varese , Savona , Bolzano , Gorizia , Pistoia , Pescara , Rieti , Terni , Viterbo , Frosinone , Brindisi , Matera , Ragusa , Castrogiovanni , Nuoro ) and the province of Caserta was suppressed. In the same year the institution of _circondari_, sub-provincial wards created before the unification , was abolished.

Province of Littoria (Latina) was created in 1934, and the Province of Asti in 1935.

Following the annexion of Yugoslavia in 1941, the Province of Zara was enlarged and joined the Governatorate of Dalmatia (comprising the provinces of Zara , Spalato , and Cattaro ), while in the occupied central part of the present-day Slovenia the new Province of Ljubljana was created. This lasted only until 1945, when Yugoslavia was recreated.

AFTER WORLD WAR II

In 1945, after World War II, the province of Aosta changed its name to Valle d'Aosta and Littoria to Latina; the new province of Caserta was created. With the Paris Treaties , signed on 10 February 1947, Italy lost the provinces in the regions of Istria, Carnaro and Dalmazia and part of the provinces of Trieste and Gorizia. Moreover, the province of Trieste was occupied by United States and British forces. The Italian Republic therefore had 91 provinces at its birth.

The province of Ionio was renamed as Taranto in 1951, and in 1954 the province of Trieste was returned to Italy.

RECENT HISTORY

The Province of Pordenone was created in 1968, the province of Isernia in 1970, and the Province of Oristano in 1974. In a reorganization in 1992 eight provinces were created: Verbano-Cusio-Ossola , Biella , Lecco , Lodi , Rimini , Prato , Crotone , and Vibo Valentia , while Forlì was renamed as Forlì-Cesena .

Four new provinces were created in Sardinia in 2001, with effect from 2005: Olbia-Tempio , Ogliastra , Medio Campidano and Carbonia-Iglesias . In 2004 three further provinces were created: Monza and Brianza , Fermo , and Barletta-Andria-Trani , making a total of 110 provinces.

In May 2012, a referendum abolished the eight provinces of Sardinia, and this suppression was to take effect on 1 March 2013. On 6 July 2012, new plans were published to reduce the number of provinces by around half. In January 2014 the Sardinian Regional Administrative Court declared "unconstitutional" the abolition of the Sardinian provinces, which occurred in 2013.

FORMER PROVINCES

NUMBER OF PROVINCES

Year Provinces

1861 59

1866 68

1870 69

1920 70

1923 73

1924 76

1927 92

1934 93

1935 94

1941 97

1945 95

1947 91

1954 92

1968 93

1970 94

1974 95

1992 103

2001 107

2004 110

2015 100

HISTORICAL ABOLISHED PROVINCES

* Province of Aosta (Italian: _Provincia di Aosta_) (1927–1945). Became the Autonomous Region of Aosta Valley in 1948. * Province of Terra di Lavoro (Italian: _Provincia di Terra di Lavoro_ ) (1861–1927). Was divided into the current provinces of Frosinone, Latina and Caserta.

PROVINCES OF ISTRIA AND DALMATIA

* Province of Zara (Italian: _Provincia di Zara_) (1923–1947). Originally a small territory, was greatly enlarged in 1941. Was a part of the Governorship of Dalmatia . It remained nominally a part of the Italian Social Republic after the Italian capitulation . * Province of Pola (Italian: _Provincia di Pola_) (1923–1947). Created after World War I in Italian Istria. Was occupied by Germany in September 1943 and was administered as a part of the German Operational Zone of the Adriatic Littoral . * Province of Carnaro (Italian: _Provincia di Fiume_) (1924–1947). Enlarged during World War II. Was occupied by Germany in September 1943 and was administered as a part of the German Operational Zone of the Adriatic Littoral.

PROVINCES ESTABLISHED DURING WORLD WAR II

* Province of Ljubljana (Italian: _Provincia di Lubiana_) (1941–1943). Was occupied by Germany in September 1943 and was administered as a part of the German Operation Zone of the Adriatic Littoral. * Province of Spalato (Italian: _Provincia di Spalato_) (1941–1943). Was a part of the Governorship of Dalmatia. Was occupied by Germany in September 1943 and later annexed by the Independent State of Croatia . * Province of Cattaro (Italian: _Provincia di Cattaro_) (1941–1943). Was a part of the Governorship of Dalmatia. Was occupied by Germany in September 1943 and partially annexed by the Independent State of Croatia.

COLONIAL PROVINCES

* Province of Rhodes (Italian: _Provincia di Rodi_ ) (1923–1947) or Italian Aegean Islands (Italian: _Isole italiane dell'Egeo_) . It remained nominally a part of the Italian Social Republic after the Italian capitulation.

* Italian Libya was divided into four provinces and one territory (Southern Military Territory or Territory of Saharan Libya ). From 1939 onward the provinces were a part of metropolitan Italy.

* Province of Tripoli (Italian: _Provincia di Tripoli_) (1937–1943). * Province of Misurata (Italian: _Provincia di Misurata_) (1937–1943). * Province of Benghazi (Italian: _Provincia di Bengasi_) (1937–1943). * Province of Derna (Italian: _Provincia di Derna_) (1937–1943).

THEORETICAL PROVINCES

Further information: Italian occupation of France during World War II _ Number of provinces in Italy since 1861

* Province of the Western Alps (Italian: Provincia delle Alpi Occidentali_). Planned World War II province to be created of the annexed French territories of the Alpes Maritimes (including the Principality of Monaco ) and parts of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence , Hautes Alpes and Savoie . The town of Briançon (Italian: _Brianzone_) was to act as the provincial capital. * Province of Ragusa in Dalmatia (Italian: _Provincia di Ragusa di Dalmazia_). Planned World War II province to be created of the annexed Dalmatian territories that were areas of the ancient Republic of Ragusa .

CONTROVERSIES

Italian Provinces, after reform of Mario Monti's Government (the map does not include the updates of abolition of the provinces in Regions of Sicily and Sardinia).

Provinces are often deemed useless, and many proposals have been made in recent years to eliminate them. However, the difficulty of changing a constitutional law and the opposition of some groups and politicians halted any reform proposal. During his speech to the Chamber of Deputies, newly appointed Prime Minister Enrico Letta announced that a revision of the second part of the Italian Constitution is needed, in order to change the current bicameral parliamentary system and to abolish provinces.

SEE ALSO

* ISO 3166-2:IT

NOTES

* ^ Regio Decreto Legislativo n. 1/1927, 3 January 1927, "Riordinamento delle circoscrizioni provinciali"

* ^ _A_ _B_ Autonomous province.

REFERENCES

* ^ "Addio alle vecchie province, è legge il Ddl Delrio". Ilsole24ore.it. 2014-04-03. Retrieved 2014-08-15. * ^ "Cdm, via libera al ddl per abolire le province". laRepubblica.it. 2013-07-05. Retrieved 2014-08-01. * ^ http://elezioni.interno.it/l56_2014.html * ^ "Province, inizia il conto alla rovescia Gli enti scompariranno a febbraio 2013 - Cronache dalla Sardegna - L\'Unione Sarda". Unionesarda.it. 2001-08-17. Retrieved 2013-02-04. * ^ "Riordino province, incostituzionale secondo il TAR Sardegna". Giurdanella.it. 2014-01-10. Retrieved 2014-08-15. * ^ Redazione Online. "Spending review, province ridotte del 50% Patroni Griffi:«L\'accorpamento è una svolta". Corriere.it. Retrieved 2013-02-04. * ^ As "second level institutional bodies". * ^ _A_ _B_ Davide Rodogno (2006). _Fascism's European empire: Italian occupation during the Second World War_. Cambridge University Press . pp. 89–92. ISBN 0-521-84515-7 . * ^ "Lombardo contro le Province "È giunto il momento di abolirle"". _la Repubblica_. 26 July 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011.

* ^ "Pareggio di bilancio in Costituzione dal 2014 Addio Province (escluse Trento e Bolzano)". _la Repubblica_. 8 September 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011. * ^ "Più di un milione di persone a libro paga della Politica Spa". _la Repubblica_. 18 July 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011. * ^ "Il presidente della Provincia di Varese "Via le Regioni come Molise e Umbria"". _la Repubblica_. 16 July 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011. * ^ Fabrizzi, Federica. "LA PROVINCIA: STORIA ISTITUZIONALE DELL’ENTE LOCALE PIÙ DISCUSSO." (PDF). federalismi.it. Retrieved 21 November 2011.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Media related to

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