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The Province of New York
Province of New York
(1664–1776) was a British proprietary colony and later royal colony on the northeast coast of North America. As one of the Thirteen Colonies, New York achieved independence and worked with the others to found the United States. In 1664, during the Second Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch Province of New Netherland was awarded by Charles II of England
Charles II of England
to his brother James, Duke of York. James raised a fleet to take it from the Dutch and the Governor surrendered to the English fleet without recognition from the Dutch West Indies Company. The province was renamed for the Duke of York, as its proprietor. England seized de facto control of the colony from the Dutch in 1664, and was given de jure sovereign control in 1667 in the Treaty of Breda and again in the Treaty of Westminster (1674). It wasn't until 1674 that English Common law
English Common law
was applied. The colony was one of the Middle Colonies, and ruled at first directly from England. When James ascended to the throne of England as James II, the colony became a royal colony. When the English arrived, the colony somewhat vaguely included claims to all of the present U.S. states of New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Vermont, along with inland portions of Connecticut, Massachusetts and Maine
Maine
in addition to eastern Pennsylvania. The majority of this land was soon reassigned by the crown, leaving the territory of the modern State of New York, including the valleys of the Hudson and Mohawk Rivers, and future Vermont. The territory of western New York was disputed with the Iroquois
Iroquois
Indian nation, and also disputed between the English and the French from their northern colonial province of New France
New France
(modern eastern Canada). Vermont
Vermont
was disputed with the Province of New Hampshire
Province of New Hampshire
to the east. The revolutionary New York Provincial Congress
New York Provincial Congress
of local representatives assumed the government on May 22, 1775, declared the province the "State of New York" in 1776, and ratified the first New York Constitution in 1777. During the ensuing American Revolutionary War the British regained and occupied New York Town in September 1776, using it as its military and political base of operations in British North America,[1][2] Though a British governor was technically in office, much of the remainder of the upper part of the colony was held by the rebel Patriots. British claims in New York were ended by the Treaty of Paris of 1783, with New York establishing its independence from the crown. The final evacuation of all of New York by the British Army was followed by the return of General George Washington's Continental Army
Continental Army
on November 25, 1783 in a grand parade and celebration.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Counties

2 History

2.1 Proprietary government (1664–1685) 2.2 Royal province (1686–1775)

2.2.1 Black slaves 2.2.2 Dutch 2.2.3 Germans 2.2.4 King George's War 2.2.5 French and Indian War

2.3 Political parties 2.4 Stamp Act 2.5 Quartering Act 2.6 Townshend Acts 2.7 Tea Act 2.8 Intolerable Acts 2.9 Provincial Congress

3 Structure of government 4 Judiciary 5 Demographics 6 Economy 7 See also 8 Footnotes 9 Further reading 10 External links

Geography[edit] This British crown colony was established upon the former Dutch colony of New Netherland, with its core being York Shire, in what today is typically known as Downstate New York. Counties[edit] See also: List of counties in New York
List of counties in New York
and List of former United States counties The Province of New York
Province of New York
was divided into twelve counties on November 1, 1683, by New York Governor Thomas Dongan:

Albany County: all of the region that is now northern and western New York. Also claimed the area, later disputed, that is now Vermont. In addition, as there was no fixed western border to the colony (a sea-to-sea grant), Albany County technically extended to the Pacific Ocean. Most of this land, which was Indian land for most of the province's history, has now been ceded to other states and most of the land within New York has been divided into new counties. Cornwall County: that part of Maine
Maine
between the Kennebec River
Kennebec River
and the St. Croix River from the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the St. Lawrence River. Ceded to the Province of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay in 1692. Dukes County: the Elizabeth Islands, Martha's Vineyard
Martha's Vineyard
and Nantucket Island east of Long Island. Ceded to Massachusetts
Massachusetts
in 1692. Dutchess County: now Dutchess and Putnam counties. Kings County: the current Kings County; Brooklyn. New York County: the current New York County; Manhattan. Orange County: now Orange and Rockland counties. Queens County: now Queens and Nassau counties. Richmond County: the current Richmond County; Staten Island. Suffolk County: the current Suffolk County. Ulster County: now Ulster and Sullivan counties and part of what is now Delaware
Delaware
and Greene counties. Westchester County: now Westchester and Bronx
Bronx
counties.

On March 24, 1772:

Tryon County was formed out of Albany County. It was renamed Montgomery County in 1784, with a later division to Herkimer County around Little Falls. Charlotte County was formed out of Albany County. It was renamed Washington County in 1784.

History[edit] See also: History of New York City
New York City
(1665–1783) In 1617 officials of the Dutch West India Company
Dutch West India Company
in New Netherland created a settlement at present-day Albany, and in 1624 founded New Amsterdam, on Manhattan
Manhattan
Island. New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
surrendered to Colonel Richard Nicholls on August 27, 1664; he renamed it New York. On September 24 Sir George Carteret
George Carteret
accepted the capitulation of the garrison at Fort Orange, which he called Albany, after another of the Duke of York's titles.[3] The capture was confirmed by the Treaty of Breda in July 1667. Easing the transition to British rule, the Articles of Capitulation guaranteed certain rights to the Dutch; among these were: liberty of conscience in divine worship and church discipline, the continuation of their own customs concerning inheritances, and the application of Dutch law to bargains and contracts made prior to the capitulation.[4] Proprietary government (1664–1685)[edit] See also: Proprietary colony In 1664, James, Duke of York
Duke of York
was granted a proprietary colony which included New Netherland
New Netherland
and present-day Maine. The New Netherland claim included western parts of present-day Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(to an extent that varied depending on whether the reference was the States General claim of all lands as far east as Narragansett Bay
Narragansett Bay
or the Treaty of Hartford negotiated by the English and Dutch colonies in 1650 but not recognized by either the Dutch or English governments) putting the new province in conflict with the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
charter. In general terms, the charter was equivalent to a conveyance of land conferring on him the right of possession, control, and government, subject only to the limitation that the government must be consistent with the laws of England. The Duke of York
Duke of York
never visited his colony and exercised little direct control of it. He elected to administer his government through governors, councils, and other officers appointed by himself. No provision was made for an elected assembly. Also in 1664, the Duke of York
Duke of York
gave the part of his new possessions between the Hudson River
Hudson River
and the Delaware
Delaware
River to Sir George Carteret in exchange for settlement of a debt.[5] The territory was named after the Island of Jersey, Carteret's ancestral home.[6] The other section of New Jersey
New Jersey
was sold to Lord Berkeley of Stratton, who was a close friend of the Duke. As a result, Carteret and Berkeley became the two English Lords Proprietors of New Jersey.[7][8] The Province of New Jersey
Jersey
was created, but the border was not finalized until 1765 (see New York- New Jersey
New Jersey
Line War). In 1667, territories between the Byram River and Connecticut
Connecticut
River were split off to become the western half of Connecticut.[9] The first governor Richard Nicolls
Richard Nicolls
was known for writing "The Duke's Laws" which served as the first compilation of English laws in colonial New York.[4] Nicholls returned to England after an administration of three years, much of which was taken up in confirming the ancient Dutch land grants. Francis Lovelace
Francis Lovelace
was next appointed Governor and held the position from May 1667 until the return of the Dutch in July 1673.[3] A Dutch fleet recaptured New York and held it until it was traded to the English by the Treaty of Westminster. A second grant was obtained by the Duke of York
Duke of York
in July 1674 to perfect his title. Upon conclusion of the peace in 1674, the Duke of York
Duke of York
appointed Sir Edmund Andros
Edmund Andros
as Governor of his territories in America.[3] Governor Edmund Andros
Edmund Andros
in 1674 said "permit all persons of what religion soever, quietly to inhabit within the precincts of your jurisdiction"[10] Nonetheless, he made the Quakers of West Jersey
Jersey
pay toll on the Delaware, but they applied to England and were redressed.[11] He was followed by Colonel Thomas Dongan
Thomas Dongan
in 1682. Dongan was empowered, on the advice of William Penn, to summon "...a general assembly of all the freeholders, by such persons they should choose to represent them to consult with you and said council what laws are fit and necessary to be made..."[4] A colonial Assembly was created in October 1683. New York was the last of the English colonies to have an assembly. The assembly passed the Province of New York
Province of New York
constitution on October 30, the first of its kind in the colonies. This constitution gave New Yorkers more rights than any other group of colonists including the protection from taxation without representation. On November 1, 1683, the government was reorganized, and the state was divided into twelve counties, each of which was subdivided into towns. Ten of those counties still exist (see above), but two (Cornwall and Dukes) were in territory purchased by the Duke of York
Duke of York
from the Earl of Stirling, and are no longer within the territory of the State of New York, having been transferred by treaty to Massachusetts. While the number of counties has been increased to 62, the pattern still remains that a town in New York State is a subdivision of a county, similar to New England. An act of the assembly in 1683 naturalized all those of foreign nations then in the colony professing Christianity. To encourage immigration, it also provided that foreigners professing Christianity may, after their arrival, be naturalized if they took the oath of allegiance as required. The Duke's Laws established a non-denominational state church.[citation needed] The British replaced the Dutch in their alliance with the Iroquois against New France, with an agreement called the Covenant Chain. Royal province (1686–1775)[edit] In 1664, after the Dutch ceded New Netherland
New Netherland
to England, it became a proprietary colony under James, Duke of York. When James ascended the throne in February 1685 and became King James II, his personally owned colony became a royal province.[12][13] In May 1688 the province was made part of the Dominion
Dominion
of New England. However, in April 1689, when news arrived that King James had been overthrown in the Glorious Revolution, Bostonians overthrew their government and imprisoned Dominion
Dominion
Governor Edmund Andros. The province of New York rebelled in May in what is known as Leisler's Rebellion. King William's War
King William's War
with France began during which the French attacked Schenectady. In July, New York participated in an abortive attack on Montreal and Quebec. A new governor Henry Sloughter arrived in March 1691. He had Jacob Leisler
Jacob Leisler
arrested, tried, and executed. New York's charter was re-enacted in 1691 and was the constitution of the province until the creation of the State of New York. The first newspaper appeared weekly in 1725. During Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War
with France from 1702 to 1713, the province had little involvement with the military operations, but benefited from being a supplier to the British fleet. New York militia participated in two abortive attacks on Quebec in 1709 and 1711. Black slaves[edit] In the 1690s, New York City
New York City
was the largest importer of the colonies of slaves and a supply port for pirates. The black population became a major element in New York City, and on large upstate farms.[14] New York City
New York City
sold these slaves using slave markets, giving slaves to the highest bidder at an auction. With its shipping and trades, New York had use for skilled Africans as artisans and domestic servants. Two notable slave revolts occurred in New York City
New York City
in 1712 and 1741.[15] The numbers of slaves imported to New York increased dramatically from the 1720s through 1740s. By the 17th century, they established the African burial ground in Lower Manhattan, which was used through 1812. It was discovered nearly two centuries later during excavation before the construction of the Ted Weiss Federal Building at 290 Broadway. Historians estimated 15,000-20,000 Africans and African Americans had been buried in the approximately 8 acres surrounding there. Because of the extraordinary find, the government commissioned a memorial at the site, where the National Park Service
National Park Service
has an interpretive center. It has been designated a National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
and National Monument. Excavation and study of the remains has been described as the "most important historic urban archaeological project undertaken in the United States."[16] Dutch[edit]

The Van Bergen farm, 1733, near Albany, NY. Distinctively Dutch.[17]

When the British took over, the great majority of Dutch families remained, with the exception of government officials and soldiers. However new Dutch arrivals were very few. While the Netherlands was a small country, the Dutch Empire was quite large, meaning that emigrants leaving the mother country had a wide variety of choices under full Dutch control. The major Dutch cities were centers of high culture, but they sent few immigrants. Most new arrivals in the 17th century had been farmers from remote villages who on arrival in New Netherland scattered into widely separated villages that had little cross contact with each other. Even inside a settlement, different Dutch groups had minimal interaction. With very few new arrivals, the result was an increasingly traditional system cut off from the forces for change . The folk maintained their popular culture, revolving around their language and their Calvinist religion. The Dutch brought along their own folklore, most famously Sinterklaas (the foundation of the modern day Santa Claus). They maintained their distinctive clothing, and food preferences. They introduced some new foods to America, including beets, endive, spinach, parsley, and cookies. After the British takeover, the rich Dutch families in Albany and New York City emulated the English elite. They purchased English furniture, silverware, crystal, and jewelry. They were proud of the Dutch language, which was strongly reinforced through the church, but they were much slower than the Yankees in setting up schools for their children. They finally did set up Queens College (now Rutgers University) in New Jersey. They published no newspapers, and published no books and only a handful of religious tracts annually.[18][19][20][21] Germans[edit] Nearly 2,800 Palatine German emigrants were transported to New York by Queen Anne's government in ten ships in 1710, the largest single group of immigrants before the Revolutionary War. By comparison, Manhattan then had only 6,000 people. Initially the Germans were employed in the production of naval stores and tar along the Hudson River
Hudson River
near Peekskill. In 1723 they were allowed to settle in the central Mohawk Valley west of Schenectady
Schenectady
as a buffer against the Native Americans and the French. They also settled in areas such as Schoharie and Cherry Valley. Many became tenant farmers or squatters. They kept to themselves, married their own, spoke German, attended Lutheran churches, and retained their own customs and foods. They emphasized farm ownership. Some mastered English to become conversant with local legal and business opportunities. [22] King George's War[edit] Main article: King George's War This province, as a British colony, fought against the French during King George's War. The assembly was determined to control expenditures for this war and only weak support was given. When the call came for New York to help raise an expeditionary force against Louisburg, the New York assembly refused to raise troops and only appropriated a token three thousand pounds.[23] The assembly was opposed to a significant war effort because it would interrupt trade with Quebec and would result in higher taxes. The French raid on Saratoga in 1745 destroyed that settlement, killing and capturing more than one hundred people. After this attack the assembly was more generous and raised 1,600 men and forty thousand pounds.[24] French and Indian War[edit] Main article: French and Indian War Upstate New York was the scene of fighting during the French and Indian War, with British and French forces contesting control of Lake Champlain in association with Native American allies. Sir William Johnson, 1st Baronet, and other agents in upstate New York brought about the participation of the Iroquois. The French and their Indian allies laid siege to Fort William Henry
Fort William Henry
at the southern end of Lake George in 1757. The British forces surrendered to the French, but many prisoners were then massacred by the Indians. Some prisoners had smallpox, and when Indians took the scalps to their home villages, they spread a disease that killed large numbers.[25] In the end the British won the war and took over all of Canada, thereby ending French-sponsored Indian attacks. One of the largest impressment operations occurred in New York City
New York City
in the spring of 1757 when three thousand British troops cordoned off the city and impressed nearly eight hundred persons they found in taverns and other gathering places of sailors.[26] New York City
New York City
was the centre for privateering. Forty New York ships were commissioned as privateers in 1756 and in the spring of 1757 it was estimated the value of French prizes brought into New York City
New York City
was two hundred thousand pounds. By 1759, the seas had been cleaned of French vessels and the privateers were diverted into trading with the enemy. The ending of the war caused a severe recession in New York. Sir William Johnson, 1st Baronet, negotiated an end to Pontiac's Rebellion. He promoted the Proclamation of 1763
Proclamation of 1763
and the Treaty of Fort Stanwix to protect the Indians from further English settlement in their lands. The treaty established a boundary line along the West Branch Delaware
Delaware
River and the Unadilla River, with Iroquois
Iroquois
lands to the west and colonial lands to the east.[27] Political parties[edit] During the middle years of the 18th century, politics in New York revolved around the rivalry of two great families, the Livingstons and the De Lanceys. Both of these families had amassed considerable fortunes. New York City
New York City
had an inordinate influence on New York politics because several of the assembly members lived in New York City rather than in their district. In the 1752 election, De Lanceys' relatives and close friends controlled 12 of the 27 seats in the assembly. The De Lanceys lost control of the assembly in the election of 1761. Governor Cadwallader Colden
Cadwallader Colden
tried to organize a popular party to oppose the great families, thus earning the hatred of the city elite of both parties. The Livingstons looked to the imperial ties as a means of controlling the influence of James De Lancey. The De Lanceys regarded imperial ties to be a tool for personal advantage.[28] Stamp Act[edit] See also: Stamp Act 1765 Parliament passed the Stamp Act 1765
Stamp Act 1765
to raise money from the colonies. New York had previously passed its own stamp act from 1756 to 1760 to raise money for the French and Indian war. The extraordinary response to the Stamp Act can only be explained by the build-up of antagonisms on local issues.[29] New York was experiencing a severe recession from the effects of the end of the French and Indian war. The colonies were experiencing the effects of a very tight monetary policy caused by the trade deficit with Britain, a fiscal crisis in Britain restricting credit, and the Currency Act, which prevented the issuing of paper currency to provide liquidity.[30] From the outset, New York led the protests in the colonies. Both New York political factions opposed the Stamp Act of 1765. In October, at what became Federal Hall
Federal Hall
in New York City, representatives of several colonies met in the Stamp Act Congress
Stamp Act Congress
to discuss their response. The New York assembly petitioned the British House of Commons on December 11, 1765, for the Americans' right of self taxation. In August, the intimidation and beating of stamp agents was widely reported. The New York stamp commissioner resigned his job. The act went into effect on November 1. The day before, James De Lancey organized a meeting at Burns Tavern of New York City
New York City
merchants, where they agreed to boycott all British imports until the Stamp Act was repealed. A leading moderate group opposing the Stamp Act were the local Sons of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
headed by Isaac Sears, John Lamb and Alexander McDougall. Historian Gary B. Nash wrote of what was called the “General Terror of November 1–4”:[31]

But New York’s plebeian element was not yet satisfied. Going beyond the respectable leaders of the Sons of Liberty, the lower orders rampaged through the town for four days. Some two thousand strong, they threatened the homes of suspected sympathizers of British policy, attacked the house of the famously wealthy governor Cadwallader Colden, paraded his effigy around town, and built a monstrous bonfire in the Bowling Green into which the shouting crowd hurled the governor’s luxurious two sleighs and horse-drawn coach.[32]

Historian Fred Anderson contrasted the mob actions in New York with those in Boston. In Boston, after the initial unrest, local leaders such as the Loyal Nine
Loyal Nine
(a precursor to the Sons of Liberty) were able to take control of the mob. In New York, however, the "mob was largely made up of seamen, most of whom lacked deep community ties and felt little need to submit to the authority of the city's shorebound radical leaders." The New York Sons of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
did not take control of the opposition until after November 1.[33] On November 1, the crowd destroyed a warehouse and the house of Thomas James, commander at Fort George. A few days later the stamps stored at Fort George were surrendered to the mob. Nash notes that, “whether the Sons of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
could control the mariners, lower artisans, and laborers remained in doubt,” and “they came to fear the awful power of the assembled lower-class artisans and their maritime compatriots.”[31] On January 7, 1766, the merchant ship Polly carrying stamps for Connecticut
Connecticut
was boarded in New York City
New York City
harbour and the stamps destroyed. Up to the end of 1765 the Stamp Act disturbances had largely been confined to New York City, but in January the Sons of Liberty also stopped the distribution of stamps in Albany. In May 1766, when news arrived of the repeal of the Stamp Act the Sons of Liberty celebrated by the erection of a Liberty Pole. It became a rallying point for mass meetings and an emblem of the American cause. In June, two regiments of British regulars arrived in New York City and were quartered in the upper barracks. These troops cut down the liberty pole on August 10. A second and third pole were erected and also cut down. A fourth pole was erected and encased in iron to prevent similar action.[citation needed] In 1766, widespread tenant uprisings occurred in the countryside north of New York City
New York City
centered on the Livingston estates. They marched on New York City
New York City
expecting the Sons of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
to support them. Instead the Sons of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
blocked the roads and the leader of the tenants was convicted of treason.[original research?] Quartering Act[edit] See also: Quartering Act

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In the last years of the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
London approved a policy of keeping twenty regiments in the colonies to police and defend the back country. The enabling legislation took the form of the Quartering Act
Quartering Act
which required colonial legislatures to provide quarters and supplies for the troops. The Quartering Act
Quartering Act
stirred little controversy and New Yorkers were ambivalent about the presence of the troops. The assembly had provided barracks and provisions every year since 1761. The tenant riots of 1766 showed the need for a police force in the colony. The Livingston-controlled New York assembly passed a quartering bill in 1766 to provide barracks and provisions in New York City
New York City
and Albany which satisfied most, but not all of the requirements of the Quartering Act. London suspended the assembly for failure to comply fully, and Governor Moore dissolved the House of Assembly, February 6, 1768. The next month New Yorkers went to the polls for a new assembly. In this election, with the Sons of Liberty support, the De Lancey faction gained seats, but not enough for a majority.[34] Townshend Acts[edit] In 1768, a letter issued by the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
assembly called for the universal boycott of British imports in opposition to the Townshend Acts. In October, the merchants of New York City
New York City
agreed on the condition that the merchants of Boston and Philadelphia also agreed.[citation needed] In December, the assembly passed a resolution which stated the colonies were entitled to self-taxation. Governor Moore declared the resolution repugnant to the laws of England and dissolved the assembly. The De Lancey faction, again with Sons of Liberty support, won a majority in the assembly.[35] In the spring of 1769, New York was in a depression from the recall of paper boycott and the British boycott.[citation needed] By the Currency Act
Currency Act
New York was required to recall all paper money. London allowed the issuance of additional paper money, but the attached conditions were unsatisfactory.[why?] While New York was boycotting British imports, other colonies including Boston and Philadelphia were not. The De Lanceys tried to reach a compromise by passing a bill which allowed for the issuing of paper currency, of which half was for provisioning of the troops. Alexander McDougall, signed a 'Son of Liberty', issued a broadside entitled To the Betrayed Inhabitants of the City and Colony of New York which was an excellent piece of political propaganda denouncing the De Lanceys for betraying the liberties of the people by acknowledging the British power of taxation.[original research?] The Sons of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
switched their allegiance from the De Lanceys to the Livingstons.[citation needed] Alexander McDougall
Alexander McDougall
was arrested for libel.[36] Conflict between the Sons of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
and the troops in New York City erupted with the Battle of Golden Hill
Battle of Golden Hill
on January 19, 1770, where troops cut down the fourth Liberty Pole
Liberty Pole
which had been erected in 1767.[37] In July 1770, the merchants of New York City
New York City
decided to resume trade with Britain when news arrived of Parliament's plan to repeal the Townshend Duties and to give permission for New York to issue some paper currency. The Sons of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
were strongly opposed to the resumption of trade. The merchants twice polled their members and went door to door polling residents of New York City
New York City
and all polls were overwhelming in support of resumption of trade. This was perhaps the first public opinion poll in American history.[38] Tea Act[edit] See also: Tea Act New York was peaceful after the repeal of the Townshend Act, but the economy of New York was still in a slump. In May 1773 the Parliament passed the Tea Act
Tea Act
cutting the duty on tea and enabling the East India company to sell tea in the colonies cheaper than the smugglers could. This act primarily hurt the New York merchants and smugglers. The Sons of Liberty were the organizers of the opposition and in November 1773 they published Association of the Sons of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
of New York in which anyone who assisted in support of the act would be a "enemy to the liberties of America". As a result, the New York East India agents resigned. The New York assembly took no action in regard to the Sons of Liberty assumption of extra-legal powers.[39] The New York City
New York City
Sons of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
learned of Boston's plan to stop the unloading of any tea and resolved to also follow this policy. Since the Association had not obtained the support they had expected, the Sons of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
were afraid that if the tea was landed the population would demand its distribution for retail.[40] In December, news arrived of the Boston Tea Party
Boston Tea Party
strengthened opposition. In April 1774, The boat Nancy arrived in New York harbor for repairs. The captain admitted that he had 18 chests of tea on board and he agreed that he would not attempt to have the tea landed, but the Sons of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
boarded the ship regardless and destroyed the tea. Intolerable Acts[edit] In January 1774, the Assembly created a Committee of Correspondence
Committee of Correspondence
to correspond with other colonies in regard to the Intolerable Acts.[41] In May 1774 news arrived of the Boston Port Act
Boston Port Act
which closed the port of Boston. The Sons of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
were in favor of resumption of a trade boycott with Britain, but there was strong resistance from the large importers. In May, a meeting in New York City
New York City
was called in which members were selected for a Committee of Correspondence. The Committee of Fifty was formed which was dominated with moderates, the Sons of Liberty only obtained 15 members. Isaac Low was the chairman. Francis Lewis was added to create the Committee of Fifty-One. The group adopted a resolution which said Boston was "suffering in the defence of the rights of America" and proposed the formation of a Continental Congress. In July, the committee select five of their members as delegates to this congress. Some of the other counties also sent delegates to the First Continental Congress
Continental Congress
which was held in September. The New York delegates were unable to stop the adoption at the congress of the Continental Association. The association was generally ignored in New York. In January and February 1775, of the New York Assembly
New York Assembly
voted down successive resolutions approving the proceedings of the First Continental Congress
Continental Congress
and refused to send delegates to the Second Continental Congress. New York was the only colonial assembly which did not approve the proceeds of the First Continental Congress. Opposition to the Congress revolved around the opinion that the provincial houses of assembly were the proper agencies to solicit redress for grievances. In March, the Assembly broke with the rest of the colonies and wrote a petition to London, but London rejected the petition because it contained claims about a lack of authority of the "parent state" to tax colonists, "which made it impossible" to accept. The Assembly last met on April 3, 1775.[42] Provincial Congress[edit] Main article: New York Provincial Congress In April 1775, the rebels formed the New York Provincial Congress
New York Provincial Congress
as a replacement for the New York Assembly. News of the battle of Lexington and Concord reached New York on April 23, which stunned the city since there was a widely believed rumor that Parliament was to grant the colonies self-taxation. The Sons of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
led by Marinus Willett broke into the Arsenal at City Hall and removed 1,000 stand of arms. The armed citizens formed a voluntary corps to govern the city with Isaac Sears's house the de facto seat of government and militia headquarters. The crown-appointed New York executive council met on April 24 and concluded that "we were unanimously of the opinion that we had no power to do anything."[43] The British troops in New York City never left their barracks. On October 19, 1775, Governor William Tryon
William Tryon
was forced to leave New York City for a British warship offshore, ending any appearances of British rule of the colony as the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
ordered the arrest of anyone endangering the safety of the colony. In April 1776 Tryon officially dissolved the New York assembly.[44] New York was located in the Northern theatre of the American Revolutionary War. New York served as the launching point for the failed Invasion of Canada
Canada
in 1775, the first major military operation of the newly formed Continental Army. General George Washington
George Washington
took the Continental Army
Continental Army
from Boston after the British withdrew following the Fortification of Dorchester Heights, and brought it to New York City in 1776, correctly anticipating the British would return there. The Fourth Provincial Congress convened in White Plains on July 9, 1776, and became known as the First Constitutional Convention. New York endorsed the Declaration of Independence the same day, and declared the independent state of New York.[45] New York City celebrated by tearing down the statue of George III in Bowling Green. On July 10, 1776, the Fourth Provincial Congress changed its name to the Convention of Representatives of the State of New York, and "acts as legislature without an executive." While adjourned it left a Committee of Safety in charge. The New York state constitution was framed by a convention which assembled at White Plains on July 10, 1776, and after repeated adjournments and changes of location, it concluded in Kingston, New York
Kingston, New York
on Sunday evening, April 20, 1777, when the new constitution was adopted with one dissenting vote. It had been drafted by John Jay, and was not submitted to the people for ratification. Under its provisions, the governor would be elected not appointed, voting restrictions were reduced, secret ballots were introduced, and civil rights were guaranteed. On July 30, 1777, George Clinton was inaugurated as the first Governor of New York
Governor of New York
at Kingston. On July 9, 1778, the State of New York signed the Articles of Confederation and officially became a part of the government of the United States
United States
of America, though it had been a part of the nation since it was declared in 1776 with signatories from New York.[46] The province was the scene of the largest battle of the entire war, and the first after the Declaration of Independence was signed. The British recaptured the city in September 1776 in the New York and New Jersey
Jersey
campaign, and placed the province under martial law under the command of James Robertson, though his effective authority did not extend far beyond the southern tip of Manhattan
Manhattan
(then the extent of New York City). Tryon retained his title of governor, but with little power. David Mathews was Mayor for the duration of British occupation of New York until Evacuation Day. After its reoccupation, New York City became the headquarters for the British army in America, and the British political center of operations in North America. The British cut down the Liberty Pole
Liberty Pole
in the common. Loyalist refugees flooded into the city raising its population to 33,000. Prison ships
Prison ships
in Wallabout Bay
Wallabout Bay
held a large proportion of American soldiers and sailors being held prisoner by the British, and was where more Americans died than in all of the battles of the war, combined. The British retained control of New York City
New York City
until Evacuation Day in November 1783, which was commemorated long afterward.[47] Structure of government[edit] See also: Colonial government in America The governor of New York was royally appointed. The governor selected his Executive Council which served as the upper house. The governor and king had veto power over the assembly's bills. However, all bills were effective until royal disapproval had occurred which could take up to a year. During King George's War, the governor approved two assembly initiatives; that the colony's revenue be approved annually rather than every five years and that the assembly must approve the purpose of each allocation. Elections to the house of assembly were initially held whenever the governor pleased, but eventually a law was passed requiring an election at least once every seven years. New York City was the seat of government and where the New York assembly met.[48] Between 1692 and 1694 the governor of New York was also the governor of Pennsylvania. From 1698 to 1701 the governor was also the governor of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and New Hampshire. From 1702 to 1738 he was also the governor of New Jersey. Representation in the assembly in 1683 was six for Long Island, four for New York City, two for Kingston, two for Albany, one for each of Staten Island, Schenectady, Martha's Vineyard
Martha's Vineyard
and Nantucket
Nantucket
and one for Pemequid on the Maine
Maine
coast. In 1737, the assembly was expanded to 27 and in 1773 to 31. Voters were required to have a £40 freehold, in addition to requirements related to age, sex, and religion. The £40 freehold requirement was often ignored. Jews were not allowed to vote between 1737 and 1747. In rural counties slightly more than half the males could vote. No secret ballot safeguarded the independence of the voters. The elections were held at the county town, under the supervision of the sheriff and sometimes at such short notice that many of the voting population could not get to the polls. The candidates were usually at the polls and the vote was taken by a show of hands unless this vote did not result in a clear winner. David Osborn notes,

The election for an open seat in the New York assembly, held on the Village Green in Eastchester, Westchester County on October 29, 1733, is one of the better known political events in colonial America. Two hundred and seventy five years after the contest, historians continue to cite the election to advance various arguments about colonial life. One recent student used the election to argue for the persistent importance of monarchy in the outlook of colonists, while another scholar treated the voting as an important point in the development of political awareness among New York artisans. Many writers address the election, held at what is today St. Paul’s Church National Historic Site, in Mt. Vernon, as part of the story of the printer John Peter Zenger, whose acquittal in a seditious libel case in 1735 is seen as a foundation of the free press in America. The first issue of Zenger’s New York Weekly Journal carried a lengthy report on the famous election, producing one of the few complete accounts of a colonial election available to historians."[49]

List of Governors

See List of colonial governors of New York

List of Attorneys General[50]

Incumbent Tenure Notes

Took office Left office

Thomas Rudyard 1684 1685

James Graham 10 December 1685 1688 afterwards Attorney General of Dominion
Dominion
of New England, 1688

Member of Dominion
Dominion
of New England, May 1668-April 1689

Jacob Milborne 1690 1691 Hanged for treason, 1691

Thomas Newton 1691 1691 Removed from office by Governor

George Farewell 1691 ?1691 Removed from office by Governor

Sampson Shelton Broughton 5 April 1701

Died February 1705

John Rayner 12 July 1708

Absent in England. Died 1719.

May Bickley 1708 1712 Acting AG in Rayner's absence. Removed from office by Governor, 1712

David Jamison 10 June 1712 1721 Acting AG in Rayner's absence, 1712–20

James Alexander 1721 1723

Richard Bradley 1723 28 August 1752

William Smith the elder August 1752

William Kempe November 1752 19 July 1759

John Tabor Kempe 1759 ?1783

James Duane 1767

Acting AG in Kempe's absence.

Judiciary[edit] The Supreme Court of Judicature of the Province of New York
Province of New York
was established by the New York Assembly
New York Assembly
on 6 May 1691. Jurisdiction was based on the English Courts of King's Bench, Common Pleas and Exchequer but excluded cases of equity which were dealt with by the Court of Chancery. The Supreme Court continued in being under the Constitution of 1777, becoming the New York Supreme Court
New York Supreme Court
under the 1846 Constitution.

Chief Justices of the Supreme Court [50]

Incumbent Tenure Notes

Took office Left office

Joseph Dudley 6 May 1691 1692 Removed from office by Governor

William "Tangier" Smith 11 November 1692 21 January 1701

Abraham de Peyster 21 January 1701 5 August 1701

William Atwood 5 August 1701 November 1702 Removed from office by Governor

William "Tangier" Smith 9 June 1702 5 April 1703

John Bridges 5 April 1703 1704 Died 6 July 1704

Roger Mompesson 15 July 1704 1715 Died March 1715. Also Chief Justice of New Jersey
New Jersey
(1704–1710) and Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
(1706)

Lewis Morris 15 March 1715 1733 Removed from office by Governor

James De Lancey 1733 1760 Died 30 July 1760

Benjamin Prat October 1761 ?1763 Died 5 January 1763

Daniel Hormansden March 1763 1776 Died 28 September 1778

Demographics[edit] See also: Slavery in the colonial United States Upstate New York (as well as parts of present Ontario, Quebec, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and Ohio) were occupied by the Five Nations (after 1720 becoming Six Nations, when joined by Tuscarora) of the Iroquois Confederacy for at least a half millennium before the Europeans came.

In 1664, one quarter of the population of New York City
New York City
was African American. In 1690, the population of the province was 20,000, of which 6,000 were in New York City. In 1698, the population of the province was 18,607. 14% of the population of New York City
New York City
was black. The slave population grew after Queen Anne's war. The percentage of blacks in New York City
New York City
in 1731 and 1746 was 18% and 21% respectively. In 1756, the population of the province was about 100,000 of which about 14,000 were blacks. Most of the blacks in New York at this time were slaves.

Year Population

1664 10,000

1688 20,000

1698 18,067

1715 31,000

1723 40,564

1731 50,289

1749 73,448

1756 96,775

1774 182,251

Source:[51]

Economy[edit] The fur trade established under Dutch rule continued to grow. As the merchant port of New York became more important, the economy expanded and diversified, and the agricultural areas of Long Island and the regions further up the Hudson River
Hudson River
developed.[52] Fishermen also made a decent living because New York was next to the ocean, making it a port/fishing state. Inland, farming crops made farmers a lot of money in the colony. Tradesmen made a fortune selling their wares. See also[edit]

British Empire
British Empire
portal New York portal

For New York before 1664, see New Netherlands For New York after 1776, see State of New York List of colonial governors of New York

Footnotes[edit]

^ Schecter, Barnet. The Battle for New York: The City at the Heart of the American Revolution. Walker & Company. New York. October 2002. ISBN 0-8027-1374-2. ^ McCullough, David. 1776. Simon & Schuster. New York. May 24, 2005. ISBN 978-0-7432-2671-4. ^ a b c Smith, William. The history of the province of New-York, 1757 ^ a b c Lincoln. Charles Zebina, Johnson, William H., and Northrup, Ansel Judd. The Colonial Laws of New York from the Year 1664 to the Revolution, J.B. Lyon, 1894 ^ Turner, Jean-Rae and Richard T. Koles (Aug 27, 2003). Elizabeth: First Capital of New Jersey. Arcadia Publishing. p. 11. ISBN 0738523933.  ^ The province was also called "the Province of New Caesaria or New Jersey". See: Philip Carteret. ^ Rieff, Henry, "Intrepretations of New York- New Jersey
New Jersey
Agreements 1834 and 1921" (PDF), Newark Law Review, 1 (2)  ^ "Land Speculation and Proprietary Beginnings of New Jersey" (PDF). The Advocate. New Jersey
New Jersey
Land Title Association. XVI (4): 3, 20, 14. Retrieved April 15, 2010.  ^ "Timeline". New York State Senate. Retrieved May 16, 2017.  ^ Kammen, p. 86. ^ Dunlap, William. History of New Netherlands, Province of New York, and State of New York, Vol.1, Carter & Thorp, New York, 1839 ^ Edward Countryman (2003). The American Revolution (Revised ed.). Farrar, Straus & Giroux. p. 10.  ^ Robert A Emery, "Chapter 33: New York Pre-Statehood Legal Research Materials" in Prestatehood Legal Materials: A Fifty-State Research Guide (Vol. 1, A-M), eds. Michael Chiorazzi & Marguerite Most (Routledge, 2013). ^ Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613–1863 (2005). ^ Peter Charles Hoffer, The Great New York Conspiracy of 1741: Slavery, Crime, and Colonial Law (2003). ^ "African Burial Ground" Archived November 14, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., General Services Administration. Retrieved April 9, 2009. ^ Blackburn, Roderic H.; Ruth Piwonka (1988). Remembrance of Patria: Dutch Arts and Culture in Colonial America, 1609–1776. SUNY Press.  ^ Thomas S. Wermuth, Rip Van Winkle's Neighbors: The Transformation of Rural Society in the Hudson River
Hudson River
Valley, 1720–1850 (2001). ^ Jacob Ernest Cooke, ed. Encyclopedia of the North American colonies (3 vol. 1993), highly detailed coverage of the Dutch colonists. ^ A. G. Roeber "Dutch colonists cope with English control" in Bernard Bailyn, and Philip D. Morgan, eds. Strangers within the realm: cultural margins of the first British Empire
British Empire
(1991) pp 222-36. ^ Randall Balmer, A Perfect Babel of Confusion: Dutch Religion and English Culture in the Middle Colonies
Middle Colonies
(2002). ^ Philip Otterness, Becoming German: The 1709 Palatine Migration to New York (2004) ^ Nash (1986), p. 109. ^ Nash (1986), p. 110. ^ Ian K. Steele, Betrayals: Fort William Henry
Fort William Henry
and the Massacre (1990). ^ Nash (1986) p. 151. ^ Michael J. Mullin, "Personal Politics: William Johnson and the Mohawks." American Indian Quarterly 17#3 (1993): 350-358. ^ Carl Lotus Becker, The history of political parties in the province of New York, 1760–1776 (1909) pp 5-22. ^ Nash (1986), p. 184. ^ Becker, The history of political parties in the province of New York, 1760–1776 (1909) pp 23-52. ^ a b Nash (2005) p. 55. ^ Nash (2005) p. 54. Nash (p. 58) also wrote, “In New York City
New York City
... the Stamp Act demonstrators were led at first by men higher up on the social order – ship captains, master craftsmen, and even lawyers, but then escaped their control.” ^ Anderson pp. 678–679. ^ Michael G. Kammen, Colonial New York: A History (1975) pp 329-56. ^ Roger Champagne, "Family Politics versus Constitutional Principles: The New York Assembly
New York Assembly
Elections of 1768 and 1769." William and Mary Quarterly (1963): 57-79. in JSTOR ^ Milton M. Klein, "Democracy and Politics in Colonial New York." New York History 40#3 (1959): 221-246. in JSTOR ^ Becker, The history of political parties in the province of New York, 1760–1776 (1909) pp 53-94. ^ Nash (1986), p. 234. ^ Becker, The history of political parties in the province of New York, 1760–1776 (1909) pp 95-111. ^ Launitz-Schurer, p. 103. ^ Becker, The history of political parties in the province of New York, 1760–1776 (1909) pp 113-57. ^ Edward Countryman, "Consolidating Power in Revolutionary America: The Case of New York, 1775–1783." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 6.4 (1976): 645-677. in JSTOR ^ Launitz-Schurer, p. 158. ^ Becker, The history of political parties in the province of New York, 1760–1776 (1909) pp 159-73. ^ "Declaration of Independence". www.history.com. Archived from the original on April 9, 2008. Retrieved April 10, 2008.  ^ Edward Countryman, A People in Revolution: The American Revolution and Political Society in New York, 1760–1790 (1981). ^ Countryman, A People in Revolution: The American Revolution and Political Society in New York, 1760–1790 (1981). ^ Becker, The history of political parties in the province of New York, 1760–1776 (1909) pp 5-22. ^ https://www.nps.gov/sapa/learn/historyculture/upload/ElectionOf1733.pdf ^ a b "The Supreme Court of the Province of New York
Province of New York
1674–1776 -= Jacob Milborne". Historical Society of the New York Courts. Archived from the original on October 6, 2015. Retrieved October 5, 2015.  ^ Greene, Evarts Boutelle et al., American Population before the Federal Census of 1790, 1993, ISBN 0-8063-1377-3. ^ Michael G. Kammen, Colonial New York: A History (1975) ch 2, 7, 12.

Further reading[edit]

Anderson, Fred. Crucible of War (2000). ISBN 0-375-70636-4. Becker, Carl Lotus. The history of political parties in the province of New York, 1760–1776 (1909). Bonomi, Patricia U. A Factious People: Politics and Society in Colonial New York. New York: Columbia University Press, 1971. Brandt, Clare. An American Aristocracy: The Livingstons (1986). Bridenbaugh, Carl. Cities in the Wilderness-The First Century of Urban Life in America 1625–1742 (1938). New York, Boston, Philadelphia and Chareleston. Bridenbaugh, Carl. Cities in revolt: urban life in America, 1743–1776 (1955). Countryman, Edward. A People in Revolution: The American Revolution and Political Society in New York, 1760–1790 (1981). Doyle, John Andrew. English Colonies in America: Volume IV The Middle Colonies (1907) online ch 1-6. Fogleman, Aaron. Hopeful Journeys: German Immigration, Settlement, and Political Culture in Colonial America, 1717–1775 (University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Press, 1996) online Hodges, Graham Russell Gao. Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613–1863 (2005). Jacobs, Jaap, and L. H. Roper, eds. The Worlds of the Seventeenth-Century Hudson Valley (State University of New York Press, 2014) . xii, 265 pp. Kammen, Michael. Colonial New York: A History (1975). Ketchum, Richard, Divided Loyalties, How the American Revolution Came to New York, 2002, ISBN 0-8050-6120-7. Launitz-Schurer, Leopold, Loyal Whigs and Revolutionaries, The making of the revolution in New York, 1765–1776, 1980, ISBN 0-8147-4994-1. McGregor, Robert Kuhn. "Cultural Adaptation in Colonial New York: The Palatine Germans of the Mohawk Valley." New York History 69.1 (1988): 5. Nash, Gary, The Urban Crucible, The Northern Seaports and the Origins of the American Revolution, 1986, ISBN 0-674-93058-4. Nash, Gary, The Unknown American Revolution. 2005, ISBN 0-670-03420-7. Otterness, Philip. Becoming German: The 1709 Palatine Migration to New York (2004) Schecter, Barnet. The Battle for New York: The City at the Heart of the American Revolution. Pimlico, 2003. ISBN 0-7126-3648-X.

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Grant to the Duke of York
Duke of York
1664

Grant to the Lords Proprietors, Sir George Carteret, July 29, 1674 Duke of York's Confirmation to the 24 Proprietors: March 14, 1682 The King's Letter Recognizing the Proprietors' Right to the Soil and Government 1683 Constitution of New York Province, 1683 Association of the Sons of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
in New York, December 15, 1773 1776 map of Province of New York Colonial New York Genealogy & History

v t e

The Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
of Colonial America

New England Colonies Middle Colonies Chesapeake Colonies Southern Colonies

Connecticut Delaware Georgia Maryland Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay New Hampshire New Jersey New York North Carolina Pennsylvania Rhode Island and Providence Plantations South Carolina Virginia

Early English colonial entities

Carolina East Jersey Maine New England New Haven Plymouth Saybrook West Jersey

v t e

British Empire

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Europe

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North America

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth 1623–1883 Saint Kitts 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis 1629–1691 Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua 1635–1644 Saybrook 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven

1643–1860 Bay Islands Since 1650 Anguilla 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast 1655–1962 *Jamaica 1663–1712 Carolina 1664–1776 New York 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey Since 1666 Virgin Islands Since 1670 Cayman Islands 1670–1973 *Bahamas 1670–1870 Rupert's Land 1671–1816 Leeward Islands 1674–1702 East Jersey 1674–1702 West Jersey 1680–1776 New Hampshire 1681–1776 Pennsylvania 1686–1689 New England 1691–1776 Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay

1701–1776 Delaware 1712–1776 North Carolina 1712–1776 South Carolina 1713–1867 Nova Scotia 1733–1776 Georgia 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island 1762–1974 *Grenada 1763–1978 Dominica 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island 1763–1791 Quebec 1763–1783 East Florida 1763–1783 West Florida 1784–1867 New Brunswick 1791–1841 Lower Canada 1791–1841 Upper Canada Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

1818–1846 Columbia District/Oregon Country1 1833–1960 Windward Islands 1833–1960 Leeward Islands 1841–1867 Canada 1849–1866 Vancouver Island 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands 1858–1866 British Columbia 1859–1870 North-Western Territory 1860–1981 *British Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda 1862–1863 Stickeen 1866–1871 British Columbia 1867–1931 * Dominion
Dominion
of Canada2 1871–1964 Honduras 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago 1907–1949 Newfoundland3 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada
Canada
and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada
Canada
in 1949.

South America

1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.

Africa

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1862–1906 Lagos 1868–1966 Basutoland 1874–1957 Gold Coast 1882–1922 Egypt

1884–1900 Niger Coast 1884–1966 Bechuanaland 1884–1960 Somaliland 1887–1897 Zululand 1890–1962 Uganda 1890–1963 Zanzibar 1891–1964 Nyasaland 1891–1907 Central Africa 1893–1968 Swaziland 1895–1920 East Africa 1899–1956 Sudan

1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River 1900–1910 Transvaal 1903–1976 Seychelles 1910–1931 South Africa 1914–1960 Nigeria 1915–1931 South-West Africa 1919–1961 Cameroons6 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika6 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

6. League of Nations mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

Asia

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

1685–1824 Bencoolen 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757–1947 Bengal 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang 1786–1946 Penang 1795–1948 Ceylon 1796–1965 Maldives

1811–1816 Java 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton 1819–1826 Malaya 1824–1948 Burma 1826–1946 Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1946 Sarawak 1848–1946 Labuan 1858–1947 India 1874–1963 Borneo

1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) 1882–1963 North Borneo 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1888–1984 Brunei 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman 1892–1971 Trucial States 1895–1946 Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai 1878–1960 Cyprus

1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait 1920–1932 Mesopotamia8 1921–1946 Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945–1946 South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo 1946–1963 Sarawak 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
(before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles)

8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

Oceania

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
Kiribati
and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

Antarctica and South Atlantic

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)

14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South

.