Providence, Rhode Island
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Providence is the capital and most populous city of the
U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state ...
of
Rhode Island Rhode Island (, like ''road''), officially the State of Rhode Island, is a state in the New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as ...
. One of the oldest cities in the United States, it was founded in 1636 by
Roger Williams Roger Williams (c. 21 December 1603 – between 27 January and 15 March 1683) was a Puritan The Puritans were English Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, ...

Roger Williams
, a Reformed Baptist theologian and religious exile from the
Massachusetts Bay Colony The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630–1691), more formally The Colony of Massachusetts Bay, was an English settlement on the east coast of America around the Massachusetts Bay Massachusetts Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body ...
. He named the area in honor of "God's merciful Providence" which he believed was responsible for revealing such a haven for him and his followers. The city is situated at the mouth of the
Providence River The Providence River is a tidal river A tidal river is a river whose flow and level are influenced by tides. A section of a larger river affected by the tides is a tidal reach, but it may sometimes be considered a tidal river if it has been gi ...

Providence River
at the head of
Narragansett Bay Narragansett Bay is a bay and estuary on the north side of Rhode Island Sound covering , of which is in Rhode Island. The bay forms New England's largest estuary, which functions as an expansive natural harbor and includes a small archipelago. Sma ...

Narragansett Bay
. Providence was one of the first cities in the country to industrialize and became noted for its textile manufacturing and subsequent machine tool, jewelry, and silverware industries. Today, the city of Providence is home to eight hospitals and
eight institutions of higher learning
eight institutions of higher learning
which have shifted the city's economy into service industries, though it still retains some manufacturing activity. As of the 2020 United States Census, Providence has a population of 190,934, making it the third-most-populous city in
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...

New England
after
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unit ...

Boston
and
Worcester Worcester may refer to: Places United Kingdom * Worcester, England, a city in Worcestershire ** Worcester (UK Parliament constituency) * Worcester Park, London, England * Worcestershire, a county in England United States * Worcester, Massachuse ...
, Massachusetts.


History


Settlement

Providence was settled in June 1636 by
Puritan The Puritans were English Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of J ...

Puritan
theologian
Roger Williams Roger Williams (c. 21 December 1603 – between 27 January and 15 March 1683) was a Puritan The Puritans were English Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, ...

Roger Williams
and grew into one of the original
Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America. Founded in the 17th and 18th centuries, th ...
. As a minister in the
Massachusetts Bay Colony The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630–1691), more formally The Colony of Massachusetts Bay, was an English settlement on the east coast of America around the Massachusetts Bay Massachusetts Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body ...
, Williams had advocated for the
separation of church and state The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religi ...
and condemned colonists' confiscation of land from Native Americans. For these "diverse, new, and dangerous opinions," he was convicted of
sedition Sedition is overt conduct, such as speech Speech is human vocal communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin ...

sedition
and
heresy Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization. The term is usually used in reference to violations of important religi ...
and banished from the colony. Williams and others established a settlement in
Rumford, Rhode Island Rumford is the northern section of the city of East Providence, Rhode Island. The Rumford section of East Providence borders Seekonk, Massachusetts, Pawtucket, Rhode Island, and the Ten Mile River (Seekonk River). Rumford has been part of three to ...
. The group later moved down the
Seekonk River The Seekonk River is a tidal extension of the Providence River in the U.S. state of Rhode Island Rhode Island (, like ''road''), officially the State of Rhode Island, is a state in the New England region of the United States. It is the Lis ...
, around the point now known as Fox Point and up the
Providence River The Providence River is a tidal river A tidal river is a river whose flow and level are influenced by tides. A section of a larger river affected by the tides is a tidal reach, but it may sometimes be considered a tidal river if it has been gi ...

Providence River
to the confluence of the Moshassuck and
Woonasquatucket
Woonasquatucket
Rivers. Here they established a new settlement they termed "
Providence Plantations Providence Plantations was the first permanent European American settlement in Rhode Island Rhode Island (, like ''road''), officially the State of Rhode Island, is a state in the New England New England is a region comprising six s ...
." Unlike Salem and Boston, Providence lacked a royal charter. The settlers thus organized themselves, allotting tracts on the eastern side of the Providence River in 1638. Roughly six acres each, these home lots extended from Towne Street (now South Main Street) to Hope Street. In 1652, Providence prohibited African and African American slavery for periods of longer than 10 years. This statute constituted the first anti-slavery law in the United States, though there is no evidence the prohibition was ever enforced. In March 1676, Providence Plantations was burned to the ground by the Narragansetts as part of
King Philip's War King Philip's War (sometimes called the First Indian War, Metacom's War, Metacomet's War, Pometacomet's Rebellion, or Metacom's Rebellion) was an armed conflict in 1675–1678 between indigenous inhabitants of New England and New England coloni ...
. Later in the year, the Rhode Island legislature formally rebuked the other colonies for provoking the war. In 1770,
Brown University Brown University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two de ...

Brown University
moved to Providence from nearby
Warren A warren is a network of wild rodent Rodents (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...
. At the time, the college was known as Rhode Island College and occupied a single building on College Hill. The college's choice to relocate to Providence as opposed to
Newport Newport most commonly refers to: *Newport, Wales, UK *Newport, Rhode Island, US Newport or New Port may also refer to: Places Asia *Newport City, Metro Manila, a Philippine district in Pasay Europe Ireland *Newport, County Mayo, a town on ...
symbolized a larger shift away from the latter city's commercial and political dominance over the state.


Revolutionary War

Providence residents were among the first Patriots to spill blood in the lead-up to the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from Thirteen Colonies, thirteen American colonies of British America in Continental Congress ...
during the
''Gaspee'' Affair
''Gaspee'' Affair
of 1772, and Rhode Island was the first of the Thirteen Colonies to renounce its allegiance to the British Crown on May 4, 1776. It was also the last of the Thirteen States to ratify the
United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation An organization, or orga ...

United States Constitution
on May 29, 1790, once assurances were made that a
Bill of Rights A bill of rights, sometimes called a declaration of rights or a charter of rights, is a list of the most important rights to the citizens of a country. The purpose is to protect those rights against Civil and political rights, infringement fr ...

Bill of Rights
would become part of the Constitution.


19th century

Following the war, Providence was the nation's ninth-largest city with 7,614 people. The economy shifted from maritime endeavors to manufacturing, in particular machinery, tools, silverware, jewelry, and textiles. By the start of the 20th century, Providence hosted some of the largest manufacturing plants in the country, including
Brown & Sharpe Brown & Sharpe is a division of Hexagon AB, a Sweden, Swedish multinational corporation focused mainly on metrology, metrological tools and technology. During the 19th and 20th centuries, Brown & Sharpe was one of the best-known and most influential ...
, Nicholson File, and
Gorham Manufacturing Company The Gorham Manufacturing Company is one of the largest United States of America, American manufacturers of Sterling silver, sterling and silverplate and a foundry for bronze sculpture. History Gorham Silver was founded in Providence, Rhode Isl ...
. Providence residents ratified a city charter in 1831 as the population passed 17,000. The seat of city government was located in the
Market House A Market House is a covered space historically used as a marketplace fa:بازار A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly gather for the purchase and sale of provisions, livestock, and other goods. In different part ...
in
Market Square The market square (or sometimes, the market place) is a square In Euclidean geometry, a square is a regular The term regular can mean normal or in accordance with rules. It may refer to: People * Moses Regular (born 1971), America football p ...
from 1832 to 1878, which was the geographic and social center of the city. The city offices soon outgrew this building, and the City Council resolved to create a permanent municipal building in 1845. The city offices moved into in 1878. Local politics split over slavery during the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon nove ...
, as many had ties to Southern cotton and the slave trade. Despite ambivalence concerning the war, the number of military volunteers routinely exceeded quota, and the city's manufacturing proved invaluable to the Union. Providence thrived after the war, and waves of immigrants brought the population from 54,595 in 1865 to 175,597 by 1900.


20th century

By the early 1900s, Providence was one of the wealthiest cities in the United States. Immigrant labor powered one of the nation's largest industrial manufacturing centers. Providence was a major manufacturer of industrial products, from steam engines to precision tools to silverware, screws, and textiles. Giant companies were based in or near Providence, such as Brown & Sharpe, the
Corliss Steam Engine A Corliss steam engine (or Corliss engine) is a steam engine from Stott Park Bobbin Mill, Cumbria, England A steam engine is a heat engine In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (ther ...

Corliss Steam Engine
Company,
Babcock & Wilcox Babcock & Wilcox Enterprises Inc. () also known as Babcock & Wilcox (B&W), originally The Babcock & Wilcox Company, is an American renewable, environmental and thermal energy technologies and service provider that is active and has operations in ...
, the Grinnell Corporation, the Gorham Manufacturing Company, Nicholson File, and the
Fruit of the Loom Fruit of the Loom is an American company that manufactures clothing, particularly casual wear and undergarment, underwear. The company's world headquarters is in Bowling Green, Kentucky. Since 2002 it has been a subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway. ...
textile company. From 1975 until 1982, $606 million of local and national community development funds were invested throughout the city. In the 1990s, the city pushed for revitalization, realigning the north–south railroad tracks, removing the huge rail viaduct that separated Downtown from the capitol building, uncovering and moving the rivers (which had been covered by paved bridges) to create
Waterplace Park Waterplace Park is an urban park situated along the Woonasquatucket River in downtown Providence, RI, Providence, Rhode Island at the original site of the Great Salt Cove. Finished in 1994, Waterplace Park is connected to 3/4 mile of cobblestone-pa ...
and river walks along the rivers' banks, and constructing the Fleet Skating Rink (now the Alex and Ani City Center) and the Providence Place Mall.


21st century

In the early 2000s, Providence developed an economic development plan that outlined a planned shift to a
knowledge economy The knowledge economy (or the knowledge-based economy) is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of ru ...
. These efforts involved the rebranding of the formerly industrial Jewelry District as a new "Knowledge District" Despite new investment, poverty remains an entrenched problem. Approximately 27.9 percent of the city population is living below the poverty line. Recent increases in real estate values further exacerbate problems for those at marginal income levels, as Providence had the highest rise in median housing price of any city in the United States from 2004 to 2005.


Geography

The Providence city limits enclose a small geographical region with a total area of ; of it is land and the remaining is water (roughly 10%). Providence is located at the head of
Narragansett Bay Narragansett Bay is a bay and estuary on the north side of Rhode Island Sound covering , of which is in Rhode Island. The bay forms New England's largest estuary, which functions as an expansive natural harbor and includes a small archipelago. Sma ...

Narragansett Bay
, with the
Providence River The Providence River is a tidal river A tidal river is a river whose flow and level are influenced by tides. A section of a larger river affected by the tides is a tidal reach, but it may sometimes be considered a tidal river if it has been gi ...

Providence River
running into the bay through the center of the city, formed by the confluence of the Moshassuck and Rivers. The Waterplace Park amphitheater and riverwalks line the river's banks through
Downtown ''Downtown'' is a term primarily used in North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up t ...
. Providence is one of many cities claimed to be founded on seven hills like Rome. The more prominent hills are: Constitution Hill (near Downtown), College Hill (east of the Providence River), and Federal Hill (west of Downtown and containing New England's largest Italian district outside of Massachusetts). The other four are: Tockwotten Hill at Fox Point, Smith Hill (where the State House is located), Christian Hill at Hoyle Square (junction of Cranston and Westminster Streets), and Weybosset Hill at the lower end of Weybosset Street, which was leveled in the early 1880s.


Neighborhoods

Providence has 25 official neighborhoods, though these neighborhoods are often grouped together and referred to collectively: * The East Side is a region comprising the neighborhoods of Blackstone,
Hope Hope is an optimistic Optimism is an attitude reflecting a belief or hope that the outcome of some specific endeavor, or outcomes in general, will be positive, favorable, and desirable. A common idiom An idiom is a phrase or expression tha ...
(aka Summit), Mount Hope, College Hill, Wayland, and Fox Point. * The Jewelry District describes the area enclosed by I-95, the old I-195, and the
Providence River The Providence River is a tidal river A tidal river is a river whose flow and level are influenced by tides. A section of a larger river affected by the tides is a tidal reach, but it may sometimes be considered a tidal river if it has been gi ...

Providence River
. The city has made efforts to rename this area the Knowledge District to reflect the area's newly developing life sciences and technology-based economy. * The North End is formed by the concatenation of the neighborhoods of
Charles Charles is a masculine given name A given name (also known as a first name or forename) is the part of a personal name A personal name, or full name, in onomastic Onomastics or onomatology is the study of the etymology, histor ...
, Wanskuck, Smith Hill, Elmhurst, and Mount Pleasant. * The South Side (or South Providence) consists of the neighborhoods of Elmwood, Lower South Providence,
Upper South Providence Image:Provneighuppersouth.JPG, 150px, Providence neighborhoods with Upper South Providence in redUpper South Providence is an official neighborhood in the South Side, Providence, Rhode Island, South Side in the city of Providence, Rhode Island. It i ...
, Washington Park, and the
West End West End most commonly refers to: * West End of London, an area of central London, England * West End theatre, a popular term for mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres of London, England West End may also refer to: Place ...
. * West Broadway is an officially recognized neighborhood with its own association. It overlaps with the southern half of Federal Hill and the northern part of the West End.


Cityscape

Geographically, Providence is compact—characteristic of eastern seaboard cities that developed prior to use of the automobile. The city is among the most densely populated cities in the country and boasts the eighth-highest percentage of pedestrian commuters. The street layout of the city is irregular; more than one thousand streets run haphazardly, connecting and radiating from traditionally bustling places such as
Market Square The market square (or sometimes, the market place) is a square In Euclidean geometry, a square is a regular The term regular can mean normal or in accordance with rules. It may refer to: People * Moses Regular (born 1971), America football p ...
. Downtown Providence has numerous 19th-century mercantile buildings in the
Federal Federal or foederal (archaic) may refer to: Politics General *Federal monarchy, a federation of monarchies *Federation, or ''Federal state'' (federal system), a type of government characterized by both a central (federal) government and states or ...
and
Victorian Victorian or Victorians may refer to: 19th century * Victorian era, British history during Queen Victoria's 19th-century reign ** Victorian architecture ** Victorian house ** Victorian decorative arts ** Victorian fashion ** Victorian literature ...
architectural styles, as well as several
postmodern Postmodernism is an intellectual stance or mode of discourse defined by an attitude of skepticism Skepticism (American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known a ...
and modernist buildings. In particular, a fairly clear spatial separation appears between the areas of pre-1980s development and post-1980s development; West Exchange Street and Exchange Terrace serve as rough boundaries between the two. The newer area, sometimes called "Capitol Center", includes the
Providence Place Mall Providence Place is an American shopping mall in Providence, Rhode Island. With of Floor area (building), gross leasable area, it has been the largest shopping mall in Rhode Island since it opened in 1999. As of 2022, the mall currently feature ...

Providence Place Mall
(1999),
Omni Providence Hotel The Omni Providence Hotel (formerly The Westin Providence) is a Neo-Traditionalist skyscraper in downtown Providence, Rhode Island, Providence, Rhode Island. At , it became the List of tallest buildings in Providence, fourth-tallest building in t ...
(1993) and Residences Providence (2007),
GTECH Corporation GTECH Corporation was a gaming Gaming may refer to: Games and sports The act of playing game A game is a structured form of play Play most commonly refers to: * Play (activity), an activity done for enjoyment * Play (theatre), a work ...
(2006),
Waterplace Towers Waterplace Towers is the name of a high-rise residential condominium project in Providence, Rhode Island, Providence, Rhode Island. The project completed construction in mid-2008, and was developed by Intercontinental Real Estate Corporation. The ...
condominiums (2007), and
Waterplace Park Waterplace Park is an urban park situated along the Woonasquatucket River in downtown Providence, RI, Providence, Rhode Island at the original site of the Great Salt Cove. Finished in 1994, Waterplace Park is connected to 3/4 mile of cobblestone-pa ...
(1994). The area tends toward newer development, since much of it is land reclaimed in the 1970s from a mass of railroad tracks referred to colloquially as the "Chinese Wall". This part of Downtown is characterized by open spaces, wide roads, and landscaping. The streetscape of much of historic Downtown has retained a similar appearance since the early 20th century. Many of the state's tallest buildings are found here. At 426 feet (130 m), the city's largest structure is the
art deco Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Gr ...

art deco
Industrial National Bank Building. The building contrasts with the city's second tallest structure— One Financial Plaza—which is designed in the modernist style. Other core buildings of the Providence skyline are the postmodern 50 Kennedy Plaza and late modern
Textron Tower The Textron Tower, formerly the Old Stone Tower, is a modern skyscraper in downtown Providence Providence often refers to: * Providentia, the divine personification of foresight in ancient Roman religion * Divine providence, divinely ordained ev ...
. Downtown is also the home of the historic
Providence Biltmore The Graduate Providence is an upscale hotel that opened in 1922 as the Providence Biltmore Hotel, part of the Bowman-Biltmore Hotels chain. It is located on the southern corner of Kennedy Plaza at 11 Dorrance Street in downtown Providence, Rhode Is ...
hotel and
Westminster Arcade The Westminster Arcade (also known as the Providence Arcade, Arcade Providence, or The Arcade) is a historic shopping center at 130 Westminster Street and 65 Weybosset Street in downtown Providence Providence often refers to: * Providentia, the ...

Westminster Arcade
—the oldest enclosed shopping mall in the U.S. The city's southern waterfront, away from the Downtown core, is the location of oil tanks, ferry and sailing docks, power plants, and nightclubs. The was located here until 2008, when the submarine sank. The
Fox Point Hurricane Barrier The Fox Point Hurricane Barrier is a long tidal flood barrier spanning the Providence River in Providence, Rhode Island, located upstream from Fox Point. It was constructed between 1960 and 1966 to protect the low-lying downtown area of the city ...
is also found here, built to protect Providence from
storm surge A storm surge, storm flood, tidal surge, or storm tide is a coastal flood Coastal flooding normally occurs when dry and low-lying land is submerged by seawater. The range of a coastal flooding is a result of the elevation of floodwater that pene ...

storm surge
like those endured by the city during the 1938 New England Hurricane and 1954
Hurricane Carol Hurricane Carol was among the worst tropical cyclones A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation Atmospheric circulation is the large-scal ...
. The majority of the cityscape comprises abandoned and revitalized industrial mills, double- and triple-decker housing, a small number of high-rise buildings (predominantly for housing the elderly), and single family homes.
Interstate 95 Interstate 95 (I-95) is the main north–south Interstate Highway The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highwa ...
serves as a physical barrier between the city's commercial core and neighborhoods such as Federal Hill and the
West End West End most commonly refers to: * West End of London, an area of central London, England * West End theatre, a popular term for mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres of London, England West End may also refer to: Place ...
. File:Shepard Company Building and clock.jpg, The in Downtown Providence's compact urban center File:Burnside Park on snowy day.jpg, Burnside Park in Downtown Providence facing the city's primary row of high rises File:Weybosset Street view, Providence, Rhode Island.jpg, Downtown Weybosset Street at the Providence Performing Arts Center Square File:Providence Riverwalk.jpg, The Providence Riverwalk, at the edge of downtown


Climate

Providence has a
humid continental climate A humid continental climate is a climatic Climate is the long-term average of weather, typically averaged over a period of 30 years. More rigorously, it is the mean and variability of meteorological variables over a time spanning from months t ...
(
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification Climate classification is a way of categorizing the world's s. A climate classification may correlate closely with a category, as climate is a major infl ...
D''fa'') bordering a
humid subtropical climate A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cool to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitude In geography Geograp ...
with hot summers, cold winters, and high humidity year-round. The
USDA The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, rural economic development, ...
places the city in
hardiness zone A hardiness zone is a geographic area defined as having a certain range of annual minimum temperature, a factor relevant to the survival of many plants. In some systems other statistics are included in the calculations. The original and most w ...
6b, with the suburbs in zones 6a – 7b. The influence of the Atlantic Ocean keeps the state of Rhode Island warmer than many inland locales in New England. January is the coldest month with a daily mean of and low temperatures dropping to or lower an average of 11 days per winter, while July is the warmest month with a daily mean of and highs rising to or higher an average of 10 days per summer. Extremes range from on February 9, 1934 to on August 2, 1975; the record cold daily maximum is on February 5, 1918, while the record warm daily minimum is on June 6, 1925. Temperature readings of or lower are uncommon in Providence and generally occur once every several years. The year which had the most days with a temperature reading of zero degrees or lower was 2015 with eight days total—one day in January and seven days in February. Conversely, temperature readings of or higher are even rarer, and the year with the most days in this category was 1944 with three days, all of which were in August. Monthly
precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology dates back , though significant progress in meteorology did not begin until the 18th century. The 19th century saw mod ...

precipitation
in Providence ranges from a high of in March to a low of in July. In general, precipitation levels are slightly less in the summer months than the winter months, when
Nor'easter A nor'easter (also northeaster; see below) is a synoptic-scale extratropical cyclone Extratropical cyclones, sometimes called mid-latitude cyclones or wave cyclones, are low-pressure areas which, along with the anticyclones of high-pres ...
s can cause significant snowfall and
blizzard A blizzard is a severe Winter storm, snowstorm characterized by strong sustained winds of at least and lasting for a prolonged period of time—typically three hours or more. A ground blizzard is a weather condition where snow is not fallin ...

blizzard
conditions.
Hurricanes A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg ...
are not frequent in coastal New England, although Providence's location at the head of Narragansett Bay makes it vulnerable to them.


Demographics

As of the
2000 United States census The United States census of 2000, conducted by the Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about ...
, Providence's population consisted of 173,618 people, 162,389 households, and 35,859 families. The population density was 9,401.7 inhabitants per square mile (3,629.4/km), characteristic of other small cities in
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...

New England
such as
New Haven, Connecticut New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven County, Connecticut, and is part of the New York City metropolitan area. With a population ...
;
Springfield, Massachusetts Springfield is a city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, su ...
; and
Hartford, Connecticut Hartford is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as ...
. The city's population peaked in the 1940s, just prior to the nationwide period of rapid
suburbanization pattern in the US Suburbanization is a population shift from central urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through ...
. Providence has a racially and ethnically diverse population. In 2010,
white Americans White Americans are Americans Americans are the and of the .; ; ''Ricketts v. Attorney General''897 F.3d 491, 494 n.3 (3d Cir. 2018) (" and are not ous. While all citizens are nationals, not all nationals are citizens."); ''United St ...
formed 49.8% of the population, including a sizable white Hispanic community.
Non-Hispanic whites Non-Hispanic whites or Non-Latino whites are European Americans European Americans (also referred to as Euro-Americans) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nation ...
were 37.6% of the total population, down from 89.5% in 1970. Providence has had a substantial
Italian American Italian Americans ( it, italoamericani or ''italo-americani'', ) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States of America.; ; ''Ricketts v. Atto ...
population since the start of the 20th century, with 14% of the population claiming Italian ancestry. (Click on People tab) Italian influence manifests itself in Providence's '
Little Italy Little Italy is a general name for an ethnic enclave File:India Square JC jeh.JPG, India Square in Jersey City, New Jersey#Demographics, Jersey City, New Jersey, one of 24 Indian American, Indian ethnic enclaves in the New York City Metropolit ...

Little Italy
' in Federal Hill.
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britai ...
immigrants have also had considerable influence on the city's history, with 8% of residents claiming Irish heritage. The percentages of people claiming Irish and Italian ancestry, though high, has gone down considerably from historical highs, and is much lower than the percentages of these groups in Rhode Island as a whole. The city also has a sizable Jewish community, estimated at 10,500 in 2012, or roughly 5% of the city's population. In 2010, people of
Hispanic or Latino The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano or ) refers to people, cultures, or countries related to Spain, the Hispanidad, Spanish language, Spanish culture, culture, or Spanish people, people. The term commonly applies to countries with a cultural and ...
origin composed 38.1% of the city's population and currently form a majority of city public school students. The majority of Hispanics in Providence are of
Dominican Dominican may refer to: * Someone or something from or related to the Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic ( ; es, República Dominicana, ) is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the C ...
descent. Constituting roughly 19% of the city's population, Providence's Dominican community is one of the largest in the United States. Other Hispanic groups present in sizable numbers include Puerto Ricans, Guatemalans, and Colombians. Hispanics are most concentrated in the neighborhoods of Elmwood, the
West End West End most commonly refers to: * West End of London, an area of central London, England * West End theatre, a popular term for mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres of London, England West End may also refer to: Place ...
, and Upper and Lower South Providence.
African Americans African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being t ...
constitute 16% of the city's population, with their greatest concentrations found in Mount Hope and the Upper and Lower South Providence neighborhoods. Providence has small Liberian and Haitian communities in the city. Liberians compose 0.4% of the population; the city is home to one of the largest Liberian immigrant populations in the country.
Asian-Americans Asian Americans are Americans Americans are the citizens Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the co ...
constitute 6% of Providence's population. The largest Asian groups are
Cambodians Khmer people (; km, ជនជាតិខ្មែរ, , Northern Khmer pronunciation: ) are a Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asi ...
(1.7%), Chinese American, Chinese (1.1%), Indian Americans (0.7%), Laotian American, Laotians (0.6%), and Korean American, Koreans (0.6%). Another 6% of the city has multiracial ancestry. American Indians and Pacific Islanders make up the remaining 1.3%. Providence has a considerable community of immigrants from various Lusophone, Portuguese-speaking countries, especially Portugal, Brazil, and Cape Verde. These residents are concentrated in the Washington Park and Fox Point neighborhoods. Portuguese American, Portuguese is the city's third-largest European ethnicity, after Italian and Irish. At 4% of the population; Cape Verdean American, Cape Verdeans compose 2% of the city's population. The Providence metropolitan area includes Providence, Fall River, Massachusetts, and Warwick, Rhode Island, Warwick, and is estimated to have a population of 1,622,520. In 2006, this area was officially added to the Boston Combined Statistical Area (CSA), the Table of United States Combined Statistical Areas, sixth-largest CSA in the country. In the last 15 years, Providence has experienced a sizable growth in its under-18 population. The median age of the city is 28 years, while the largest age cohort (statistics), cohort is 20- to 24-year-olds, owing to the city's large student population. The per capita income as of the 2000 census was $15,525, which is well below both the state average of $29,113 and the national average of $21,587. The median income for a household was $26,867, and the median income for a family in Providence was $32,058,. The city has one of the highest rates of poverty in the nation with 29.1% of the population and 23.9% of families living below the poverty line. Of residents in poverty, the largest concentrations are found in the city's Olneyville, and Upper and Lower South Providence areas. Poverty has affected children at a disproportionately higher rate, with 40.1% of those under the age of 18 living below the poverty line. These residents are concentrated west of Downtown in the neighborhoods of Hartford, Federal Hill, and Olneyville.


Crime

Compared to the national average, Providence has an average rate of violent crime and a higher rate of property crime per 100,000 inhabitants. In 2019, the city experienced 18 murders, up slightly from the prior year's total of 13. The 2018 number—10— was tied as the city's lowest in 40 years. Violent crime in the city is highly specific by neighborhood, with the vast majority of the murders taking place in the poorer sections of Providence such as Olneyville, Elmwood, South Providence, and the West End.


Economy

Around 1830, Providence had manufacturing industries in metals, machinery, textiles, jewelry, and silverware. Manufacturing has declined since, but the city is still one of the largest centers for jewelry and silverware design and manufacturing. Services also make up a large portion of the city's economy, in particular education, healthcare, and finance. Providence also is the site of a sectional center facility (SCF), a regional hub for the U.S. Postal Service. It is the capital of Rhode Island, so the city's economy additionally consists of government services. Prominent companies headquartered in Providence include Fortune 500 Textron, an advanced technologies industrial conglomerate; United Natural Foods, a distributor of natural and organic foods; Fortune 1000 Nortek Incorporated; Gilbane, Inc., Gilbane, a construction and real estate company. Other companies with headquarters in the city include Citizens Financial Group, Citizens Bank, Virgin Group, Virgin Pulse, Ørsted US Offshore Wind, and Providence Equity. The city is home to the Rhode Island Convention Center, which opened in December 1993. Along with a hotel, the convention center is connected to the Providence Place, Providence Place Mall, a major retail center, through a skywalk.


Ports

The Port of Providence (branded as ProvPort) is the second largest deep-water seaport in New England. In 1994, the city incorporated ProvPort as an independent non-profit. It is located on a single campus on the west side of the Providence River, next to the Washington Park neighborhood. As of 2021, operations are contracted to Waterson Terminal Services, which also operates ports in New Bedford, Massachusetts and Davisville, Rhode Island. ProvPort handles cargoes such as cement, chemicals, heavy machinery, petroleum, and scrap metal. Providence is also home to some of toy manufacturer Hasbro's business operations, although their headquarters are in Pawtucket. Exxon Terminal, a private port for oil tankers is located across the Providence River, in East Providence, Rhode Island, East Providence.


Top employers

According to the city's 2014 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top twenty employers in the city are:


Government

As the state capital, Providence houses the Rhode Island General Assembly, as well as the offices of the Governor of Rhode Island, Governor and the Lieutenant Governor of Rhode Island, Lieutenant Governor in the Rhode Island State House. The city itself has a Mayor-council government. The Providence City Council consists of 15 councilors, one for each of the city's wards, who enact ordinances and pass an annual budget. Providence also has probate and superior courts. The U.S. District Court for the District of Rhode Island is located downtown across from adjacent to Kennedy Plaza. In November 2002, David Cicilline was elected mayor of Providence, becoming List of the first LGBT holders of political offices in the United States, the first openly gay mayor of a United States state capital. The city's first Latino mayor was Angel Taveras, who assumed office on January 3, 2011. Current mayor Jorge Elorza succeeded him on January 5, 2015. The headquarters of the city's fire and police departments is a 130,000 square foot, steel frame Public Safety Complex on Washington Street near Interstate I-95. The building was dedicated in 2002 by former Mayor Vincent Cianci Jr.


Education


Postsecondary

The main campuses of five of Rhode Island's colleges and universities are in Providence (city proper): *
Brown University Brown University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two de ...

Brown University
, an Ivy League university and one of nine colonial colleges in the nation * Johnson & Wales University * Providence College * Rhode Island College, the state's oldest public college * Rhode Island School of Design (RISD) In addition, the Community College of Rhode Island, Roger Williams University, and University of Rhode Island have satellite campuses in the city. Between these schools, the number of post-secondary students is approximately 44,000. Higher education exerts a considerable presence in the city's politics and economy, compounded by the fact that Brown University is the city's second-largest employer.


Private and charter schools

There are several private schools in the city's East Side, including Moses Brown School, Moses Brown, the Lincoln School, Rhode Island, Lincoln School, and the Wheeler School. La Salle Academy, Providence, La Salle Academy, a Catholic college preparatory school, is located in the North End, near Providence College. The public charter schools Time Squared Academy High School (K-12) and Textron Chamber of Commerce (9–12) are funded by
GTECH Corporation GTECH Corporation was a gaming Gaming may refer to: Games and sports The act of playing game A game is a structured form of play Play most commonly refers to: * Play (activity), an activity done for enjoyment * Play (theatre), a work ...
and Textron respectively. In addition, the city's South Side houses Community Preparatory School, a private school serving primarily low-income students in grades 3–8. There are two separate centers for students with special needs.


Public schools

The Providence Public School District serves about 30,000 students from pre-Kindergarten to grade 12. The district has 25 elementary schools, nine middle schools, and thirteen high schools. The Providence Public School District features magnet schools at the middle and high school level, Nathanael Greene Middle School, Nathanael Greene and Classical High School, Classical respectively. The overall graduation rate is 70.1%, which is close to the statewide rate of 71% and the national average of 70%. The state of Rhode Island also operates two public schools in Providence.


Culture

Much of Providence culture is synonymous with the culture of Rhode Island as a whole. Like the state, the city has a non-rhotic accent that can be heard on local media. Providence also shares Rhode Island's affinity for coffee, with the most coffee and doughnut shops per capita of any city in the country. Providence is also reputed to have the highest number of restaurants per capita of major U.S. cities, many of which are founded or staffed by Johnson & Wales University graduates. During the summer months, the city regularly hosts WaterFire, an environmental art installation that consists of about 100 bonfires which blaze just above the surface of the three rivers that pass through the middle of Downtown Providence. There are multiple Waterfire events that are accompanied by various pieces of classical and world music. Providence has several ethnic neighborhoods, notably Federal Hill and the Charles, Providence, Rhode Island, North End (Italian), Fox Point (Portuguese),
West End West End most commonly refers to: * West End of London, an area of central London, England * West End theatre, a popular term for mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres of London, England West End may also refer to: Place ...
(mainly Central American and Asian), and Smith Hill (Irish). There are also many dedicated community organizations and arts associations located in the city.


LGBTQ community

The city gained the reputation as one of the most active and growing gay and lesbian communities in the Northeast. The rate of reported gay and lesbian relationships is 75% higher than the national average, and Providence has been named among the "Best Lesbian Places to Live". Former mayor David Cicilline won his election running as an openly gay man, Former Mayor Cianci instituted the position of Mayor's Liaison to the Gay and Lesbian community in the 1990s. and Providence is home to the largest gay bathhouse in New England.


Arts and performing arts

The city is also the home of the Tony Awards, Tony Award-winning theater group Trinity Repertory Company, the Providence Black Repertory Company, and the Rhode Island Philharmonic Orchestra, as well as groups such as The American Band, once associated with noted American composer David Wallis Reeves. Providence is also the home of several performing arts centers, such as the Veterans Memorial Auditorium (Providence), Veterans Memorial Auditorium, the Providence Performing Arts Center, and Festival Ballet Providence. The city's underground music is centered on artist-run spaces such as the now-defunct Fort Thunder and is known in underground music circles. Providence is also home to the Providence Improv Guild, an improvisational theatre that has weekly performances and offers improv and sketch comedy classes, and AS220, a long-standing non-profit arts center with exhibition, educational, and performance spaces, as well as live-work studios.


Sites of interest

Providence is home to a park system. Notable among these are
Waterplace Park Waterplace Park is an urban park situated along the Woonasquatucket River in downtown Providence, RI, Providence, Rhode Island at the original site of the Great Salt Cove. Finished in 1994, Waterplace Park is connected to 3/4 mile of cobblestone-pa ...
and the Riverwalk, Roger Williams Park, Roger Williams National Memorial, and Prospect Terrace Park. Prospect Terrace Park features expansive views of the downtown area, as well as a 15-foot tall granite statue of Roger Williams gazing over the city. As one of the first cities in America, Providence contains many List of Registered Historic Places in Providence, Rhode Island, historic buildings, while the East Side neighborhood in particular includes the largest contiguous area of buildings listed on the National Register of Historic Places in the U.S., with many pre-revolutionary houses.


East Side

Providence's East Side is also home to the First Baptist Church in America, which was founded by Williams in 1638, as well as the Old State House (Providence, Rhode Island), Old State House which served as the state's capitol from 1762 to 1904. Nearby is Roger Williams National Memorial. The dome of the Rhode Island State House, State House is the fourth-largest self-supporting marble dome in the world and the second-largest marble dome after St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. The
Westminster Arcade The Westminster Arcade (also known as the Providence Arcade, Arcade Providence, or The Arcade) is a historic shopping center at 130 Westminster Street and 65 Weybosset Street in downtown Providence Providence often refers to: * Providentia, the ...

Westminster Arcade
is the oldest enclosed shopping center in the U.S. The Rhode Island School of Design Museum contains the 20th-largest collection in the United States. The Providence Athenæum is the fourth oldest library in the United States, in addition to the Providence Public Library and the nine branches of the Providence Community Library. Edgar Allan Poe frequented the library, and met and courted Sarah Helen Whitman at the library. H. P. Lovecraft was also a regular patron.


Downtown

The Bank Newport City Center is located near Kennedy Plaza in the Downtown district, connected by pedestrian tunnel to Waterplace Park, a cobblestone and concrete park below street traffic that abuts Providence's three rivers. Another Downtown landmark is the
Providence Biltmore The Graduate Providence is an upscale hotel that opened in 1922 as the Providence Biltmore Hotel, part of the Bowman-Biltmore Hotels chain. It is located on the southern corner of Kennedy Plaza at 11 Dorrance Street in downtown Providence, Rhode Is ...
, a historic hotel which stands adjacent to Kennedy Plaza. The southern part of the city is home to the famous roadside attraction Big Blue Bug, the world's largest termite and mascot of eponymous Big Blue Bug Solutions. Roger Williams Park contains Roger Williams Park Zoo, a zoo, Roger Williams Park Botanical Center, a botanical center, and the Roger Williams Park Museum of Natural History and Planetarium, Museum of Natural History and Planetarium.


Sports

Providence is home to the American Hockey League (AHL) team Providence Bruins, which plays at the Dunkin' Donuts Center (formerly the Providence Civic Center). From 1926 to 1972, the AHL's Providence Reds (renamed the Rhode Island Reds in their last years) played at the Rhode Island Auditorium. In 1972, the team relocated to the Providence Civic Center, where they played until moving to Binghamton, New York, in 1977. The city has two rugby teams, the Rugby Union team Providence Rugby Football Club, and the Semi-Professional Rugby league team The Rhode Island Rebellion, which play at Classical High School. In 2013 the Rebellion finished the USA Rugby League (USARL) regular season in third place. Their playoff run took them to the USARL Semi-Finals, the first time the Rebellion made the playoffs in its short three-year history. The Providence Hurling Club was founded in 2015 by Michael Kennelly, David O'Connor, and Michael Walsh. The club is part of the Boston Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA). Since their inauguration the team has captured three cups. The league comprises Worcester, Hartford, Portsmouth, and Concord. UConn Huskies also put forth a team in various play and other university teams are in the process of being established. Home games are played at a pitch located at 50 Obediah Brown Road behind Pleasant View Elementary School. In November 2018, for the first time playoffs were hosted in Providence and Providence took the cup by defeating Worcester. The National Football League, NFL's New England Patriots and Major League Soccer, MLS's New England Revolution play in Foxborough, Massachusetts, which is situated halfway between Providence and Boston. Providence was formerly home to two major league franchises: the NFL's Providence Steam Roller in the 1920s and 1930s, and the National Basketball Association, NBA's Providence Steamrollers in the 1940s. The Rhode Island Auditorium also hosted 29 of the 49 boxing fights of Rocky Marciano. The city's defunct baseball team, the Providence Grays, competed in the National League from 1879 through 1885. The team defeated the New York Metropolitans in baseball's first successful "world championship series" in 1884 World Series, 1884. In 1914, after the Boston Red Sox purchased Babe Ruth from the then-minor league Baltimore Orioles (minor league), Baltimore Orioles, the team prepared Ruth for the major leagues by sending him to finish the season playing for a minor league team in Providence that was also known as the Grays. Most baseball fans—along with the local media—tend to follow the Boston Red Sox. Major colleges and universities fielding NCAA Division I athletic teams are Brown University and Providence College. The latter is a member of the Big East Conference (2013–present), Big East Conference. Much local hype is associated with games between these two schools or the University of Rhode Island. Providence has also hosted the alternative sports event Gravity Games from 1999 to 2001, and was also the first host of ESPN's X Games, known in its first edition as the Extreme Games, in 1995. Providence has its own roller derby league. Formed in 2004, it currently has four teams: the Providence Mob Squad, the Sakonnet River Roller Rats, the Old Money Honeys, and the Rhode Island Riveters. Until 2020, Providence was home to the headquarters of the American Athletic Conference (The American).


Infrastructure


Health and medicine

Providence is home to List of hospitals in Rhode Island, eight hospitals, most prominently Rhode Island Hospital, the largest general acute care hospital in the state. It is also the Level I Trauma Center for Rhode Island, Southeastern Massachusetts and parts of Connecticut. The hospital is in a complex along Interstate 95 in Rhode Island, I-95 that includes Hasbro Children's Hospital and Women and Infants Hospital. The city is also home to the Roger Williams Medical Center, St. Joseph Hospital For Specialty Care (a division of St. Joseph Health Services Of Rhode Island), The Miriam Hospital, a major teaching affiliate associated with the Alpert Medical School of
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Brown University
, as well as a United States Department of Veterans Affairs, VA medical center. The Rhode Island Blood Center has its main headquarters in Providence. Since 1979, the Rhode Island Blood Center has been the sole organization in charge of blood donation, blood collection and blood bank, testing and distribution of blood products to 11 hospitals in Rhode Island.


Transportation

Providence is served by T. F. Green Airport in Warwick, Rhode Island, Warwick, and general aviation fields also serve the region. Massport has been promoting T. F. Green as an alternative to Boston's Logan International Airport because of over-crowding. Providence Station is located between the Rhode Island State House and the Downtown district and is served by Amtrak and MBTA Commuter Rail services, with a commuter rail route running north to Boston and south to T.F. Green Airport and Wickford Junction (MBTA station), Wickford Junction. Approximately 2,400 passengers pass through the station per day. Interstate 95 in Rhode Island, I-95 runs from north to south through Providence; Interstate 195 (Rhode Island), I-195 connects the city to eastern Rhode Island and southeastern Massachusetts, including New Bedford, Massachusetts and Cape Cod. Interstate 295 (Rhode Island), I-295 encircles Providence, while RI 146 provides a direct connection with Worcester, Massachusetts. The city began the long-term project Iway in 2007 to move I-195 for safety reasons, to free up land, and to reunify the Jewelry District with Downtown Providence, which had been separated by the highway. The project was estimated to cost $610 million.


Bus

Kennedy Plaza in Downtown Providence serves as a transportation hub for local public transit as well as a departure point for Peter Pan Bus Lines and Greyhound Lines. Public transit is managed by Rhode Island Public Transit Authority (RIPTA). Through RIPTA alone, Kennedy Plaza serves more than 71,000 people a day. The majority of the area covered by RIPTA is served by traditional buses, but RIPTA also runs a "Rapid Bus", the R-Line (RIPTA), R-Line which connects the suburbs of Pawtucket and Cranston with Downtown Providence. Of particular note is the East Side Trolley Tunnel running under College Hill, whose use is reserved for RIPTA buses. RIPTA also operates the ''Providence LINK'', a system of tourist trolleys in Downtown Providence. From 2000 to 2008, RIPTA operated a seasonal ferry to Newport, Rhode Island between May and October, but SeaStreak began operating that ferry route in 2016. In 2020, RIPTA completed construction of the Downtown Transit Connector, an upgraded Bus rapid transit, BRT service to run from Providence station, Providence Station to the Upper South Providence, Providence, Rhode Island, Hospital District.


Walking and bicycling

The city serves as the end point for four of the state's major traffic-free bicycle paths: the East Bay Bike Path, Washington Secondary Rail Trail, the Woonasquatuck Greenway Bike Path, and the Blackstone River Greenway. There are several dedicated on-road bicycle lanes within the city. In 2017, the city signed a $400,000 contract with a private Silicon Valley company to introduce Providence's first Bicycle-sharing system, bicycle sharing program, supported by local hospitals and RIPTA. Shortly after the program started in September 2018, the bicycles became associated with a "wave of vandalism and criminal activity" including widespread thefts of bicycles, bikes tossed into the Providence River, and even a company tech held at gunpoint. The company suspended the program in August 2019. In August 2019, Providence River Pedestrian and Bicycle Bridge, a pedestrian bridge opened, spanning the Providence River and connecting Providence's east and west sides. The bridge was constructed on the granite piers of the old Route 195 bridge. In January 2020, mayor Jorge Elorza unveiled a "Great Streets" initiative to create a framework of public space improvements to encourage walking, riding bicycles, and public transit. The plan includes establishing an "Urban Trail Network" which includes 60 miles of bicycle paths, bike lanes, and greenways within Providence.


Future

In late 2019, the Rhode Island Public Transit Authority released a draft of the Rhode Island Transit Master Plan, documenting and describing a variety of proposed improvements and additions to be made to the state's public transit network by 2040. Many of the proposals have particular emphasis on the Providence area, with several still under consideration as of December 2020, including implementation of a bus rapid transit system, express bus routes, and construction of a new light rail network through downtown, as well as expansion of Amtrak and MBTA services.


Utilities

Electricity and natural gas are provided by National Grid (USA), National Grid. Providence Water is responsible for the distribution of drinking water, ninety percent of which comes from the Scituate Reservoir about west of Downtown, with contributions coming from four smaller bodies of water. Drinking water in Providence has been rated among the highest quality in the country.


Sister cities

Providence has four Sister city, sister cities: * Praia, Cape Verde (1994) * Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (2004) * Zhuhai, China (2015) * Guatemala City, Guatemala (2016)


See also

* List of people from Providence, Rhode Island * List of tallest buildings in Providence * National Register of Historic Places listings in Providence, Rhode Island * Neighborhoods in Providence


Notes


References


Further reading

* * *


External links


City of Providence, Rhode Island Official website

Providence Warwick Convention & Visitors Bureau
*
Portrait of Providence from Altitude, 2010
aerial photos by Doc Searles {{Featured article Providence, Rhode Island, Cities in Rhode Island Cities in Providence County, Rhode Island Providence metropolitan area County seats in Rhode Island Narragansett Bay Populated coastal places in Providence County, Rhode Island Port cities and towns of the United States Atlantic coast Populated places established in 1636 1636 establishments in Rhode Island Populated coastal places in Rhode Island