HOME
The Info List - Proto-Indo-Iranian


--- Advertisement ---



Pontic Steppe

Domestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe cultures

Bug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk Yamna

Mikhaylovka culture

Caucasus

Maykop

East-Asia

Afanasevo

Eastern Europe

Usatovo Cernavodă Cucuteni

Northern Europe

Corded ware

Baden Middle Dnieper

Bronze Age

Pontic Steppe

Chariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka Srubna

Northern/Eastern Steppe

Abashevo culture Andronovo Sintashta

Europe

Globular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus Urnfield Lusatian

South-Asia

BMAC Yaz Gandhara grave

Iron Age

Steppe

Chernoles

Europe

Thraco-Cimmerian Hallstatt Jastorf

Caucasus

Colchian

India

Painted Grey Ware Northern Black Polished Ware

Peoples and societies

Bronze Age

Anatolians Armenians Mycenaean Greeks Indo-Iranians

Iron Age

Indo-Aryans

Indo-Aryans

Iranians

Iranians

Scythians Persians Medes

Europe

Celts

Gauls Celtiberians Insular Celts

Hellenic peoples Italic peoples Germanic peoples Paleo-Balkans/Anatolia:

Thracians Dacians Illyrians Phrygians

Middle Ages

East-Asia

Tocharians

Europe

Balts Slavs Albanians Medieval Europe

Indo-Aryan

Medieval India

Iranian

Greater Persia

Religion and mythology

Reconstructed

Proto-Indo-European religion Proto-Indo-Iranian religion

Historical

Hittite

Indian

Vedic

Hinduism

Buddhism Jainism

Iranian

Persian

Zoroastrianism

Kurdish

Yazidism Yarsanism

Scythian

Ossetian

Others

Armenian

Europe

Paleo-Balkans Greek Roman Celtic

Irish Scottish Breton Welsh Cornish

Germanic

Anglo-Saxon Continental Norse

Baltic

Latvian Lithuanian

Slavic Albanian

Practices

Fire-sacrifice Horse sacrifice Sati Winter solstice/Yule

Indo-European studies

Scholars

Marija Gimbutas J.P. Mallory

Institutes

Copenhagen Studies in Indo-European

Publications

Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture The Horse, the Wheel and Language Journal of Indo-European Studies Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch Indo-European Etymological Dictionary

v t e

Proto-Indo-Iranian or Proto-Indo-Iranic[1] is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Iranian/Indo-Iranic branch of Indo-European. Its speakers, the hypothetical Proto-Indo-Iranians, are assumed to have lived in the late 3rd millennium BC, and are often connected with the Sintashta culture
Sintashta culture
of the Eurasian Steppe
Eurasian Steppe
and the early Andronovo
Andronovo
archaeological horizon. Proto-Indo-Iranian was a Satem language, likely removed less than a millennium from the late Proto-Indo-European language, its ancestor, and in turn removed less than a millennium from the Vedic Sanskrit of the Rigveda, its descendant. It is the ancestor of the Indo-Aryan languages, the Iranian languages, and the Nuristani languages.

Contents

1 Descriptive phonology

1.1 Two palatal series 1.2 Laryngeal 1.3 Accent

2 Historical phonology 3 Subsequent sound changes 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography

Descriptive phonology[edit]

Proto-Indo-Iranian consonant segments

Labial Coronal Palatal Velar Laryngeal

dental/ alveolar

post- alveolar

first second

Plosive

voiceless

*p *t

*ĉ *č *k  

voiced *b *d

*ĵ *ǰ *g  

aspirated *bʰ *dʰ

*ĵʰ *ǰʰ *gʰ  

Fricative

voiceless

*s *š

*H

voiced

(*z) (*ž)

 

Nasal *m *n

 

Liquid

*l *r *r̥

 

Semivowel

*y *w  

PII vowel segments

High *i *ī         *u *ū

Low     *a *ā    

In addition to the vowels, *H, and *r̥ could function as the syllabic core. Two palatal series[edit] Proto-Indo-Iranian is hypothesized to contain two series of stops or affricates in the palatal to postalveolar region.[2] The phonetic nature of this contrast is not clear, and hence they are usually referred to as the primary or first series (*ĉ *ĵ *ĵʰ, continuing Proto-Indo-European palatovelar *ḱ *ǵ *ǵʰ) and the second or secondary series (*č *ǰ *ǰʰ, continuing Proto-Indo-European plain and labialized velars, *k, *g, *gʰ and *kʷ, *gʷ, *gʷʰ, in palatalizing contexts). The following table shows the most common reflexes of the two series ( Proto-Iranian is the hypothetical ancestor to the Iranian languages, including Avestan and Old Persian):[3][4]

PII Sanskrit Proto-Iranian Avestan Old Persian Nuristani

*ĉ ś ([ɕ]) *ts s θ ċ ([ts]) / š

*ĵ j ([ɟ]) *dz z d j ([dz]) / z

*ĵʰ h ([ɦ])

*č c *č č č č

*ǰ j ([ɟ]) *ǰ ǰ ǰ ǰ / ž

*ǰʰ h ([ɦ])

Laryngeal[edit] Proto-Indo-European is usually hypothesized to have had three to four laryngeal consonants, each of which could occur in either syllabic or non-syllabic position. In Proto-Indo-Iranian, the laryngeals merged as one phoneme /*H/. Beekes suggests that some instances of this /*H/ survived into Avestan as unwritten glottal stops.[5] Accent[edit] Like Proto-Indo-European and Vedic Sanskrit (and also Avestan, though it was not written down[6]), Proto-Indo-Iranian had a pitch accent, indicated by an acute accent over the accented vowel. Historical phonology[edit] The most distinctive phonological change separating Proto-Indo-Iranian from Proto-Indo-European is the collapse of the ablauting vowels *e, *o, *a into a single vowel, Proto-Indo-Iranian *a (but see Brugmann's law). Grassmann's law, Bartholomae's law, and the Ruki sound law were also complete in Proto-Indo-Iranian. A fuller list of some of the hypothesized sound changes from Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iranian follows:

The Satem shift, consisting of two sets of related changes. The PIE palatals *k̂ *ĝ *ĝʰ are fronted or affricated, eventually resulting in PII *ĉ, *ĵ, *ĵʰ, while the PIE labiovelars *kʷ *gʷ *gʷʰ merge with the velars *k *g *gʰ.[7]

PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin

*k̂m̥tóm *ĉatám śatám satəm centum "hundred"

*ĝónu *ĵā́nu jā́nu zānu genū "knee"

*ĝʰi-m- *ĵʰim- himá-/hímā- zim- hiems "winter" / "snow"

*kʷó- *ká- ká- kō quis "who?, what?"

*gʷou- *gau- go- gau- bōs, bov- "cow"

*gʷʰormó- *gʰarmá- gharmá- garəma- formus "warmth, heat"

The PIE syllabic liquids *l̥, *r̥ merge as *r̥.[8]

PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin

*wĺ̥kʷo- *wŕ̥ka- *vŕ̥ka- vəhrka- lupus "wolf"

The PIE syllabic nasals *m̥ *n̥ merge with *a.[8]

PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin

*k̂m̥tóm *ĉatám śatám satəm centum "hundred"

*mn̥tó- *matá matá-

mēns, ment- "thinking"

Bartholomae's law: an aspirate immediately followed by a voiceless consonant becomes voiced stop + voiced aspirate. In addition, dʰ + t > dzdʰ.[9]

PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan

*ubʰto- *ubdʰa- ubdhá- ubdaēna- "woven" / "made of woven material"

*urdʰto- *urdzdʰa- vr̥ddʰá- vərəzda- "complete/mature"

*áugʰ-ta *áugdʰa 3p óhate *augda > Av aogədā "he said"

The Ruki rule: *s is retracted to *š when immediately following *r *r̥ *u *k or *i. Its allophone *z likewise becomes *ž.[8]

PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin

*wers- *warš- várṣman-

verrūca "summit"

*pr̥sth₂ó/i- *pr̥šthá- pr̥ṣṭhá- paršti-

"back" / "backbone"

*ǵeus- *ĵauš- joṣati zaošō gustus "taste"

*kʷsép- *kšáp- (< *ksep) kṣáp- xšap-

"darkness"

*wis- *wiš- viṣá- viša- vīrus "poison"

*nisdó- *niždá- nīḍá-

nīdus "nest"

Before a dental occlusive, *ĉ becomes *š and *ĵ becomes *ž. *ĵʰ also becomes *ž, with aspiration of the occlusive.[10]

PIE pre-PII PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin

*h₂ok̂tṓ *oĉtṓ *aštā́ aṣṭā́, aṣṭaú ašta octō "eight"

*h₃mr̥ĝt- *mr̥ĵd- *mr̥žd- mr̥ḍīká- mərəždīka-

"wiped away" / "pardon"

*uĝʰtó- *uĵʰtó- *uždʰá- ūḍhá-

vectus "carried"

The sequence *ĉs was simplified to *šš.[11]

PIE pre-PII PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin

*h₂ék̂s- *áĉs- *ášš- ákṣa- aša- axis "shoulder" / "axle"

The "second palatalization" or "law of palatals": *k *g *gʰ develop palatal allophones *č *ǰ *ǰʰ before the front vowels *i, *e.[9]

PIE pre-PII PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin

*kʷe *ke *ča ca ča -que "and"

*gʷíh₃weti *gíh₃weti *ǰíHwati jī́vati juuaiti vīvit "lives"

*gʷʰénti *gʰénti *ǰʰánti hánti jaiṇti -fendit "slays"

Brugmann's law: *o in an open syllable lengthens to *ō.[12]

PIE pre-PII PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin

*deh₃tór-m *deh₃tṓr-m *dātā́ram dātā́ram dātāram datōrem "giver" (acc. sg.)

The vowels *e *o merge with *a. Similarly, *ē, *ō merge with *ā. This has the effect of giving full phonemic status to the second palatal series *č *ǰ *ǰʰ.

PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin

*kʷe *ča (< *če) ca ča -que "and"

*gʷʰormó- *gʰarmá- gharmá- garəma- formus "heat"

*bʰréh₂tēr *bʰrā́tār bhrā́tā brātā frāter "brother"

*wōkʷs *wākš vā́k vāxš vōx "voice"

In certain positions, laryngeals were vocalized to *i. This preceded the second palatalization.[13][14]

Following a consonant, and preceding a consonant cluster

PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin

*ph₂trei *pitrai pitré fəδrōi patrī "father" (dative singular)

Following a consonant and word-final

PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan

*-medʰh₂ *-madʰi -mahi -maidī/-maiδi (1st person plural middle ending)

The Indo-European laryngeals all merged into one phoneme *H, which may have been a glottal stop. This was probably contemporary with the merging of *e and *o with *a.[15]

PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin

*ph₂tér *pHtā́ pitā́ ptā pater "father" (nominative singular)

According to Lubotsky's Law, *H disappeared when followed by a voiced nonaspirated stop and another consonant:[16]

PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan

*bʰeh₂g- *bʰag- ( < *bʰaHg- ) bʰag- baxša- "distribute"

Subsequent sound changes[edit] Among the sound changes from Proto-Indo-Iranian to Indo-Aryan is the loss of the voiced sibilant *z, among those to Iranian is the de-aspiration of the PIE voiced aspirates.

Proto-Indo-European and Indo-Iranian Phonological Correspondences[17]

PIE OInd/VS Av PIE OInd/VS Av

*p > p p *ph̥₂tḗr "father" pitā́ "father" pitar- "father"

*b > b b *bél- "strong" bálam "strength" —

*bʰ > bh b *bʰréh₂tēr "brother" bhrā́tār- "brother" brātar- "brother

*t > t t *tuHóm "thou" tuvám "thou" tvəm "thou"

*d > d d *dóru "wood" dā́ru "wood" dāru- "wood"

*dʰ > dh d *dʰoHnéh₂- "grain" dhānā́- "grain" dāna- "grain"

*ḱ > ś s *déḱm̥ "ten" dáśa "ten" dasa "ten"

*ǵ > j z *ǵónu "knee" jā́nu "knee" zānu- "knee"

*ǵʰ > h z *ǵʰimós "cold" himá- "cold, frost" zəmaka- "winterstorm"

*k > k ~ c x ~ č *kruh₂rós "bloody" krūrá- "bloody" xrūra- "bloody"

*téket "may he run" — tačat̰ "may he run"

*g > g ~ j g ~ ǰ *h₂éuges- "strength" ójas- "strength" aoǰah "strength"

*h₂ugrós "strong" ugrá- "strong" ugra- "strong"

*gʰ > gh ~ h g ~ ǰ *dl̥Hgʰós "long" dīrghá- "long" darəga- "long"

*dleHgʰistos "longest" — draǰišta- "longest"

*kʷ > k ~ c k ~ č *kʷós "who" káḥ "who" kō "who"

*kʷe "and" ca "and" ́ča "and"

*gʷ > g ~ j g ~ ǰ *gʷou- "cow" gav- "cow" gau- "cow"

*gʷih₃wós "alive" jīvá- "alive" OPer: ǰīva- "living"

*gʷʰ > gh ~ h g ~ ǰ *gʷʰnénti "strike" (pl.) ghnánti "strike" (pl.) —

*gʷʰénti "strikes" hánti "strikes" ǰainti "strikes"

*s > s s ~ h *septm̥ "seven" saptá "seven" hapta "seven"

*h₁ésti "is" ásti "is" asti "is"

*y > y y *yugóm "yoke" yugam "yoke" yuga- "yoke"

*w > v v *wéǵʰeti "drives, rides" váhati "drives" vazaiti "travels"

*m > m m *méh₂tēr "mother" mātár- "mother" mātar- "mother"

*n > n n *nós "us" nas "us" nō "us"

*l > l ~ r r *kʷeleti "moves" carati "moves" caraiti "moves"

*r > r r *bʰréh₂tēr "brother" bhrā́tār- "brother" brātar- "brother

*n̥ > a a *n̥- "un-" a- "un-" a- "un-"

*m̥ > a a *ḱm̥tóm "hundred" śatám "hundred" satəm "hundred"

*l̥ > r̥ ərər *wĺ̥kʷos "wolf" vŕ̥ka- "wolf" vəhrka- "wolf"

*r̥ > r̥ ərər *ḱŕ̥d- "heart" hŕ̥d- "heart" zərəd- "heart"

*i > i i *linékʷti "leaves" riṇákti "leaves" irinaxti "releases"

*e > a a *déḱm̥ "ten" dáśa "ten" dasa "ten"

*ē > ā ā *h₂nḗr "man" nā "man" nā "man"

*a > a a *h₂éǵeti "drives" ájati "drives" azaiti "drives"

*ā > ā ā *méh₂tēr "mother" mātā́ "mother" mātar- "mother"

*o > a ~ ā a ~ ā *ǵómbʰos "tooth, peg" jā́mbha- "tooth, tusk" —

*ǵónu "knee" jānu "knee" zānu- "knee"

*ō > ā ā *dʰoHnéh₂- "grain" dhānā́- "grain" dāna- "grain"

*u > u u *yugóm "yoke" yugám "yoke" yuga- "yoke"

*ū > ū ū *mū́s "mouse" mū́ṣ- "mouse" NPer mūs "mouse"

*h₁ > ∅ ∅ *h₁ésti "is" ásti "is" asti "is"

*h₂ > ∅ ∅ *h₂ŕ̥tḱos "bear" ŕ̥kṣa- "bear" arəša- "bear"

*h₃ > ∅ ∅ *h₃ókʷs(i) "eye" ákṣi "eye" aši "eye"

*h₄ > ∅ ∅ *h₄órǵʰis "testicle" — ərəzi- "testicle"

Proto-Indo-Iranian Old Iranian (OP, Av) Vedic Sanskrit

*Háĉwa-s "horse" Av, OP aspa- áśva-

*bʰāgá- "portion, share" Av bāga, OP bāga- bhāgá

*bʰráHtā "brother" Av, OP brātar- bhrā́tr̥-

*bʰúHmī- "earth, land" OP būmiš bhū́mī-

*martya "mortal, man" Av maṣ̌iia-, OP martiya- mártya-

*máHas- "moon" Av mā̊, OP māha mā́sa-

*wásar- "early" Av vaŋri (dat.sg.), OP -vāhara- "spring" vasar- "morning"

*r̥tá- "truth" Av aṣ̌a-, OP arta r̥tá-

*dʰráugʰa-s "falsehood" Av draoγa-, OP drauga- drógha-

*sáuma-s "pressed (juice)" Av haoma- sóma-

See also[edit]

Substratum in Vedic Sanskrit

References[edit]

^ Peter Bellwood; Immanuel Ness (10 November 2014). The Global Prehistory of Human Migration. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-97059-1.  ^ Burrow, pp. 78-79 ^ Ramat, Anna Giacalone (1998). The Indo-European Languages (illustrated ed.). London ; New York: Routledge,. p. 134. ISBN 0-415-06449-X.  ^ Cardona, George; Dhanesh Jain (2003). The Indo-Aryan Languages. London ; New York: Routledge. p. 24. ISBN 0-7007-1130-9.  ^ Beekes (1988), p. 50 ^ Beekes, p. 55 ^ Burrow, pp. 74-75 ^ a b c Fortson, p. 182 ^ a b Fortson, p. 181 ^ Burrow, p. 91 ^ Burrow, pp. 92-94 ^ Fortson, p. 183 ^ Beekes, pp, 85-86 ^ Lubotsky, p. 53 ^ get ref ^ Beekes, pp. 88-89 ^ "Indo-Iranian Languages." Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Ed. J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997. pp. 305.

Bibliography[edit]

Beekes, Robert Stephen Paul (1988). A Grammar of Gatha-Avestan. Leiden; New York: Brill. ISBN 90-04-08332-4.  Burrow, T. (2001). The Sanskrit Language (1st Indian ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-1767-2.  Fortson, Benjamin W. (2004). Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction (illustrated ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1-4051-0316-7.  Lubotsky, A. M. (1988). The System of Nominal Accentuation in Sanskrit and Proto-Indo-European. Leiden; New York: Brill. ISBN 90-04-08835-0.  Alexander Lubotsky, "The Indo-Iranian substratum" in Early Contacts between Uralic and Indo-European, ed. Carpelan et al., Helsinki (2001). Asko Parpola, 'The formation of the Aryan branch of Indo-European', in Blench and Spriggs (eds), Archaeology and Language III, London and New

.