The Proto-Austronesian language (PAN) is the reconstructed ancestor of the Austronesian languages, one of the world's major language families. However, Ross (2009) notes that what may be the most divergent languages, Tsou, Rukai, and Puyuma, are not addressed by the reconstructions, which therefore cannot claim to be the protolanguage of the entire family. He calls the unit which has been reconstructed Nuclear Austronesian. Lower-level reconstructions have also been made, and include Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, Proto-Oceanic, and Proto-Polynesian. Recently, linguists such as Malcolm Ross and Andrew Pawley have built large lexicons for Proto-Oceanic and Proto-Polynesian.
1.1 Blust's reconstruction 1.2 Wolff's reconstruction 1.3 Other reconstructions
2 Sound changes 3 Syntax
3.1 Word order 3.2 Voice system 3.3 Interrogatives and case markers
4.1 Affixes 4.2 Reduplication
5.1 Pronouns 5.2 Nouns 5.3 Colors and directions 5.4 Numerals 5.5 Verbs
6 Monosyllabic roots 7 See also 8 Notes and references
8.1 Notes 8.2 References
9 External links
Phonology Proto-Austronesian is reconstructed by constructing sets of correspondences among consonants in the various Austronesian languages, according to the comparative method. Although in theory the result should be unambiguous, in practice given the large number of languages there are numerous disagreements, with various scholars differing significantly on the number and nature of the phonemes in Proto-Austronesian. In the past, some disagreements concerned whether certain correspondence sets were real or represent sporadic developments in particular languages. For the currently remaining disagreements, however, scholars generally accept the validity of the correspondence sets but disagree on the extent to which the distinctions in these sets can be projected back to proto-Austronesian or represent innovations in particular sets of daughter languages. Blust's reconstruction Below are Proto-Austronesian phonemes reconstructed by Robert Blust, a professor of linguistics at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. A total of 25 Proto-Austronesian consonants, 4 vowels, and 4 diphthongs were reconstructed. However, Blust acknowledges that some of the reconstructed consonants are still controversial and debated. The symbols below are frequently used in reconstructed Proto-Austronesian words.
*C: voiceless alveolar affricate *c: voiceless palatal affricate *q: uvular or glottal stop *z: voiced palatal affricate *D: voiced retroflex stop *j: palatalized voiced velar stop *S: voiceless alveolar fricative *N: palatalized alveolar lateral *r: alveolar flap *R: alveolar or uvular trill
Proto-Austronesian Consonants (Blust, 1999)
Labial Alveolar Palatal Retroflex Velar Glottal
Unvoiced stop p /p/ t /t/
k /k/ q /q/ or /ʔ/
Voiced stop b /b/ d /d/
D /ɖ/ g /ɡ/; j /ɡʲ/
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ ñ /ɲ/
S /s/ s /ç/
C /t͡s/ c /c͡ç/, z /ɟ͡ʝ/
l /l/ N /lʲ/
Tap or trill
r /ɾ/; R /r/ or /ʀ/
Approximant w /w/
The Proto-Austronesian vowels are a, i, u, and ə.
Proto-Austronesian Vowels (Blust, 1999)
Height Front Central Back
Close i /i/
The diphthongs, which are diachronic sources of individual vowels, are:
*-ay *-aw *-uy *-iw
Wolff's reconstruction In 2010, John Wolff published his Proto-Austronesian reconstruction in Proto-Austronesian phonology with glossary. Wolff reconstructs a total of 19 consonants, 4 vowels (*i, *u, *a, *e, where *e = /ə/), 4 diphthongs (*ay, *aw, *iw, *uy), and syllabic stress.
Proto-Austronesian Consonants (Wolff)
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Unvoiced stop p /p/ t /t/ c /c/ k /k/ q /q/
Voiced stop b /b/ d /d/ j /ɟ/ g /ɡ/ ɣ /ɣ/
Nasal m /m/ n /n/
l /l/ ɬ /ɬ/
Approximant w /w/
The following table shows how Wolff's Proto-Austronesian phonemic system differs from Blust's system. Major differences without one-to-one correspondences are highlighted in bold.
Wolff's and Blust's PAn phonemes
t C, t
none T, c
ɬ ñ, N, L
h H1 (H2)
Other reconstructions According to Malcolm Ross, the following aspects of Blust's system are uncontroversial: the labials (p b m w); the velars k ŋ; y; R; the vowels; and the above four diphthongs. There is some disagreement about the postvelars (q ʔ h) and the velars g j, and about whether there are any more diphthongs; however, in these respects, Ross and Blust are in agreement. The major disagreement concerns the system of coronal consonants. The following discussion is based on Ross (1992). Dempwolff's reconstruction of Proto-Malayo-Polynesian from the 1930s included:
Dental t d n l Retroflex ṭ ḍ ḷ Palatal t' d' n' Palatal k' g' (disputed)
Dyen (1963), including data from the Formosan languages, expanded Dempwolff's set of coronal consonants:
ṭ split into T C Z ḷ split into r S X x t' split into s1 s2 l ḍ d' n' k' g' renotated as L/N D z ñ c j
Tsuchida (1976), building on Dyen's system:
Further split d into D1 D2 D3 D4. He also believed that Dyen's c (Dempwolff's k') could not be reconstructed for Proto-Austronesian (he also split Dyen's w into w W and q into q Q, which were not accepted by later scholars.)
Dahl reduced Tsuchida's consonants into:
D1 D2 D3 D4 into d3 d2 d1 d3 (with the new d3 reflecting the combination of the old D1 and D4) and combined Dyen's S X x into a single phoneme S. He did accept Dyen's c but did not accept his T D. (He also renotated a number of phonemes in ways that were not generally accepted by later scholars.)
Blust based his system on a combination of Dyen, Tsuchida and Dahl, and attempted to reduce the total number of phonemes. He accepted Dahl's reduction of Dyen's S X x into S but did not accept either Tsuchida's or Dahl's split of Dyen's d; in addition, he reduced Dyen's s1 s2 to a single phoneme s. While accepting Dyen's c, he was hesitant about T and D (more recently, Blust appears to have accepted D but rejected T, and also rejected Z). Ross likewise attempted to reduce the number of phonemes, but in a different way:
He accepts Dahl's d1 d2 d3 and also Z (eventually rejected by Blust).
He notes that the distinction between d1 and d2 d3 is only
reconstructable for the Formosan language groups Amis, Proto-Puyuma
and Proto-Paiwan, and only Proto-Paiwan has a three-way distinction
among d1 d2 d3; contrarily the distinction between Z and d1 is
reconstructable only for Proto-Rukai and Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, but
not any of the previous three groups. However, he still believes
(contra Blust) that the distinction among these phonemes is an
inheritance from Proto-Austronesian rather than an innovation in the
He notes that d1 occurs only morpheme-initially, while r occurs only
morpheme-non-initially, and as a result combines the two.
He does not accept the phonemes c z ñ in Proto-Austronesian, and
asserts that none of them are "readily reconstructable" outside of
Proto-Malayo-Polynesian. Furthermore, while he believes that ñ was a
general innovation in Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, c and z "are reflected
differently from PMP [Proto-Malayo-Polynesian] *s and *d only in a
fairly limited area of western Indo-Malaysia and appear to be the
results of local developments".
He also reconstructs the coronals somewhat differently. He believes
that C S l d3 were all retroflex (respectively, /tʂ/; /ʂ/ or /ʃ/;
/ɭ/ or /ɽ/; /ɖ/), and s and L (Blust's N) were dental /s/ and /l/,
as opposed to Blust's reconstruction as dental and palatal,
respectively. According to Ross, this is based on their outcomes in
Proto-Austronesian and Proto-Malayo-Polynesian Sound Changes
However, according to Wolff (2010:241), Proto-Malayo-Polynesian's development from Proto-Austronesian only included the following three sound changes.
PAn *ɬ > PMP *ñ, l, n PAn *s > PMP *h PAn *h > PMP *Ø
Proto-Oceanic merged even more phonemes. This is why modern-day
Proto-Malayo-Polynesian and Proto-Oceanic Sound Changes
Unusual sound changes that occurred within the Austronesian language family are:
Proto-Oceanic *t > k in Hawaiian, Samoan, and the Ontong Java language Proto-Polynesian *l and *r > ŋg in Rennellese Proto-Oceanic *w and *y > p in Levei Khehek Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *w or *b > Sundanese c- or -nc-
Proto-Austronesian is a verb-initial language (including VSO and VOS
word orders), as most Formosan languages, all Philippine languages,
some Bornean languages, all Austronesian dialects of Madagascar, and
Proto-Austronesian voice system
Independent (non-past) Independent (past) Future-general action Dependent Subjunctive
Actor voice -um- -inum- ? ø -a
Direct passive -en -in- r- -en -a ?
Local passive -an -in-an r- -an -i -ay
Instrumental passive i- i- -in- (?) ? -an (?) ?
Interrogatives and case markers The following table compares Proto-Austronesian and Proto-Malayo-Polynesian question words.
Proto-Austronesian and Proto-Malayo-Polynesian question words
English Proto-Austronesian Proto-Malayo-Polynesian
what *(n)-anu *apa
who *(si)-ima *i-sai
where *i-nu *i nu
when *ija-n *p-ijan
how *(n)-anu *ku(j)a
Currently, the most complete reconstruction of the Proto-Austronesian case marker system is offered by Malcolm Ross. The reconstructed case markers are as follows:
Proto-Austronesian case markers
Common nouns Singular personal nouns Plural personal nouns
Neutral *[y]a, *u *i –
Nominative *k-a *k-u –
Genitive *n-a, *n-u *n-i *n-i-a
Accusative *C-a, *C-u *C-i –
Oblique *s-a, *s-u – –
Locative *d-a – –
Important Proto-Austronesian grammatical words include the ligature
*na and locative *i.
Morphology and syntax are often hard to separate in the Austronesian
languages, particularly the Philippine languages. This is because
the morphology of the verbs often affects how the rest of the sentence
would be constructed (i.e., syntax).
Below are some Proto-Austronesian affixes (including prefixes,
infixes, and suffixes) reconstructed by Robert Blust. For instance,
*pa- was used for non-stative (i.e., dynamic) causatives, while *pa-ka
was used for stative causatives (Blust 2009:282). Blust also noted a
p/m pairing phenomenon in which many affixes have both p- and m-
forms. This system is especially elaborate in the
*ka- inchoative (Formosan only), stative, past time, accompanied action/person, abstract noun formative, manner in which an action is carried out, past participle
*maki/paki petitive (petitioning for something)
*maŋ actor voice
*paŋ instrumental voice
*maʀ- actor voice
*paʀ- instrumental noun
*paʀi- reciprocal/collective action
*qali/kali- sensitive connection with the spirit world
*Sa- instrumental voice
*Si- instrumental voice
*-an instrumental voice: imperative
*Sika- ordinal numeral
*ta(ʀ-) sudden, unexpected, or accidental action
*-um- actor voice: transitivity, etc.
*-in- perfective, nominalizer
*-an locative voice
*-i locative voice: imperative
*-en patient voice
*-a patient voice: imperative
*ka- -an adversative passive, abstract nouns
Reduplication CV (consonant + vowel) reduplication is very common among the Austronesian languages. In Proto-Austronesian, Ca-reduplicated (consonant + /a/) numbers were used to count humans, while the non-reduplicated sets were used to count non-human and inanimate objects. CV-reduplication was also used to nominalize verbs in Proto-Austronesian. In Ilocano, CV-reduplication is used to pluralize nouns. Reduplication patterns include (Blust 2009):
Full reduplication Full reduplication plus affixation Full reduplication minus the coda Full reduplication minus the last vowel Full reduplication with vocalic or consonantal change, or both Full reduplication with consecutive identical syllables Prefixal foot reduplication/leftward reduplication Suffixal foot reduplication/rightward reduplication CVC-reduplication CV-reduplication (marks durative aspect, collectivity, or intensity in Bunun; future in Tagalog) CV-reduplication plus affixation Ca-reduplication (used to derive human-counting numerals and deverbal instrumental nouns in Thao and Puyuma) Extensions of fixed segmentism Reduplicative infixes Suffixal syllable reduplication
Other less common patterns are (Blust 2009):
Vacuous reduplication (occurs in Paamese) Full reduplication minus the initial (occurs in Anejom of southern Vanuatu) Full reduplication plus an initial glide (occurs in Kosraean) Partial reduplication minus initial glottal stop (occurs in Rennellese) True CV-reduplication (occurs in Pangasinan) Rightward trisyllabic reduplication (occurs in the Manam language) Double reduplication (occurs in Woleaian) Triplication (only in the Thao language) Serial reduplication (only in the Thao language)
Vocabulary Pronouns See also: Austronesian personal pronouns The Proto-Austronesian and Proto-Malayo-Polynesian personal pronouns below were reconstructed by Robert Blust.
Proto-Austronesian and Proto-Malayo-Polynesian Pronouns
Type of Pronoun English Proto-Austronesian Proto-Malayo-Polynesian
1s. "I" *i-aku *i-aku
2s. "you" *i-(ka)Su *i-kahu
3s. "he/she/it" *si-ia *si-ia
1p. (inclusive) "we (and you)" *i-(k)ita *i-(k)ita
1p. (exclusive) "we (but not you)" *i-(k)ami *i-(k)ami
2p. "you all" *i-kamu *i-kamu, ihu
3p. "they" *si-ida *si-ida
In 2006, Malcolm Ross also proposed seven different pronominal categories for persons. The categories are listed below, with the Proto-Austronesian first person singular ("I") given as examples.
Neutral (e.g., PAN *i-aku) Nominative 1 (e.g., PAN *aku) Nominative 2 (e.g., PAN *=ku, *[S]aku) Accusative (e.g., PAN *i-ak-ən) Genitive 1 (e.g., PAN *=[a]ku) Genitive 2 (e.g., PAN *(=)m-aku) Genitive 3 (e.g., PAN *n-aku)
The following is from Ross' 2002 proposal of the Proto-Austronesian pronominal system, which contains five categories, including the free (i.e., independent or unattached), free polite, and three genitive categories.
Proto-Austronesian Personal Pronouns
Free Free polite Genitive 1 Genitive 2 Genitive 3
1s. *[i-]aku – *=ku *maku *n-aku
2s. *[i-]Su *[i-]ka-Su *=Su *miSu *ni-Su
3s. *s(i)-ia – (*=ia) – *n(i)-ia
1p. (excl.) *i-ami *[i-]k-ami *=mi *mami *n(i)-ami
1p. (incl.) *([i])ita *[i-]k-ita *=ta *mita *n-ita
2p. *i-amu *[i-]k-amu *=mu *mamu *n(i)-amu
3p. *si-da – (*=da) – *ni-da
Nouns Proto-Austronesian vocabulary relating to agriculture and other technological innovations include:
*pajay: rice plant *beRas: husked rice *Semay: cooked rice *qayam: bird (means "domesticated animal" in PMP) *manuk: chicken (PMP *manu-manuk means "bird") *babuy: pig *qaNuaŋ: carabao *kuden: clay cooking pot *SadiRi: housepost *busuR: bow *panaq: flight of an arrow *bubu: fish trap *tulaNi: bamboo nose flute
Proto-Malayo-Polynesian innovations include:
*puqun: base of a tree; origin, cause *sumpit: blowpipe *haRezan: notched log ladder (used to enter pile dwellings) *taytay: bamboo suspension bridge (POc *tete "ladder, bridge") *kaka: elder same sex sibling *huaji: younger same sex sibling *ñaRa: brother of a woman *betaw: sister of a man
Proto-Malayo-Polynesian also has several words for house:
*balay (house, building for public use) *Rumaq (house, family dwelling) *banua (land, village, house, country, sky, heaven) – hence vanua and whenua (as in tangata whenua) *lepaw (granary) *kamaliR (bachelors' clubhouse)
Body part Proto-Austronesian Proto-Malayo-Polynesian Proto-Oceanic Proto-Polynesian
hand *(qa)lima *(qa)lima *lima *lima
leg, foot *qaqay *qaqay *waqe *waqe
head *qulu *qulu *qulu, *bwatu(k) *qulu
eye *maCa *mata *mata *mata
ear *Caliŋa *taliŋa *taliŋa *taliŋa
nose *mujiŋ *ijuŋ *isuŋ *isu
mouth *ŋusu *baqbaq *papaq *ŋutu
blood *daRaq *daRaq *draRaq *toto
liver *qaCay *qatay *qate *qate
bone *CuqelaN *tuqelaŋ *suri *hui
skin *qaNiC *kulit *kulit *kili
back *likud *likud *muri, *takuRu *tuqa
belly *tiaN *tian, *kempuŋ *tian *manawa
intestines *Cinaqi *tinaqi *tinaqi
breast *susu *susu *susu *susu, *huhu
shoulder *qabaRa *qabaRa *(qa)paRa *uma
neck *liqeR *liqeR *Ruqa, *liqoR *ua
hair *bukeS *buhek *raun ni qulu *lau-qulu
tooth *nipen *ipen, *nipen *nipon, *lipon *nifo
Kinship Proto-Austronesian Proto-Malayo-Polynesian Proto-Oceanic Proto-Polynesian
person, human being *Cau *tau *taumataq *taŋata
mother *t-ina *t-ina *tina *tinana
father *t-ama *t-ama *tama *tamana
child *aNak *anak *natu *tama
man, male *ma-Ruqanay *laki, *ma-Ruqanay *mwaRuqane *taqane
woman, female *bahi *bahi *pine, *papine *fafine
house *Rumaq *Rumaq, *balay, *banua *Rumwaq *fale
Animal Proto-Austronesian Proto-Malayo-Polynesian Proto-Oceanic Proto-Polynesian
dog *asu *asu – –
bird *qayam *qayam, *manuk *manuk *manu
snake *SulaR *hulaR, *nipay *mwata *ŋata
louse *kuCu *kutu *kutu *kutu
fish *Sikan *hikan *ikan *ika
chicken *manuk – – –
Colors and directions Below are colors in reconstructed Proto-Austronesian, Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, Proto-Oceanic, and Proto-Polynesian. The first three have been reconstructed by Robert Blust, while the Proto-Polynesian words given below were reconstructed by Andrew Pawley. Proto-Polynesian displays many innovations not found in the other proto-languages.
Color Proto-Austronesian Proto-Malayo-Polynesian Proto-Oceanic Proto-Polynesian
white *ma-puNi *ma-putiq *ma-puteq *tea
black *ma-CeŋeN *ma-qitem *ma-qetom *quli(-quli)
red *ma-puteq *ma-iRaq *meRaq *kula
yellow – *ma-kunij *aŋo *reŋareŋa, *felo(-felo)
green *mataq *mataq *karakarawa *mata (?)
The Proto-Austronesians used two types of directions, which are the
land-sea axis and the monsoon axis. The cardinal directions of north,
south, east, and west developed among the
*daya: inland (also upstream/uphill) *lahud: seaward (also downstream/downhill) *SabaRat: west monsoon *timuR: east monsoon *qamiS: north wind
Interestingly, in Kavalan, Amis, and Tagalog, the reflexes of *timuR
mean "south" or "south wind," while in the languages of the southern
Number Proto-Austronesian Proto-Malayo-Polynesian Proto-Oceanic Proto-Polynesian
one *esa, *isa *esa, *isa *sa-kai, *ta-sa, *tai, *kai *taha
two *duSa *duha *rua *rua
three *telu *telu *tolu *tolu
four *Sepat *epat *pat, *pati, *pani *faa
five *lima *lima *lima *lima
Proto-Austronesian language had different sets of numerals for
non-humans ("set A") and humans ("set B") (Blust 2009:279). Cardinal
numerals for counting humans are derived from the non-human numerals
through Ca-reduplication. This bipartite numeral system is found in
Thao, Puyuma, Yami, Chamorro, and various other languages (however,
Paiwan uses ma- and manə- to derive human numerals). In many
Basic numerals vs. human numerals
Number Set A Set B Tagalog
one *isa *? isa (A)
two *duSa *da-duSa dalawa (B)
three *telu *ta-telu tatlo (B)
four *Sepat *Sa-Sepat apat (B)
five *lima *la-lima lima (A)
six *enem *a-enem anim (B)
seven *pitu *pa-pitu pito (A)
eight *walu *wa-walu walo (A)
nine *Siwa *Sa-Siwa (siyam)
ten *sa-puluq *? sampu
Proto-Austronesian also used *Sika- to derive ordinal numerals (Blust 2009:281). Verbs Below are reconstructed Proto-Austronesian, Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, Proto-Oceanic, and Proto-Polynesian verbs from the Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database.
Verb Proto-Austronesian Proto-Malayo-Polynesian Proto-Oceanic Proto-Polynesian
to walk *Nakaw *lakaw, paNaw *lako, pano *fano
to swim *Naŋuy *naŋuy *kakaRu *kaukau
to know *bajaq *taqu *taqu *qiloa
to think *nemnem *demdem *rodrom *manatu
to sleep *tuduR *tuduR *turuR *mohe
to stand *diRi *diRi, *tuqud *tuqur *tuqu
to sew *taSiq *tahiq, *zaqit *saqit, *turi *tui
to die, be dead *m-aCay *m-atay *mate *mate
to choose *piliq *piliq *piliq *fili
to fly *layap *layap, Rebek *Ropok *lele
Monosyllabic roots The following are monosyllabic Proto-Austronesian roots reconstructed by John Wolff (Wolff 1999).
Forms which can be reconstructed as monosyllables with a great deal of certainty
*baw 'up, above' *bay 'woman' *beg 'spool, wind' *bit 'carry in fingers' *buñ 'fontanelle' *but 'pluck out' *dem 'think, brood' *gem 'first, hold in fist' *ɣiq 'Imperata cylindrica' *kan 'eat'
*si-kan 'fish, what is eaten with staple' *pa-kan 'feed, weft' *paN-kan 'eat, feed'
*kubkub 'cover over' *takub 'cover over in a cupped way' (where *ta- is a fossilized prefix)
*belit 'wind' *bilid 'wind, twist, or fold s.t. over' *pulid 'turn round'
*luk 'concave bend' *lum 'ripe' *nem 'six' *ñam 'taste' *ñeŋ 'look, stare' *ŋa 'agape (mouth)'
*kaŋa 'be open (as mouth)' *baŋa 'gap, stand open' *binaŋa (< -in- + baŋa) / *minaŋa 'mouth of river' *beŋa 'be agape' *búŋa 'flower' *paŋa 'forking' *ʃaŋa 'branch'
*pan 'bait' *pat 'four' *peʃ 'squeeze, deflate' *pit
*kepit 'pinched together'
*pu 'grandparent/child' *put 'blow' *ʃaw 'wash, rinse off, dunk' *ʃay 'who?' *ʃek 'stuff, fill chock full' *ʃeŋ 'stop up' *ʃep 'suck' *ʃuk 'go in, through' *taw 'man' *tay 'bridge'
*matay 'die' *patay 'dead, kill'
*tuk 'strike, peck, beak'
Sequences which are likely (or may have been) monosyllabic roots, but cannot be unequivocally reconstructed
*baŋ 'fly' *bu 'fish trap' *buʃ 'puff, blow out' (not well attested; most monosyllables occur in Oceanic languages) *dañ 'old (of things)' *daŋ 'heat near a fire' *dem 'dark, cloudy'
*diʃ 'cut, lance' *ka 'elder sibling' *kid 'file, rasp' *lag 'spread out'
*belag 'spread out' *pálag 'palm of hand' *qelag 'wing'
*laŋ 'placed lengthwise'
*galaŋ 'wedge, s.t. placed underneath to support' *halaŋ 'lie athwart, bar, be an obstacle'
*leb 'for water to come over s.t.' *lem – reflexes variously mean 'night' or 'darkness' *luñ
*luluñ 'roll up' *baluñ 'fold over, wrap'
*muɣuɣ 'gargle, rinse out mouth' (monosyllabic status is weak) *pak 'make a sound of 'pak', wings (from the sound)' *tan 'set trap' *taʃ 'top' *tuk 'top, summit' *tun 'lead on a rope'
Reconstructed doubled monosyllables phonologically but which cannot be proven to be monosyllabic roots
*baba 'carry on back'
*bakbak 'remove outer layer of skin, bark'
*bañbañ 'kind of reed used for mats, Donax canniformis'
*biɣbiɣ 'lips (lip-like growth)'
*biŋbiŋ 'hold, guide'
*buɣ(buɣ) 'broken into small pieces'
*buñbuñ 'down, body hair' (only in
*bakaŋ 'bow-legged' *kaqkaq 'split, torn, with intestines' *keŋkeŋ 'rigid, tight'
*dakep 'catch' *ʃikep 'catch s.t. moving, tight'
*kiskis 'scrape off'
*kiʃkiʃ 'grate, file'
*kudkud 'grate, rasp, scratch out'
*kuʃkuʃ 'rub, scrape'
*laplap 'flapping, loose (like skin on newborn)' (only in Paiwan and
*neknek 'gnat, fruit fly'
*pejpej 'press together'
*ʃaʃa 'collect palm leaves for thatching'
*ʃakʃak 'beat, chop'
*ʃelʃel 'insert, cram in'
*ʃiʃi 'kind of mollusk'
*ʃikʃik 'search through thoroughly (as for lice)'
*ʃuʃu 'breast, teat'
*ʃuɣʃuɣ 'follow behind'
*ʃuŋʃuŋ 'go against' (only in the
*bútaʃ 'hole' *ɣetaʃ 'break through, break open' *teʃteʃ 'rip open'
*tutu 'strike' *waqwaq 'channel' *witwit 'swinging to and fro'
Sequences which occur as final syllables over a wide area but which cannot be reconstructed as a monosyllabic root
*dabuk 'ashes' *dábuk 'beat to pulp' *ɣabuk 'pulverized' *qabuk 'dust' *bun 'heap, stack' *subun 'heap, pile' *timbun / *tábun (?) 'heap'
*bun 'dew mist'
*buq 'add, increase'
*tubuq 'grow, shoot'
*duŋ 'protect, shelter' *ket
*deket 'near' *jeket 'stick' *ñiket / ñaŋket 'sticky' *ñiket 'sticky substance' *siket 'tie'
*bekuŋ 'arch' *dekuŋ 'bent' *leŋkuŋ 'bent'
*aŋkup 'put in cupped hands' *tukup 'cover'
*dakut 'take in hand' *ɣakut 'tie together' *ʃaŋkut 'caught on a hook'
*telaq / *kelaq 'crack' or 'split' *belaq 'cleft'
*baliŋ 'wind around, turn s.t. around' *biliŋ 'turning round' *giliŋ 'roll over s.t.' *guliŋ 'roll up' *paliŋ 'wind around' or 'turn body'
*baliw 'return, go back' *ʃaliw 'give in exchange'
*luʃ 'slip' or 'slippery' or 'smooth' *naw
*línaw 'calm, unroiled' *tiqenaw 'clear'
*baŋaw 'bedbug' *láŋaw 'fly' *tuŋaw 'kind of mite causing itch'
*qaŋet 'warm' *ʃeŋet 'sharp, stinger' *ʃeŋet 'acrid in smell'
*paɣ 'be flat'
*dampaɣ / *lampaɣ / *dapaɣ / *lapaɣ 'be flat' *sampaɣ 'mat, spread out'
*puŋ 'cluster, bunch' *taɣ
*dataɣ 'flat area'
Austronesian personal pronouns Austronesian alignment Fossilized affixes in Austronesian languages Proto-Mon–Khmer language Proto-Tibeto-Burman language Proto-Hmong–Mien language Wiktionary:Appendix:Cognate sets for Austronesian languages
Notes and references Notes
^ Ross, Malcolm. 2009. "Proto Austronesian verbal morphology: A
reappraisal." In Alexander Adelaar and
Andrew Pawley (eds.).
Austronesian historical linguistics and culture history: a festschrift
for Robert Blust. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Blust, Robert; Australian National
University. Pacific Linguistics (2009). The Austronesian languages.
Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The
Australian National University. ISBN 978-0-85883-602-0.
^ a b q /q/ is uvular
^ c /c͡ç/ is unvoiced.
^ z /ɟ͡ʝ/ is voiced.
^ /ʀ/ is uvular.
^ a b Ross, Malcolm D. (Summer 1992), "The Sound of
Proto-Austronesian: An Outsider's View of the Formosan Evidence",
Oceanic Linguistics, 31 (1): 23–64, doi:10.2307/3622965
^ Technically this is still part of the *S > *h sound change. The
difference is that the preceding vowel changes as well.
^ Blust, R. A. (2004). "*t to k: An Austronesian Sound Change
Revisited". Oceanic Linguistics. 43 (2): 365–410.
^ Only found in the central and southern
Adelaar, A. (2005). The
Austronesian Comparative Dictionary (ACD) ABVD: Proto-Austronesian (Blust) ABVD: Proto-Austronesian (Zorc)
ABVD: Proto-Central Eastern Malayo Polynesian (Blust)
ABVD: Proto-Central Malayo Polynesian (Blust)
ABVD: Proto-Oceanic (Blust) ABVD: Proto-Oceanic (Pawley)
ABVD: Proto-Micronesian (Bender) ABVD: Proto-Polynesian (Pawley)
Fire Mountain Presents-A Comparison of Austronesian