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The Info List - Prostaglandin Analogue





Prostaglandin
Prostaglandin
analogues are a class of drugs that bind to a prostaglandin receptor.[1] Wider use of prostaglandin analogues is limited by unwanted side effects and their abortive potential. Uses[edit]

Prostaglandin
Prostaglandin
analogues such as misoprostol are used in treatment of duodenal and gastric ulcers.[2] Misoprostol
Misoprostol
and other prostaglandin analogues protect the lining of the gastrointestinal tract from harmful stomach acid and are especially indicated for the elderly on continuous doses of NSAIDs. In the field of ophthalmology, drugs of this class are used to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) in people with glaucoma. Up until the late 1970s prostaglandins were thought to raise IOP, but a paper published in 1977 showed that prostaglandin F2α lowered it, and subsequent studies found that this was due to increasing the outflow of aqueous humor, mainly by relaxing the ciliary muscle, and possibly also due to changes in extracellular matrix and to widening of spaces within the trabecular meshwork.[1] This work led to the development of prodrugs of PGF2α, including latanoprost, an isopropyl analogue of PGF2α, approved by the FDA in 1996, bimatoprost and travoprost, both approved in 2001, and tafluprost, approved in 2012.[1] However, there are notable side effects associated with usage, including increased eyelash growth, pigmentation of the iris, and darkening of the skin around the eye.[3]

References[edit]

^ a b c Winkler, NS; Fautsch, MP (2014). "Effects of prostaglandin analogues on aqueous humor outflow pathways". Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 30 (2–3): 102–9. doi:10.1089/jop.2013.0179. PMC 3991965 . PMID 24359106.  ^ Zajac, P; Holbrook, A; Super, ME; Vogt, M (March–April 2013). "An overview: Current clinical guidelines for the evaluation, diagnosis, treatment, and management of dyspepsia". Osteopathic Family Physician. 5 (2): 79–85. doi:10.1016/j.osfp.2012.10.005.  ^ Xu L, Wang X, Wu M (2017). "Topical medication instillation techniques for glaucoma". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2: CD010520. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010520.pub2. PMC 5419432 . PMID 28218404. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

External links[edit]

Prostaglandin
Prostaglandin
Analogues at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)

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Drugs for peptic ulcer and GERD/GORD (A02B)

H2 antagonists ("-tidine")

Cimetidine Famotidine Lafutidine Lavoltidine
Lavoltidine
(loxtidine) Niperotidine Nizatidine Ranitidine Roxatidine

Prostaglandins (E)/analogues ("-prost-")

Misoprostol Enprostil

Proton-pump inhibitors ("-prazole")

Azeloprazole Dexlansoprazole Esomeprazole Ilaprazole Lansoprazole Omeprazole Pantoprazole Picoprazole Rabeprazole Tenatoprazole Timoprazole

Potassium-competitive acid blockers ("-prazan")

Linaprazan Revaprazan Soraprazan Vonoprazan

Others

Aceglutamide aluminum Acetoxolone Alginic acid Arbaclofen placarbil Bismuth subcitrate Carbenoxolone Cetraxate Gefarnate Lesogaberan Pirenzepine Proglumide Rebamipide Sucralfate Sulglicotide Telenzepine Teprenone Troxipide Zinc L-carnosine Zolimidine

Combinations

Bismuth subcitrate/metronidazole/tetracycline

See also: Helicobacter pylori eradication protocols

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Antithrombotics (thrombolytics, anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs) (B01)

Antiplatelet drugs

Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors

Abciximab Eptifibatide Orbofiban Roxifiban Sibrafiban§ Tirofiban

ADP receptor/ P2Y12
P2Y12
inhibitors

Thienopyridines

Clopidogrel Prasugrel Ticlopidine

Nucleotide/nucleoside analogs

Cangrelor Elinogrel Ticagrelor

Prostaglandin
Prostaglandin
analogue (PGI2)

Beraprost Iloprost Prostacyclin Treprostinil

COX inhibitors

Acetylsalicylic acid/Aspirin# Aloxiprin Carbasalate calcium Indobufen Triflusal

Thromboxane
Thromboxane
inhibitors

Thromboxane
Thromboxane
synthase inhibitors

Dipyridamole
Dipyridamole
(+ aspirin) Picotamide Terbogrel

Receptor antagonists

Terbogrel Terutroban§

Phosphodiesterase inhibitors

Cilostazol Dipyridamole Triflusal

Other

Cloricromen Ditazole Vorapaxar

Anticoagulants

Vitamin K antagonists (inhibit II, VII, IX, X)

Coumarins: Acenocoumarol Coumatetralyl Dicoumarol Ethyl biscoumacetate Phenprocoumon Warfarin# 1,3-Indandiones: Clorindione Diphenadione Phenindione Other: Tioclomarol

Factor Xa
Factor Xa
inhibitors (with some II inhibition)

Heparin
Heparin
group/ glycosaminoglycans/ (bind antithrombin)

Low molecular weight heparin

Bemiparin Certoparin Dalteparin Enoxaparin Nadroparin Parnaparin Reviparin Tinzaparin

Oligosaccharides

Fondaparinux Idraparinux§

Heparinoids

Danaparoid Dermatan sulfate Sulodexide

Direct Xa inhibitors ("xabans")

Apixaban Betrixaban Darexaban§ Edoxaban Otamixaban§ Rivaroxaban

Direct thrombin (IIa) inhibitors

Bivalent: Hirudin

Bivalirudin Desirudin Lepirudin

Univalent: Argatroban Dabigatran Efegatran Inogatran§ Melagatran‡ Ximelagatran‡

Other

Antithrombin
Antithrombin
III Defibrotide Protein C

Drotrecogin alfa‡

Ramatroban REG1

Thrombolytic drugs/ fibrinolytics

Plasminogen activators: r-tPA

Alteplase Reteplase Tenecteplase Desmoteplase†

UPA

Saruplase Urokinase

Anistreplase Monteplase Streptokinase# Other serine endopeptidases: Ancrod Brinase Fibrinolysin

Non-medicinal

Citrate EDTA Oxalate

#WHO-EM ‡Withdrawn from market Clinical trials:

†Phase III §Never to phase III

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Uterotonics/labor inducers/oxytocics (G02A)

Cervical ripening

Ergot alkaloids

Acetergamine Ergometrine# (Syntometrine) Methylergometrine

Prostaglandins and analogues

E: Misoprostol/E1# Gemeprost/E1 Dinoprostone/E2 Sulprostone/E2

F: Dinoprost/F2α Carboprost/F2α

Contraction induction

Oxytocin# Carbetocin Demoxytocin

#WHO-EM ‡Withdrawn from market Clinical trials:

†Phase III §Never to phase III

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Drugs used for glaucoma preparations and miosis (S01E)

Sympathomimetics

Apraclonidine Brimonidine
Brimonidine
(+timolol) Clonidine Dipivefrine Epinephrine

Parasympathomimetics

muscarinic

Aceclidine Pilocarpine

muscarinic/nicotinic

Acetylcholine Carbachol

acetylcholinesterase inhibitors

Demecarium Ecothiopate Stigmine
Stigmine
(Fluostigmine Neostigmine Physostigmine) Paraoxon

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors/ (sulfonamides)

Acetazolamide Brinzolamide
Brinzolamide
(+timolol) Diclofenamide Dorzolamide
Dorzolamide
(+timolol) Methazolamide

Beta blocking agents

Befunolol Betaxolol Carteolol Levobunolol Metipranolol Timolol Mepindolol

Prostaglandin
Prostaglandin
analogues (F2α)

Bimatoprost
Bimatoprost
(+timolol) Latanoprost
Latanoprost
(+timolol) Tafluprost Travoprost
Travoprost
(+timolol) Unoprostone

Other agents

Dapiprazole Guanethidine Ripasudil

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Eicosanoids

Precursor

Arachidonic acid

Prostanoids

Prostaglandins (PG)

Precursor

H2

Active

D/J

D2

E/F

E2 (Dinoprostone)

E1 (Alprostadil)

F2α (Dinoprost):

I

I2 (Prostacyclin/Epoprostenol):

Thromboxanes (TX)

A2 B2

Leukotrienes (LT)

Precursor

Arachidonic acid
Arachidonic acid
5-hydroperoxide

Initial

A4 B4

SRS-A

C4 D4 E4

Eoxins (EX)

Precursor

Arachidonic acid
Arachidonic acid
15-hydroperoxide

Eoxins

A4 C4 D4 E4

Nonclassic

Lipoxins (LX) (A4, B4) Virodhamine

By function

bronchoconstriction

PGD2 TXA2 LTC4 LTD4 LTE4

vasoconstriction

PGF2α TXA2 TXB2)

vasodilation

PGE2 PGI2 LTC4 LTD4 LTE4

platelets: induce

TXA2

inhibit

PGD2 PGI2

leukocytes: induce

TXA2 LTB4

inhibit

PGD2 PGE2

fever stimulation:

PGE2

labor stimulation:

PGE2 (Dinoprostone) PGF2α (Dinoprost)

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Prostanoid
Prostanoid
signaling modulators

Receptor (ligands)

DP (D2)

DP1

Agonists: Prostaglandin
Prostaglandin
D2 Treprostinil

Antagonists: Asapiprant Laropiprant Vidupiprant

DP2

Agonists: Indometacin Prostaglandin
Prostaglandin
D2

Antagonists: ADC-3680 AZD-1981 Bay U3405 Fevipiprant MK-1029 MK-7246 QAV-680 Ramatroban Setipiprant Timapiprant TM30089 Vidupiprant

EP (E2)

EP1

Agonists: Beraprost Enprostil Iloprost
Iloprost
(ciloprost) Latanoprost Lubiprostone Misoprostol Prostaglandin
Prostaglandin
E1 (alprostadil) Prostaglandin
Prostaglandin
E2 (dinoprostone) Sulprostone

Antagonists: AH-6809 ONO-8130 SC-19220 SC-51089 SC-51322

EP2

Agonists: Butaprost Misoprostol Prostaglandin
Prostaglandin
E1 (alprostadil) Prostaglandin
Prostaglandin
E2 (dinoprostone) Treprostinil

Antagonists: AH-6809 PF-04418948 TG 4-155

EP3

Agonists: Beraprost Carbacyclin Cicaprost Enprostil Iloprost
Iloprost
(ciloprost) Isocarbacyclin Latanoprost Misoprostol Prostaglandin
Prostaglandin
D2 Prostaglandin
Prostaglandin
E1 (alprostadil) Prostaglandin
Prostaglandin
E2 (dinoprostone) Remiprostol Sulprostone

Antagonists: L-798106

EP4

Agonists: Lubiprostone Misoprostol Prostaglandin
Prostaglandin
E1 (alprostadil) Prostaglandin
Prostaglandin
E2 (dinoprostone) TCS-2510

Antagonists: Grapiprant GW-627368 L-161982 ONO-AE3-208

Unsorted

Agonists: 16,16-Dimethyl Prostaglandin
Prostaglandin
E2 Aganepag Carboprost Evatanepag Gemeprost Nocloprost Omidenepag Prostaglandin F2α
Prostaglandin F2α
(dinoprost) Simenepag Taprenepag

FP (F2α)

Agonists: Alfaprostol Bimatoprost Carboprost Cloprostenol Enprostil Fluprostenol Latanoprost Prostaglandin
Prostaglandin
D2 Prostaglandin F2α
Prostaglandin F2α
(dinoprost) Sulotroban Tafluprost Travoprost Unoprostone

IP (I2)

Agonists: ACT-333679 AFP-07 Beraprost BMY-45778 Carbacyclin Cicaprost Iloprost
Iloprost
(ciloprost) Isocarbacyclin MRE-269 NS-304 Prostacyclin
Prostacyclin
(prostaglandin I2, epoprostenol) Prostaglandin
Prostaglandin
E1 (alprostadil) Ralinepag Selexipag Taprostene TRA-418 Treprostinil

Antagonists: RO1138452

TP (TXA2)

Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2 I-BOP Thromboxane
Thromboxane
A2 U-46619 Vapiprost

Antagonists: 12-HETE 13-APA AA-2414 Argatroban Bay U3405 BMS-180,291 Daltroban Domitroban EP-045 GR-32191 ICI-185282 ICI-192605 Ifetroban Imitrodast L-655240 L-670596 Linotroban Mipitroban ONO-3708 ONO-11120 Picotamide Pinane thromboxane A2 Ramatroban Ridogrel S-145 Samixogrel Seratrodast SQ-28,668 SQ-29,548 Sulotroban Terbogrel Terutroban TRA-418

Unsorted

Arbaprostil Ataprost Ciprostene Clinprost Cobiprostone Delprostenate Deprostil Dimoxaprost Doxaprost Ecraprost Eganoprost Enisoprost Eptaloprost Esuberaprost Etiproston Fenprostalene Flunoprost Froxiprost Lanproston Limaprost Luprostiol Meteneprost Mexiprostil Naxaprostene Nileprost Nocloprost Ornoprostil Oxoprostol Penprostene Pimilprost Piriprost Posaraprost Prostalene Rioprostil Rivenprost Rosaprostol Spiriprostil Tiaprost Tilsuprost Tiprostanide Trimoprostil Viprostol

Enzyme (inhibitors)

COX (PTGS)

Salicylic acids: Aloxiprin Aspirin
Aspirin
(acetylsalicylic acid) Benorilate
Benorilate
(benorylate) Carbasalate calcium Diflusinal Dipyrocetyl Ethenzamide Guacetisal Magnesium salicylate Mesalazine
Mesalazine
(5-aminosalicylic acid) Methyl salicylate Salacetamide Salicin Salicylamide Salicylate
Salicylate
(salicylic acid) Salsalate Sodium salicylate Triflusal; Acetic acids: Aceclofenac Acemetacin Aclofenac Amfenac Alclofenac Bendazac Bromfenac Bufexamac Bumadizone Cinmetacin Clometacin Diclofenac Difenpiramide Etodolac Felbinac Fenclofenac Fentiazac Glucametacin Indometacin
Indometacin
(indomethacin) Indometacin
Indometacin
farnesil Ketorolac Lonazolac Mofezolac Nabumetone Oxametacin Oxindanac Proglumetacin Sulindac Sulindac
Sulindac
sulfide Tolmetin Zidometacin Zomepirac; Propionic acids: Alminoprofen Benoxaprofen Bucloxic acid (blucloxate) Butibufen Carprofen Dexibuprofen Dexindoprofen Dexketoprofen Fenbufen Fenoprofen Flunoxaprofen Flurbiprofen Ibuprofen Ibuproxam Indoprofen Ketoprofen Loxoprofen Miroprofen Naproxen Naproxcinod Oxaprozin Pirprofen Pranoprofen Suprofen Tarenflurbil Tepoxalin Tiaprofenic acid
Tiaprofenic acid
(tiaprofenate) Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate) Floctafenic acid (floctafenate) Flufenamic acid
Flufenamic acid
(flufenamate) Meclofenamic acid
Meclofenamic acid
(meclofenamate) Mefenamic acid
Mefenamic acid
(mefenamate) Morniflumic acid (morniflumate) Niflumic acid
Niflumic acid
(niflumate) Talinflumic acid (talinflumate) Tolfenamic acid
Tolfenamic acid
(tolfenamate); Pyrazolones: Azapropazone Dipyrone Isopyrin Oxyphenbutazone Phenylbutazone; Enolic acids (oxicams): Ampiroxicam Droxicam Enolicam Isoxicam Lornoxicam Meloxicam Piroxicam Tenoxicam; 4-Aminoquinolines: Antrafenine Floctafenine Glafenine; Quinazolines: Fluproquazone Proquazone; Aminonicotinic acids: Clonixeril Clonixin Flunixin; Sulfonanilides: Flosulide Nimesulide; Aminophenols (anilines): Acetanilide AM-404 (N-arachidonoylaminophenol) Bucetin Paracetamol
Paracetamol
(acetaminophen) Parapropamol Phenacetin Propacetamol; Selective COX-2 inhibitors (coxibs): Apricoxib Celecoxib Cimicoxib Deracoxib Etoricoxib Firocoxib Lumiracoxib Mavacoxib Parecoxib Polmacoxib Robenacoxib Rofecoxib Tilmacoxib Valdecoxib; Others/unsorted: Anitrazafen Clobuzarit Curcumin DuP-697 FK-3311 Flumizole FR-122047 Glimepiride Hyperforin Itazigrel L-655240 L-670596 Licofelone Menatetrenone
Menatetrenone
(vitamin K2) NCX-466 NCX-4040 NS-398 Pamicogrel Resveratrol Romazarit Rosmarinic acid Rutecarpine Satigrel SC-236 SC-560 SC-58125 Tenidap Tiflamizole Timegadine Trifenagrel Tropesin

PGD2S

Retinoids Selenium
Selenium
(selenium tetrachloride, sodium selenite, selenium disulfide)

PGES

HQL-79

PGFS

Bimatoprost

PGI2S

Tranylcypromine

TXAS

Camonagrel Dazmegrel Dazoxiben Furegrelate Isbogrel Midazogrel Nafagrel Nicogrelate Ozagrel Picotamide Pirmagrel Ridogrel Rolafagrel Samixogrel Terbogrel U63557A

Others

Precursors: Linoleic acid γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid) Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid Diacylglycerol Arachidonic acid Prostaglandin
Prostaglandin
G2 Prostaglandin
Prostaglandin
H2

See also Receptor/signaling modulators Leukotriene
Leukotriene
signaling modulators Nuclear receptor modulators

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