PROPAGANDA is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented. Propaganda is often associated with material prepared by governments, but activist groups and companies can also produce propaganda.
In the twentieth century, the term propaganda has been associated with a manipulative approach, but propaganda historically was a neutral descriptive term. A wide range of materials and media are used for conveying propaganda messages, which changed as new technologies were invented, including paintings, cartoons, posters, pamphlets, films, radio shows, TV shows, and websites .
* 1 Etymology * 2 History
* 3 Types
* 3.1 Religious * 3.2 Wartime * 3.3 Corporate * 3.4 Workplace
* 4 Techniques
* 5 Models
* 5.1 Social psychology * 5.2 Herman and Chomsky * 5.3 Ross\'s epistemic merit model
* 6 Children
* 6.1 Anti-Semitic propaganda for children
* 7 By country * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References
* 11 Further reading
* 11.1 Books * 11.2 Essays and articles
_Propaganda_ is a modern Latin word, the gerundive form of _propagare_, meaning _to spread_ or _to propagate_, thus _propaganda_ means _that which is to be propagated_. Originally this word derived from a new administrative body of the Catholic church (congregation ) created in 1622, called the _Congregatio de Propaganda Fide _ (_Congregation for Propagating the Faith_), or informally simply _Propaganda_. Its activity was aimed at "propagating" the Catholic faith in non- Catholic countries.
From the 1790s, the term began being used also to refer to _propaganda_ in secular activities. The term began taking a pejorative or negative connotation in the mid-19th century, when it was used in the political sphere.
Main article: History of propaganda
Primitive forms of propaganda have been a human activity as far back as reliable recorded evidence exists. The Behistun Inscription (c. 515 BC) detailing the rise of Darius I to the Persian throne is viewed by most historians as an early example of propaganda. Another striking example of propaganda during Ancient History is the last Roman civil wars during which Octavian and Mark Antony blame each other for obscure and degrading origins, cruelty, cowardice, oratorical and literary incompetence, debaucheries, luxury, drunkenness and other slanders.
Propaganda during the Reformation , helped by the spread of the printing press throughout Europe, and in particular within Germany, caused new ideas, thoughts, and doctrine to be made available to the public in ways that had never been seen before the 16th century. During the era of the American Revolution , the American colonies had a flourishing network of newspapers and printers who specialized in the topic on behalf of the Patriots (and to a lesser extent on behalf of the Loyalists).
Propaganda as generally understood, is a modern phenomenon that emerged from the creation of literate and politically active societies informed by a mass media in the 19th century, where governments increasingly saw the necessity for swaying public opinion in favour of its policies. During the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic era, propaganda was widely used. Abolitionists in Britain and the United States in the 19th century developed large, complex propaganda campaigns against slavery. Poster advertising the propaganda film Triumph of the Will made for the nazis A newspaper clipping that refers to the Bataan Death March in 1942
The first large-scale and organised propagation of government propaganda was occasioned by the outbreak of war in 1914. After the defeat of Germany in the First World War, military officials such as Erich Ludendorff suggested that British propaganda had been instrumental in their defeat. Adolf Hitler came to echo this view, believing that it had been a primary cause of the collapse of morale and the revolts in the German home front and Navy in 1918 (see also: Dolchstoßlegende ). Later, the Nazis adapted many British propaganda techniques during their time in power. Most propaganda in Germany was produced by the Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda . Joseph Goebbels was placed in charge of this ministry. World War II saw continued use of propaganda as a weapon of war, building on the experience of WW1, both by Hitler's propagandist Joseph Goebbels and the British Political Warfare Executive , as well as the United States Office of War Information .
In the early 20th century, the invention of motion pictures gave propaganda-creators a powerful tool for advancing political and military interests when it came to reaching a broad segment of the population and creating consent or encouraging rejection of the real or imagined enemy. In the years following the October Revolution of 1917, the Soviet government sponsored the Russian film industry with the purpose of making propaganda films (e.g. the 1925 film _The Battleship Potemkin _ glorifies Communist ideals.) In WWII, Nazi filmmakers produced highly emotional films to create popular support for occupying the Sudetenland and attacking Poland. The 1930s and 1940s, which saw the rise of totalitarian states and the Second World War , are arguably the "Golden Age of Propaganda". Leni Riefenstahl , a filmmaker working in Nazi Germany , created one of the best-known propaganda movies, _ Triumph of the Will _. In the US, Animation became popular, especially for winning over youthful audiences and aiding the U.S. war effort depicted Hitler as a comical figure while portraying a defence of the value of freedom. US war films in the early 1940s in the United States were designed to create a patriotic mindset and convince viewers that sacrifices needed to be made to defeat "the enemy."
The West and the Soviet Union both used propaganda extensively during the Cold War . Both sides used film, television, and radio programming to influence their own citizens, each other, and Third World nations. George Orwell 's novels _ Animal Farm _ and _ Nineteen Eighty-Four _ are virtual textbooks on the use of propaganda. During the Cuban Revolution , Fidel Castro stressed the importance of propaganda. Propaganda was used extensively by Communist forces in the Vietnam War as means of controlling people's opinions.
During the Yugoslav wars , propaganda was used as a military strategy by governments of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Croatia. Propaganda was used to create fear and hatred, and particularly incite the Serb population against the other ethnicities ( Bosniaks , Croats , Albanians and other non-Serbs). Serb media made a great effort in justifying, revising or denying mass war crimes committed by Serb forces during these wars.
Poster of the 19th-century Scandinavist movement
Identifying propaganda has always been a problem. The main difficulties have involved differentiating propaganda from other types of persuasion , and avoiding a biased approach. For example, one political group may view material produced by other organizations or by governments as propaganda, while viewing the political group's own biased literature as educational material. Garth Jowett and Victoria O'Donnell have provided a concise, workable definition of the term: " Propaganda is the deliberate, systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions, and direct behavior to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist."
More comprehensive is the description by Richard Alan Nelson: " Propaganda is neutrally defined as a systematic form of purposeful persuasion that attempts to influence the emotions, attitudes, opinions, and actions of specified target audiences for ideological , political or commercial purposes through the controlled transmission of one-sided messages (which may or may not be factual) via mass and direct media channels. A propaganda organization employs propagandists who engage in propagandism—the applied creation and distribution of such forms of persuasion." Both definitions focus on the communicative process involved — or more precisely, on the purpose of the process, and allow "propaganda" to be considered objectively and then interpreted as positive or negative behavior depending on the perspective of the viewer or listener. According to historian Zbyněk Zeman , propaganda is defined as either white, grey or black. White propaganda openly discloses its source and intent. Grey propaganda has an ambiguous or non-disclosed source or intent. Black propaganda purports to be published by the enemy or some organization besides its actual origins (compare with black operation , a type of clandestine operation in which the identity of the sponsoring government is hidden). Propaganda shares techniques with advertising and public relations , each of which can be thought of as propaganda that promotes a commercial product or shapes the perception of an organization, person, or brand. In post– World War II usage of the word "propaganda" more typically refers to political or nationalist uses of these techniques or to the promotion of a set of ideas. Propaganda poster in North Korean primary school
Propaganda was often used to influence opinions and beliefs on religious issues, particularly during the split between the Roman Catholic Church and the Protestant churches . Propaganda has become more common in political contexts, in particular to refer to certain efforts sponsored by governments, political groups, but also often covert interests. In the early 20th century, propaganda was exemplified in the form of party slogans. Also in the early 20th century the term _propaganda_ was used by the founders of the nascent public relations industry to refer to their people. This usage died out around the time of World War II, as the industry started to avoid the word, given the pejorative connotation it had acquired. Literally translated from the Latin gerundive as "things that must be disseminated", in some cultures the term is neutral or even positive, while in others the term has acquired a strong negative connotation. The connotations of the term "propaganda" can also vary over time. For example, in Portuguese and some Spanish language speaking countries, particularly in the Southern Cone , the word "propaganda" usually refers to the most common manipulative media — "advertising". Propaganda poster in North Korea
In English, _propaganda_ was originally a neutral term for the dissemination of information in favor of any given cause. During the 20th century, however, the term acquired a thoroughly negative meaning in western countries, representing the intentional dissemination of often false, but certainly "compelling" claims to support or justify political actions or ideologies. According to Harold Lasswell , the term began to fall out of favor due to growing public suspicion of propaganda in the wake of its use during World War I by the Creel Committee in the United States and the Ministry of Information in Britain: Writing in 1928, Lasswell observed, "In democratic countries the official propaganda bureau was looked upon with genuine alarm, for fear that it might be suborned to party and personal ends. The outcry in the United States against Mr. Creel's famous Bureau of Public Information (or 'Inflammation') helped to din into the public mind the fact that propaganda existed. … The public's discovery of propaganda has led to a great of lamentation over it. Propaganda has become an epithet of contempt and hate, and the propagandists have sought protective coloration in such names as 'public relations council,' 'specialist in public education,' 'public relations adviser.' " Anti-communist propaganda in a 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of "the dangers of a Communist takeover".
Roderick Hindery argues that propaganda exists on the political left, and right, and in mainstream centrist parties. Hindery further argues that debates about most social issues can be productively revisited in the context of asking "what is or is not propaganda?" Not to be overlooked is the link between propaganda, indoctrination, and terrorism/counterterrorism. He argues that threats to destroy are often as socially disruptive as physical devastation itself.
Propaganda also has much in common with public information campaigns by governments, which are intended to encourage or discourage certain forms of behavior (such as wearing seat belts, not smoking, not littering and so forth). Again, the emphasis is more political in propaganda. Propaganda can take the form of leaflets , posters, TV and radio broadcasts and can also extend to any other medium . In the case of the United States, there is also an important legal (imposed by law) distinction between advertising (a type of OVERT PROPAGANDA) and what the Government Accountability Office (GAO), an arm of the United States Congress, refers to as "covert propaganda".
The ease of data collection emerging from the IT revolution and a lack of control on the acquired data's use has led to the widespread implementation of workplace propaganda created much more locally such as in schools, hospitals, local retail outlets and Universities. The same article also notes a departure from the traditional methodology of propagandists i.e., the use of emotionally provocative imagery to distort facts. Workplace propaganda is suggested to use 'distorted data' to overrule emotion. For example, by providing rationales for ideologically driven pay cuts, etc.
Journalistic theory generally holds that news items should be objective, giving the reader an accurate background and analysis of the subject at hand. On the other hand, advertisements evolved from the traditional commercial advertisements to include also a new type in the form of paid articles or broadcasts disguised as news. These generally present an issue in a very subjective and often misleading light, primarily meant to persuade rather than inform. Normally they use only subtle propaganda techniques and not the more obvious ones used in traditional commercial advertisements. If the reader believes that a paid advertisement is in fact a news item, the message the advertiser is trying to communicate will be more easily "believed" or "internalized". World War I propaganda poster for enlistment in the U.S. Army .
Such advertisements are considered obvious examples of "covert" propaganda because they take on the appearance of objective information rather than the appearance of propaganda, which is misleading. Federal law specifically mandates that any advertisement appearing in the format of a news item must state that the item is in fact a paid advertisement.
The propagandist seeks to change the way people understand an issue or situation for the purpose of changing their actions and expectations in ways that are desirable to the interest group. Propaganda, in this sense, serves as a corollary to censorship in which the same purpose is achieved, not by filling people's minds with approved information, but by preventing people from being confronted with opposing points of view. What sets propaganda apart from other forms of advocacy is the willingness of the propagandist to change people's understanding through deception and confusion rather than persuasion and understanding. The leaders of an organization know the information to be one sided or untrue, but this may not be true for the rank and file members who help to disseminate the propaganda.
Anti-atheist propaganda billboard posted in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, in February 2008
More in line with the religious roots of the term, it is also used widely in the debates about new religious movements (NRMs), both by people who defend them and by people who oppose them. The latter pejoratively call these NRMs cults . Anti-cult activists and Christian countercult activists accuse the leaders of what they consider cults of using propaganda extensively to recruit followers and keep them. Some social scientists, such as the late Jeffrey Hadden, and CESNUR affiliated scholars accuse ex-members of "cults" who became vocal critics and the anti-cult movement of making these unusual religious movements look bad without sufficient reasons.
_ A US Office for War Information poster uses racist imagery to imply that US workers not making a strong effort to work hard helped the Japanese government's war effort.
Propaganda is a powerful weapon in war; it is used to dehumanize and create hatred toward a supposed enemy, either internal or external, by creating a false image in the mind of soldiers and citizens. This can be done by using derogatory or racist terms (e.g., the racist terms "Jap" and "gook" used during WW II and the Vietnam War , respectively), avoiding some words or language or by making allegations of enemy atrocities. Most propaganda efforts in wartime require the home population to feel the enemy has inflicted an injustice, which may be fictitious or may be based on facts (e.g., the sinking of the passenger ship RMS Lusitania by the German Navy in WW I). The home population must also believe that the cause of their nation in the war is just. In NATO doctrine, propaganda is defined as "Any information, ideas, doctrines, or special appeals disseminated to influence the opinion, emotions, attitudes, or behaviour of any specified group in order to benefit the sponsor either directly or indirectly." Within this perspective, information provided does not need to be necessarily false, but must be instead relevant to specific goals of the "actor" or "system" that performs it.
Propaganda is also one of the methods used in psychological warfare , which may also involve false flag operations in which the identity of the operatives is depicted as those of an enemy nation (e.g., The Bay of Pigs invasion used CIA planes painted in Cuban Air Force markings). The term propaganda may also refer to false information meant to reinforce the mindsets of people who already believe as the propagandist wishes (e.g., During WWI, the main purpose of British propaganda was to encourage men join the army, and women to work in the country’s industry. The propaganda posters were used, because radios and TVs were not very common at that time.). The assumption is that, if people believe something false, they will constantly be assailed by doubts. Since these doubts are unpleasant (see cognitive dissonance ), people will be eager to have them extinguished, and are therefore receptive to the reassurances of those in power. For this reason propaganda is often addressed to people who are already sympathetic to the agenda or views being presented. This process of reinforcement uses an individual's predisposition to self-select "agreeable" information sources as a mechanism for maintaining control over populations.
Propaganda can be classified according to the source and nature of the message. WHITE PROPAGANDA generally comes from an openly identified source, and is characterized by gentler methods of persuasion, such as standard public relations techniques and one-sided presentation of an argument. BLACK PROPAGANDA is identified as being from one source, but is in fact from another. This is most commonly to disguise the true origins of the propaganda, be it from an enemy country or from an organization with a negative public image. GREY PROPAGANDA is propaganda without any identifiable source or author. A major application of grey propaganda is making enemies believe falsehoods using straw arguments : As phase one, to make someone believe "A", one releases as grey propaganda "B", the opposite of "A". In phase two, "B" is discredited using some strawman . The enemy will then assume "A" to be true. Britannia arm-in-arm with Uncle Sam symbolizes the British-American alliance in World War I.
In scale, these different types of propaganda can also be defined by the potential of true and correct information to compete with the propaganda. For example, opposition to white propaganda is often readily found and may slightly discredit the propaganda source. Opposition to grey propaganda, when revealed (often by an inside source), may create some level of public outcry. Opposition to black propaganda is often unavailable and may be dangerous to reveal, because public cognizance of black propaganda tactics and sources would undermine or backfire the very campaign the black propagandist supported.
Propaganda may be administered in insidious ways. For instance, disparaging disinformation about the history of certain groups or foreign countries may be encouraged or tolerated in the educational system. Since few people actually double-check what they learn at school, such disinformation will be repeated by journalists as well as parents, thus reinforcing the idea that the disinformation item is really a "well-known fact", even though no one repeating the myth is able to point to an authoritative source. The disinformation is then recycled in the media and in the educational system, without the need for direct governmental intervention on the media. Such permeating propaganda may be used for political goals: by giving citizens a false impression of the quality or policies of their country, they may be incited to reject certain proposals or certain remarks or ignore the experience of others.
In the Soviet Union during the Second World War, the propaganda designed to encourage civilians was controlled by Stalin, who insisted on a heavy-handed style that educated audiences easily saw was inauthentic. On the other hand, the unofficial rumours about German atrocities were well founded and convincing. Stalin was a Georgian who spoke Russian with a heavy accent. That would not do for a national hero so starting in the 1930s all new visual portraits of Stalin were retouched to erase his Georgian facial characteristics and make him a more generalized Soviet hero. Only his eyes and famous mustache remained unaltered. Zhores Medvedev and Roy Medvedev say his. "majestic new image was devised appropriately to depict the leader of all times and of all peoples."
Article 20 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights prohibits any propaganda for war as well as any advocacy of national or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence by law.
Since 9/11 and the appearance of greater media fluidity, propaganda institutions, practices and legal frameworks have been evolving in the US and Britain. Dr Emma Louise Briant shows how this included expansion and integration of the apparatus cross-government and details attempts to coordinate the forms of propaganda for foreign and domestic audiences, with new efforts in strategic communication . These were subject to contestation within the US Government , resisted by Pentagon Public Affairs and critiqued by some scholars. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (section 1078 (a)) amended the US Information and Educational Exchange Act of 1948 (popularly referred to as the Smith-Mundt Act ) and the Foreign Relations Authorization Act of 1987, allowing for materials produced by the State Department and the Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG) to be released within U.S. borders for the Archivist of the United States. The Smith-Mundt Act, as amended, provided that “the Secretary and the Broadcasting Board of Governors shall make available to the Archivist of the United States, for domestic distribution, motion pictures, films, videotapes, and other material 12 years after the initial dissemination of the material abroad (...) Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the Department of State or the Broadcasting Board of Governors from engaging in any medium or form of communication, either directly or indirectly, because a United States domestic audience is or may be thereby exposed to program material, or based on a presumption of such exposure.” Public concerns were raised upon passage due to the relaxation of prohibitions of domestic propaganda in the United States.
Naturally, the common people don't want war; neither in Russia nor in England nor in America, nor for that matter in Germany. That is understood. But, after all, it is the leaders of the country who determine the policy and it is always a simple matter to drag the people along, whether it is a democracy or a fascist dictatorship or a Parliament or a Communist dictatorship. The people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country. — Hermann Göring
Main article: Corporate propaganda
Corporate propaganda refers to propagandist claims made by a corporation (or corporations), for the purpose of manipulating market opinion with regard to that corporation, its products and services, or its activities. Common euphemisms for corporate propaganda are advertising and public relations .
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Workplace propaganda is used by employers directed at employees. Often based upon distorted data utilized to justify ideologically driven decision making processes. This differs from corporate propaganda as it is an internal process and has the potential to be found in small charities as well as in large market driven corporations.
For more details on this topic, see Propaganda techniques . Anti-capitalist propaganda
Common media for transmitting propaganda messages include news reports, government reports, historical revision, junk science , books, leaflets, movies , radio, television, and posters. Some propaganda campaigns follow a strategic transmission pattern to indoctrinate the target group. This may begin with a simple transmission, such as a leaflet or advertisement dropped from a plane or an advertisement. Generally these messages will contain directions on how to obtain more information, via a web site, hot line, radio program, etc. (as it is seen also for selling purposes among other goals). The strategy intends to initiate the individual from information recipient to information seeker through reinforcement, and then from information seeker to opinion leader through indoctrination.
A number of techniques based in social psychological research are used to generate propaganda. Many of these same techniques can be found under logical fallacies , since propagandists use arguments that, while sometimes convincing, are not necessarily valid.
Some time has been spent analyzing the means by which the propaganda messages are transmitted. That work is important but it is clear that information dissemination strategies become propaganda strategies only when coupled with _propagandistic messages_. Identifying these messages is a necessary prerequisite to study the methods by which those messages are spread.
The field of social psychology includes the study of persuasion . Social psychologists can be sociologists or psychologists . The field includes many theories and approaches to understanding persuasion. For example, communication theory points out that people can be persuaded by the communicator's credibility, expertise, trustworthiness, and attractiveness. The elaboration likelihood model as well as heuristic models of persuasion suggest that a number of factors (e.g., the degree of interest of the recipient of the communication), influence the degree to which people allow superficial factors to persuade them. Nobel Prize–winning psychologist Herbert A. Simon won the Nobel prize for his theory that people are cognitive misers . That is, in a society of mass information, people are forced to make decisions quickly and often superficially, as opposed to logically.
According to William W. Biddle 's 1931 article "A psychological definition of propaganda", "he four principles followed in propaganda are: (1) rely on emotions, never argue; (2) cast propaganda into the pattern of "we" versus an "enemy"; (3) reach groups as well as individuals; (4) hide the propagandist as much as possible."
HERMAN AND CHOMSKY
Early 20th-century depiction of a "European Anarchist " attempting to destroy the Statue of Liberty .
The 20th century has been characterized by three developments of great political importance: the growth of democracy, the growth of corporate power, and the growth of corporate propaganda as a means of protecting corporate power against democracy.
First presented in their 1988 book _Manufacturing Consent: the Political Economy of the Mass Media _, the propaganda model views the private media as businesses selling a product — readers and audiences (rather than news ) — to other businesses (advertisers) and relying primarily on government and corporate information and propaganda. The theory postulates five general classes of "filters" that determine the type of news that is presented in news media: Ownership of the medium, the medium's Funding, Sourcing of the news, Flak, and anti-communist ideology .
The first three (ownership, funding, and sourcing) are generally regarded by the authors as being the most important. Although the model was based mainly on the characterization of United States media, Chomsky and Herman believe the theory is equally applicable to any country that shares the basic economic structure and organizing principles the model postulates as the cause of media bias .
ROSS\'S EPISTEMIC MERIT MODEL
American World War I poster: "Remember Your First Thrill of American Liberty"
The epistemic merit model is a method for understanding propaganda conceived by Sheryl Tuttle Ross and detailed in her 2002 article for the _Journal of Aesthetic Education_ entitled "Understanding Propaganda: The Epistemic Merit Model and Its Application to Art". Ross developed the Epistemic merit model due to concern about narrow, misleading definitions of propaganda. She contrasted her model with the ideas of Pope Gregory XV, the Institute for Propaganda Analysis , Alfred Lee , F.C. Bartlett , and Hans Speier . Insisting that each of their respective discussions of propaganda are too narrow, Ross proposed her own definition.
To appropriately discuss propaganda, Ross argues that one must consider a threefold communication model: that of Sender-Message-Receiver. "That is... propaganda involve... the one who is persuading (Sender) doing so intentionally, target for such persuasion (Receiver) and means of reaching that target (Message)." There are four conditions for a message to be considered propaganda. Propaganda involves the intention to persuade. As well, propaganda is sent on behalf of a sociopolitical institution, organization, or cause. Next, the recipient of propaganda is a socially significant group of people. Finally, propaganda is an epistemic struggle to challenge others' thoughts.
Ross claims that it is misleading to say that propaganda is simply false, or that it is conditional to a lie, since often the propagandist believes in what he/she is propagandizing. In other words, it is not necessarily a lie if the person who creates the propaganda is trying to persuade you of a view that they actually hold. "The aim of the propagandist is to create the semblance of credibility." This means that they appeal to an epistemology that is weak or defective.
False statements, bad arguments, immoral commands as well as inapt metaphors (and other literary tropes ) are the sorts of things that are epistemically defective... Not only does epistemic defectiveness more accurately describe how propaganda endeavors to function... since many messages are in forms such as commands that do not admit to truth-values , also accounts for the role context plays in the workings of propaganda.
Throughout history those who have wished to persuade have used art to get their message out. This can be accomplished by hiring artists for the express aim of propagandizing or by investing new meanings to a previously non-political work. Therefore, Ross states, it is important to consider "the conditions of its making the conditions of its use."
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A 1938 propaganda of the New State depicting Brazilian President Getúlio Vargas flanked by children. The text on the bottom right of this poster translates as: "Children! Learning, at home and in school, the cult of the Fatherland, you will bring all chances of success to life. Only love builds and, strongly loving Brazil, you will lead it to the greatest of destinies among Nations, fulfilling the desires of exaltation nestled in every Brazilian heart." Poster promoting the Nicaraguan Sandinistas . The text reads: "Sandinista children: Toño, Delia and Rodolfo are in the Association of Sandinista Children. Sandinista children use a neckerchief . They participate in the revolution and are very studious."
Of all the potential targets for propaganda, children are the most vulnerable because they are the least prepared with the critical reasoning and contextual comprehension they need to determine whether a message is propaganda or not. The attention children give their environment during development, due to the process of developing their understanding of the world, causes them to absorb propaganda indiscriminately. Also, children are highly imitative: studies by Albert Bandura , Dorothea Ross and Sheila A. Ross in the 1960s indicated that, to a degree, socialization , formal education and standardized television programming can be seen as using propaganda for the purpose of indoctrination . The use of propaganda in schools was highly prevalent during the 1930s and 1940s in Germany, as well as in Stalinist Russia. John Taylor Gatto asserts that modern schooling in the USA is designed to "dumb us down" in order to turn children into material suitable to work in factories. This ties into the Herman -webkit-column-width: 15em; column-width: 15em;">
* Ace (military) * Black propaganda * Cartographic propaganda * Crowd manipulation * Disinformation * Edith Cavell: Role in World War I propaganda * Fake news website * Mind games * Misinformation * Moral panic * Music and political warfare * Nazi propaganda * Overview of 21st century propaganda * Perception management * Politainment * Political warfare * Propaganda techniques * Psychological warfare * Propaganda in North Korea * Smear campaign * Fake News
* ^ _A_ _B_ Smith, Bruce L. (17 February 2016). "Propaganda". _britannica.com_. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 23 April 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Diggs-Brown, Barbara (2011) _Strategic Public Relations: Audience Focused Practice_ p. 48 * ^ Martin, Everett Dean, Are We Victims of Propaganda, Our Invisible Masters: A Debate with Edward Bernays , The Forum, pp. 142-150, March 1929 (1929) * ^ Oxford dictionary . * ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Retrieved 6 March 2015. * ^ Nagle, D. Brendan; Stanley M Burstein (2009). _The Ancient World: Readings in Social and Cultural History_. Pearson Education. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-205-69187-6 . * ^ Borgies, Loïc (2016). _Le conflit propagandiste entre Octavien et Marc Antoine. De l'usage politique de la uituperatio entre 44 et 30 a. C. n_. ISBN 978-90-429-3459-7 . * ^ prudentiapolitica. "Prudentia Politica". Retrieved 6 March 2015. * ^ Vietnamese propaganda reflections from 1945–2000 * ^ "Serbian Propaganda: A Closer Look". 12 April 1999. NOAH ADAMS: The European Center for War, Peace and the News Media, based in London, has received word from Belgrade that no pictures of mass Albanian refugees have been shown at all, and that the Kosovo humanitarian catastrophe is only referred to as the one made up or over-emphasised by Western propaganda. * ^ Daniel J Schwindt, The Case Against the Modern World: A Crash Course in Traditionalist Thought, 2016, pp. 202–204. * ^ Garth Jowett and Victoria O'Donnell (2006), _ Propaganda and Persuasion_, 4th ed. Sage Publications, p. 7 * ^ Richard Alan Nelson, _A Chronology and Glossary of Propaganda in the United States_ (1996) pp. 232–233 * ^ Zeman, Zbynek (1978). _Selling the War_. Orbis Publishing. ISBN 0-85613-312-4 . * ^ pp. 260–261, "The Function of the Propagandist", _International Journal of Ethics_, 38 (no. 3): pp. 258–268. * ^ Hindery, Roderick R., Indoctrination and Self-deception or Free and Critical Thought? (2001) * ^ McNamara, Adam. "BULL: A new form of propaganda in the digital age.". Retrieved 5 August 2015. * ^ "The Religious Movements Page: Conceptualizing "Cult" and "Sect"". Archived from the original on 7 February 2006. Retrieved 4 December 2005. * ^ "Polish Anti- Cult Movement (Koscianska) - CESNUR". Retrieved 4 December 2005. * ^ North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Nato Standardization Agency Aap-6 - Glossary of terms and definitions, p 188. * ^ http://www.edubuzz.org/dgs_english/wp-content/blogs.dir/1336/files/2013/05/Propaganda-Posters-Task-Sheet.pdf * ^ Karel C. Berkhoff, _Motherland in Danger: Soviet Propaganda during World War II_ (2012) excerpt and text search * ^ Zhores A. Medvedev and (2003). _The Unknown Stalin_. p. 248. * ^ "International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights". _United Nations Human Rights: Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights_. United Nations. Retrieved 2 September 2015. * ^ Briant (April 2015). "Allies and Audiences Evolving Strategies in Defense and Intelligence Propaganda". _The International Journal of Press/Politics_. 20 (2): 145–165. * ^ Briant, Emma (2015). _ Propaganda and Counter-terrorism: strategies for global change_. Manchester: Manchester University Press. * ^ "Smith-Mundt Act". _'Anti-Propaganda' Ban Repealed, Freeing State Dept. To Direct Its Broadcasting Arm At American Citizens_. Techdirt. Retrieved 1 June 2016. * ^ Gustave Gilbert 's _Nuremberg Diary_(1947). In an interview with Gilbert in Göring's jail cell during the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials (18 April 1946) * ^ Garth S. Jowett and Victoria J.: O'Donnell, _ Propaganda & Persuasion_ (5th ed. 2011) * ^ Biddle, William W. A psychological definition of propaganda. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology , Vol 26(3), Oct 1931, 283-295. * ^ "Letter from Noam Chomsky" to _Covert Action Quarterly,_ quoting Alex Carey , Australian social scientist, http://mediafilter.org/caq/CAQ54chmky.html * ^ "Review of Alex Carey, Taking the Risk out of Democracy: Propaganda in the US and Australia". Retrieved 6 March 2015. * ^ Ross, Sheryl Tuttle. "Understanding Propaganda: The Epistemic Merit Model and Its Application to Art." _Journal of Aesthetic Education_, Vol. 36, No.1. pp. 16–30 * ^ Mills, Mary. " Propaganda and Children During the Hitler Years". Jewish Virtual Library. https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/propchil.html * ^ Hirsch, Herbert. _Genocide and the Politics of Memory_. Chapel Hill & London: University of North Carolina Press, 1995. p. 119.
* "Appendix I: PSYOP Techniques". _Psychological Operations Field Manual No. 33-1_. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army. 31 August 1979. Archived from the original on 24 May 2001. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * Bytwerk, Randall L. (2004). _Bending Spines: The Propagandas of Nazi Germany and the German Democratic Republic_. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press. ISBN 0-87013-710-7 . * Edwards, John Carver (1991). _Berlin Calling: American Broadcasters in Service to the Third Reich_. New York: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-93905-7 . * Hindery, Roderick. "The Anatomy of Propaganda within Religious Terrorism". _Humanist_ (March–April 2003): 16–19. * Howe, Ellic (1982). _The Black Game: British Subversive Operations Against the German During the Second World War_. London: Futura. * Huxley, Aldous (1958). _ Brave New World Revisited _. New York: Harper. ISBN 0-06-080984-1 . * Jowett, Garth S.; O'Donnell, Victoria (2006). _ Propaganda and Persuasion_ (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc. ISBN 1-4129-0897-3 . * Le Bon, Gustave (1895). _The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind_. ISBN 0-14-004531-7 . * Linebarger, Paul M. A. (1948). _Psychological Warfare_. Washington, D.C.: Infantry Journal Press. ISBN 0-405-04755-X . * Nelson, Richard Alan (1996). _A Chronology and Glossary of Propaganda in the United States_. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-29261-2 . * Shirer, William L. (1942). _Berlin Diary: The Journal of a Foreign Correspondent, 1934–1941_. New York: Albert A. Knopf. ISBN 5-9524-0081-7 . * Young, Emma (10 October 2001). " Psychological warfare waged in Afghanistan". _ New Scientist _. Archived from the original on 13 February 2002. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
* Altheide David L. & Johnson John M., _Bureaucratic Propaganda_. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc. (1980) * Bernays, Edward (1928). _Propaganda_. New York: H. Liveright. (See also version of text at website _www.historyisaweapon.com_: "Propaganda.") * Borgies Loïc, _Le conflit propagandiste entre Octavien et Marc Antoine. De l'usage politique de la uituperatio entre 44 et 30 a. C. n._ Bruxelles: Latomus. (2016) * Brown J.A.C., _Techniques of Persuasion: From Propaganda to Brainwashing_ Harmondsworth: Pelican (1963) * Chomsky, Noam and Herman Edward, _Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media_. New York: Pantheon Books. (1988) * Cole Robert, _ Propaganda in Twentieth Century War and Politics_ (1996) * Cole Robert (ed.), _Encyclopedia of Propaganda_ (3 vol 1998) * Combs James E. & Nimmo Dan, _The New Propaganda: The Dictatorship of Palaver in Contemporary Politics_. White Plains, N.Y. Longman. (1993) * Cull, Nicholas John , Culbert, and Welch, eds. _ Propaganda and Mass Persuasion: A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present_ (2003) * Cunningham Stanley B., _The Idea of Propaganda: A Reconstruction_. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. (2002) * Cunningham Stanley B., "Reflections on the Interface Between Propaganda and Religion." In P.Rennick, S. Cunningham, R.H. Johnson (eds), The Future of Religion. Cambridge Scholars Pub.: Newcastle upon Tyne 2010, pp. 83–96. * Dimitri Kitsikis , _Propagande et pressions en politique internationale_, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1963, 537 pages. * Ellul, Jacques , _Propaganda: The Formation of Men's Attitudes_. Trans. Konrad Kellen & Jean Lerner. New York: Knopf, 1965. New York: Random House/ Vintage 1973 * Jowett Garth S. and Victoria O"Donnell, 'PROPAGANDA AND PERSUASION, 6TH EDITION. \' California: Sage Publications, 2014. A detailed overview of the history, function, and analyses of propaganda. * Marlin Randal , _ Propaganda & The Ethics of Persuasion_. Orchard Park, New York: Broadview Press. (2002) * McCombs M. E. & Shaw D. L., (1972). The agenda-setting function of mass media. _Public Opinion Quarterly, 36_, 176–187. * Moran T., " Propaganda as Pseudocommunication." Et Cetera 2(1979), pp. 181–197. * Pratkanis Anthony ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v
* t * e
* by country * online
* False accusation * Filter bubble * Gaslighting * Half-truth * Hoax * Ideological framing * Internet manipulation * Media manipulation * Post-truth * Propaganda * Quote mining * Scientific fabrication * Smearing * Social bot * Spin * Yellow journalism
* 1995 CIA disinformation * Funkspiel * Habbush letter * Information Operations Roadmap * Jihadunspun.com * John F. Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories * Jonestown conspiracy theories * K-1000 battleship * Mafkarat al Islam * Disinformation during Gezi Park protests * Mohamed Atta\'s alleged Prague connection * Niger uranium forgeries * Operation INFEKTION * Operation Neptune * Operation Shocker * Operation Toucan * Pope Pius XII and Russia * Russia and the 2016 US elections * Seat 12 * Strategy of tension * Trolls from Olgino * U.S. Army Field Manual 30-31B * Web brigades * _ Who’s Who in the CIA _ * Yellow rain
* Active Measures Working Group * Countering Foreign Propaganda and Disinformation Act * Counter Misinformation Team * East StratCom Team * FactCheck.org * PolitiFact.com * Snopes.com * United States Information Agency
* v * t * e
* _ Ad hominem _ * Appeal to fear * Armed propaganda * Atrocity propaganda * Bandwagon effect * Big lie * Blood libel * Buzzword * Card stacking * Censorship * Code word * Disinformation * Dog-whistle politics * Doublespeak * Fake news * Framing * Glittering generality * Historical revisionism * Ideograph * Indoctrination * Lawfare * Loaded language * Newspeak * Obscurantism * Plain folks * Public relations * Slogan * Spin * Weasel word * Whataboutism
* v * t * e
* Billboards * False * Infomercials * Mobiles * Modeling * Radio * Sex * Slogans * Testimonials * TV
* Censorship * Regulation
* Agenda-setting * Broadcasting * Circus * Cycle * False balance * Fox News * MSNBC * CNN * _Huffington Post _ * Infotainment * Managing * Narcotizing dysfunction * Newspeak * Pseudo-event * Scrum * Sensationalism * Tabloid journalism
* Advertising * Astroturfing * Attack ad * Canvassing * Character assassination * Charm offensive * Dog-whistle politics * Election promises * Lawn signs * Manifestos * Name recognition * Negative * Push polling * Smear campaign * Wedge issue
* v * t * e
Critical thinking and informal logic
* Analysis * Ambiguity * Argument * Belief * Bias * Credibility * Evidence * Explanation * Explanatory power * Fact * Fallacy * Inquiry * Opinion * Parsimony (Occam\'s razor) * Premise * Propaganda * Prudence * Reasoning * Relevance * Rhetoric * Rigor * Vagueness
THEORIES OF DEDUCTION
* v * t * e
Rewarding - pleasant (positive reinforcement )
Aversive - unpleasant (positive punishment )
* Anger * Character assassination * Crying * Emotional blackmail * Fearmongering * Frowning * Glaring * Guilt trip * Inattention * Intimidation * Nagging * Nit-picking criticism * Passive aggression * Relational aggression * Sadism * Shaming * Silent treatment * Social rejection * Swearing * Threats * Victim blaming * Victim playing * Yelling
* Bait-and-switch * Deception * Denial * Deprogramming * Disinformation * Distortion * Diversion * Divide and rule * Double bind * Entrapment * Evasion * Exaggeration * Gaslighting * Good cop/bad cop * Indoctrination * Low-balling * Lying * Minimisation * Moving the goalposts * Pride-and-ego down * Rationalization * Reid technique * Setting up to fail * Trojan horse * You\'re either with us, or against us
* Abuse * Advertising * Bullying * Catholic guilt * Confidence trick * Guilt culture * Interrogation * Jewish guilt * Jewish mother stereotype * Moral panic * Media manipulation * Mind control * Mind games * Mobbing * Propaganda * Salesmanship * Scapegoating * Shame culture * Smear campaign * Social engineering (blagging) * Spin * Suggestibility * Whispering campaign
* Antisocial personality disorder * Assertiveness * Blame * Borderline personality disorder * Carrot and stick * Dumbing down * Enabling * Fallacy * Femme fatale * Gaming the system * Gullibility * Histrionic personality disorder * Impression management * Machiavellianism * Narcissism * Narcissistic personality disorder * Personal boundaries * Persuasion * Popularity * Power and control in abusive relationships * Projection * Psychopathy
* GND : 4076374-2 * NDL : 01178425