PROPAGANDA is information that is not objective and is used primarily
to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting
facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception,
or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a
rational response to the information that is presented.
often associated with material prepared by governments, but activist
groups and companies can also produce propaganda.
In the twentieth century, the term propaganda has been associated
with a manipulative approach, but propaganda historically was a
neutral descriptive term. A wide range of materials and media are
used for conveying propaganda messages, which changed as new
technologies were invented, including paintings, cartoons, posters,
pamphlets, films, radio shows, TV shows, and websites .
In a 1929 literary debate with
Edward Bernays , Everett Dean Martin
argues that, “
Propaganda is making puppets of us. We are moved by
hidden strings which the propagandist manipulates.”
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 3 Types
* 3.1 Religious
* 3.2 Wartime
* 3.3 Corporate
* 3.4 Workplace
* 4 Techniques
* 5 Models
* 5.2 Herman and Chomsky
* 5.3 Ross\'s epistemic merit model
* 6 Children
Anti-Semitic propaganda for children
* 7 By country
* 8 See also
* 9 Notes
* 10 References
* 11 Further reading
* 11.1 Books
* 11.2 Essays and articles
Propaganda is a modern
Latin word, the gerundive form of propagare,
meaning to spread or to propagate, thus propaganda means that which is
to be propagated. Originally this word derived from a new
administrative body of the
Catholic church (congregation ) created in
1622, called the Congregatio de
Propaganda Fide (Congregation for
Propagating the Faith), or informally simply Propaganda. Its
activity was aimed at "propagating" the
Catholic faith in non-Catholic
From the 1790s, the term began being used also to refer to propaganda
in secular activities. The term began taking a pejorative or negative
connotation in the mid-19th century, when it was used in the political
History of propaganda
History of propaganda
Primitive forms of propaganda have been a human activity as far back
as reliable recorded evidence exists. The
Behistun Inscription (c. 515
BC) detailing the rise of Darius I to the Persian throne is viewed by
most historians as an early example of propaganda. Another striking
example of propaganda during Ancient History is the last Roman civil
wars during which Octavian and
Mark Antony blame each other for
obscure and degrading origins, cruelty, cowardice, oratorical and
literary incompetence, debaucheries, luxury, drunkenness and other
Propaganda during the Reformation , helped by the spread of the
printing press throughout Europe, and in particular within Germany,
caused new ideas, thoughts, and doctrine to be made available to the
public in ways that had never been seen before the 16th century.
During the era of the
American Revolution , the American colonies had
a flourishing network of newspapers and printers who specialized in
the topic on behalf of the Patriots (and to a lesser extent on behalf
of the Loyalists).
Propaganda as generally understood, is a modern phenomenon that
emerged from the creation of literate and politically active societies
informed by a mass media in the 19th century, where governments
increasingly saw the necessity for swaying public opinion in favour of
its policies. During the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic era,
propaganda was widely used. Abolitionists in Britain and the United
States in the 19th century developed large, complex propaganda
campaigns against slavery. Poster advertising the propaganda film
Triumph of the Will
Triumph of the Will made for the nazis A newspaper clipping
that refers to the
Bataan Death March
Bataan Death March in 1942
The first large-scale and organised propagation of government
propaganda was occasioned by the outbreak of war in 1914. After the
defeat of Germany in the First World War, military officials such as
Erich Ludendorff suggested that British propaganda had been
instrumental in their defeat.
Adolf Hitler came to echo this view,
believing that it had been a primary cause of the collapse of morale
and the revolts in the German home front and Navy in 1918 (see also:
Dolchstoßlegende ). Later, the Nazis adapted many British propaganda
techniques during their time in power. Most propaganda in Germany was
produced by the
Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda .
Joseph Goebbels was placed in charge of this ministry. World War II
saw continued use of propaganda as a weapon of war, building on the
experience of WW1, both by Hitler's propagandist
Joseph Goebbels and
Political Warfare Executive , as well as the United States
Office of War Information .
In the early 20th century, the invention of motion pictures gave
propaganda-creators a powerful tool for advancing political and
military interests when it came to reaching a broad segment of the
population and creating consent or encouraging rejection of the real
or imagined enemy. In the years following the
October Revolution of
1917, the Soviet government sponsored the Russian film industry with
the purpose of making propaganda films (e.g. the 1925 film The
Battleship Potemkin glorifies
Communist ideals.) In WWII, Nazi
filmmakers produced highly emotional films to create popular support
for occupying the
Sudetenland and attacking Poland. The 1930s and
1940s, which saw the rise of totalitarian states and the Second World
War , are arguably the "Golden Age of Propaganda".
Leni Riefenstahl ,
a filmmaker working in
Nazi Germany , created one of the best-known
Triumph of the Will
Triumph of the Will . In the US, Animation became
popular, especially for winning over youthful audiences and aiding the
U.S. war effort depicted Hitler as a comical figure while portraying
a defence of the value of freedom. US war films in the early 1940s in
United States were designed to create a patriotic mindset and
convince viewers that sacrifices needed to be made to defeat "the
West and the
Soviet Union both used propaganda extensively during
Cold War . Both sides used film, television, and radio programming
to influence their own citizens, each other, and Third World nations.
George Orwell 's novels
Animal Farm and
Nineteen Eighty-Four are
virtual textbooks on the use of propaganda. During the Cuban
Fidel Castro stressed the importance of propaganda.
Propaganda was used extensively by
Communist forces in the Vietnam War
as means of controlling people's opinions.
Yugoslav wars , propaganda was used as a military strategy
by governments of
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Croatia.
Propaganda was used to create fear and hatred, and particularly incite
the Serb population against the other ethnicities (
Albanians and other non-Serbs). Serb media made a great effort in
justifying, revising or denying mass war crimes committed by Serb
forces during these wars.
Poster of the 19th-century Scandinavist movement
Identifying propaganda has always been a problem. The main
difficulties have involved differentiating propaganda from other types
of persuasion , and avoiding a biased approach. For example, one
political group may view material produced by other organizations or
by governments as propaganda, while viewing the political group's own
biased literature as educational material. Garth Jowett and Victoria
O'Donnell have provided a concise, workable definition of the term:
Propaganda is the deliberate, systematic attempt to shape
perceptions, manipulate cognitions, and direct behavior to achieve a
response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist."
More comprehensive is the description by Richard Alan Nelson:
Propaganda is neutrally defined as a systematic form of purposeful
persuasion that attempts to influence the emotions, attitudes,
opinions, and actions of specified target audiences for ideological ,
political or commercial purposes through the controlled transmission
of one-sided messages (which may or may not be factual) via mass and
direct media channels. A propaganda organization employs propagandists
who engage in propagandism—the applied creation and distribution of
such forms of persuasion." Both definitions focus on the
communicative process involved — or more precisely, on the purpose
of the process, and allow "propaganda" to be considered objectively
and then interpreted as positive or negative behavior depending on the
perspective of the viewer or listener. According to historian Zbyněk
Zeman , propaganda is defined as either white, grey or black. White
propaganda openly discloses its source and intent. Grey propaganda has
an ambiguous or non-disclosed source or intent. Black propaganda
purports to be published by the enemy or some organization besides its
actual origins (compare with black operation , a type of clandestine
operation in which the identity of the sponsoring government is
Propaganda shares techniques with advertising and public
relations , each of which can be thought of as propaganda that
promotes a commercial product or shapes the perception of an
organization, person, or brand. In post–
World War II
World War II usage of the
word "propaganda" more typically refers to political or nationalist
uses of these techniques or to the promotion of a set of ideas.
Propaganda poster in North Korean primary school
Propaganda was often used to influence opinions and beliefs on
religious issues, particularly during the split between the Roman
Catholic Church and the Protestant churches .
Propaganda has become
more common in political contexts, in particular to refer to certain
efforts sponsored by governments, political groups, but also often
covert interests. In the early 20th century, propaganda was
exemplified in the form of party slogans. Also in the early 20th
century the term propaganda was used by the founders of the nascent
public relations industry to refer to their people. This usage died
out around the time of World War II, as the industry started to avoid
the word, given the pejorative connotation it had acquired. Literally
translated from the
Latin gerundive as "things that must be
disseminated", in some cultures the term is neutral or even positive,
while in others the term has acquired a strong negative connotation.
The connotations of the term "propaganda" can also vary over time. For
example, in Portuguese and some
Spanish language speaking countries,
particularly in the
Southern Cone , the word "propaganda" usually
refers to the most common manipulative media — "advertising".
Propaganda poster in
In English, propaganda was originally a neutral term for the
dissemination of information in favor of any given cause. During the
20th century, however, the term acquired a thoroughly negative meaning
in western countries, representing the intentional dissemination of
often false, but certainly "compelling" claims to support or justify
political actions or ideologies. According to
Harold Lasswell , the
term began to fall out of favor due to growing public suspicion of
propaganda in the wake of its use during
World War I
World War I by the Creel
Committee in the
United States and the Ministry of Information in
Britain: Writing in 1928, Lasswell observed, "In democratic countries
the official propaganda bureau was looked upon with genuine alarm, for
fear that it might be suborned to party and personal ends. The outcry
United States against Mr. Creel's famous Bureau of Public
Information (or 'Inflammation') helped to din into the public mind the
fact that propaganda existed. … The public's discovery of propaganda
has led to a great of lamentation over it.
Propaganda has become an
epithet of contempt and hate, and the propagandists have sought
protective coloration in such names as 'public relations council,'
'specialist in public education,' 'public relations adviser.' "
Anti-communist propaganda in a 1947 comic book published by the
Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of "the dangers of a
Roderick Hindery argues that propaganda exists on the political
left, and right, and in mainstream centrist parties. Hindery further
argues that debates about most social issues can be productively
revisited in the context of asking "what is or is not propaganda?" Not
to be overlooked is the link between propaganda, indoctrination, and
terrorism/counterterrorism. He argues that threats to destroy are
often as socially disruptive as physical devastation itself.
Propaganda also has much in common with public information campaigns
by governments, which are intended to encourage or discourage certain
forms of behavior (such as wearing seat belts, not smoking, not
littering and so forth). Again, the emphasis is more political in
Propaganda can take the form of leaflets , posters, TV and
radio broadcasts and can also extend to any other medium . In the case
of the United States, there is also an important legal (imposed by
law) distinction between advertising (a type of OVERT PROPAGANDA) and
what the Government Accountability Office (GAO), an arm of the United
States Congress, refers to as "covert propaganda".
The ease of data collection emerging from the IT revolution and a
lack of control on the acquired data's use has led to the widespread
implementation of workplace propaganda created much more locally such
as in schools, hospitals, local retail outlets and Universities. The
same article also notes a departure from the traditional methodology
of propagandists i.e., the use of emotionally provocative imagery to
distort facts. Workplace propaganda is suggested to use 'distorted
data' to overrule emotion. For example, by providing rationales for
ideologically driven pay cuts, etc.
Journalistic theory generally holds that news items should be
objective, giving the reader an accurate background and analysis of
the subject at hand. On the other hand, advertisements evolved from
the traditional commercial advertisements to include also a new type
in the form of paid articles or broadcasts disguised as news. These
generally present an issue in a very subjective and often misleading
light, primarily meant to persuade rather than inform. Normally they
use only subtle propaganda techniques and not the more obvious ones
used in traditional commercial advertisements. If the reader believes
that a paid advertisement is in fact a news item, the message the
advertiser is trying to communicate will be more easily "believed" or
World War I
World War I propaganda poster for enlistment in
the U.S. Army .
Such advertisements are considered obvious examples of "covert"
propaganda because they take on the appearance of objective
information rather than the appearance of propaganda, which is
misleading. Federal law specifically mandates that any advertisement
appearing in the format of a news item must state that the item is in
fact a paid advertisement.
The propagandist seeks to change the way people understand an issue
or situation for the purpose of changing their actions and
expectations in ways that are desirable to the interest group.
Propaganda, in this sense, serves as a corollary to censorship in
which the same purpose is achieved, not by filling people's minds with
approved information, but by preventing people from being confronted
with opposing points of view. What sets propaganda apart from other
forms of advocacy is the willingness of the propagandist to change
people's understanding through deception and confusion rather than
persuasion and understanding. The leaders of an organization know the
information to be one sided or untrue, but this may not be true for
the rank and file members who help to disseminate the propaganda.
Anti-atheist propaganda billboard posted in Chambersburg,
Pennsylvania, in February 2008
More in line with the religious roots of the term, it is also used
widely in the debates about new religious movements (NRMs), both by
people who defend them and by people who oppose them. The latter
pejoratively call these NRMs cults . Anti-cult activists and Christian
countercult activists accuse the leaders of what they consider cults
of using propaganda extensively to recruit followers and keep them.
Some social scientists, such as the late Jeffrey Hadden, and CESNUR
affiliated scholars accuse ex-members of "cults" who became vocal
critics and the anti-cult movement of making these unusual religious
movements look bad without sufficient reasons.
A US Office for War Information poster uses racist imagery to
imply that US workers not making a strong effort to work hard helped
the Japanese government's war effort.
Propaganda is a powerful weapon in war; it is used to dehumanize and
create hatred toward a supposed enemy, either internal or external, by
creating a false image in the mind of soldiers and citizens. This can
be done by using derogatory or racist terms (e.g., the racist terms
"Jap" and "gook" used during WW II and the
Vietnam War ,
respectively), avoiding some words or language or by making
allegations of enemy atrocities. Most propaganda efforts in wartime
require the home population to feel the enemy has inflicted an
injustice, which may be fictitious or may be based on facts (e.g., the
sinking of the passenger ship
RMS Lusitania by the German Navy in WW
I). The home population must also believe that the cause of their
nation in the war is just. In NATO doctrine, propaganda is defined as
"Any information, ideas, doctrines, or special appeals disseminated to
influence the opinion, emotions, attitudes, or behaviour of any
specified group in order to benefit the sponsor either directly or
indirectly." Within this perspective, information provided does not
need to be necessarily false, but must be instead relevant to specific
goals of the "actor" or "system" that performs it.
Propaganda is also one of the methods used in psychological warfare ,
which may also involve false flag operations in which the identity of
the operatives is depicted as those of an enemy nation (e.g., The Bay
of Pigs invasion used CIA planes painted in Cuban Air Force markings).
The term propaganda may also refer to false information meant to
reinforce the mindsets of people who already believe as the
propagandist wishes (e.g., During WWI, the main purpose of British
propaganda was to encourage men join the army, and women to work in
the country’s industry. The propaganda posters were used, because
radios and TVs were not very common at that time.). The assumption is
that, if people believe something false, they will constantly be
assailed by doubts. Since these doubts are unpleasant (see cognitive
dissonance ), people will be eager to have them extinguished, and are
therefore receptive to the reassurances of those in power. For this
reason propaganda is often addressed to people who are already
sympathetic to the agenda or views being presented. This process of
reinforcement uses an individual's predisposition to self-select
"agreeable" information sources as a mechanism for maintaining control
Propaganda can be classified according to the source and nature of
the message. WHITE PROPAGANDA generally comes from an openly
identified source, and is characterized by gentler methods of
persuasion, such as standard public relations techniques and one-sided
presentation of an argument. BLACK PROPAGANDA is identified as being
from one source, but is in fact from another. This is most commonly to
disguise the true origins of the propaganda, be it from an enemy
country or from an organization with a negative public image. GREY
PROPAGANDA is propaganda without any identifiable source or author. A
major application of grey propaganda is making enemies believe
falsehoods using straw arguments : As phase one, to make someone
believe "A", one releases as grey propaganda "B", the opposite of "A".
In phase two, "B" is discredited using some strawman . The enemy will
then assume "A" to be true. Britannia arm-in-arm with Uncle Sam
symbolizes the British-American alliance in World War I.
In scale, these different types of propaganda can also be defined by
the potential of true and correct information to compete with the
propaganda. For example, opposition to white propaganda is often
readily found and may slightly discredit the propaganda source.
Opposition to grey propaganda, when revealed (often by an inside
source), may create some level of public outcry. Opposition to black
propaganda is often unavailable and may be dangerous to reveal,
because public cognizance of black propaganda tactics and sources
would undermine or backfire the very campaign the black propagandist
Propaganda may be administered in insidious ways. For instance,
disparaging disinformation about the history of certain groups or
foreign countries may be encouraged or tolerated in the educational
system. Since few people actually double-check what they learn at
school, such disinformation will be repeated by journalists as well as
parents, thus reinforcing the idea that the disinformation item is
really a "well-known fact", even though no one repeating the myth is
able to point to an authoritative source. The disinformation is then
recycled in the media and in the educational system, without the need
for direct governmental intervention on the media. Such permeating
propaganda may be used for political goals: by giving citizens a false
impression of the quality or policies of their country, they may be
incited to reject certain proposals or certain remarks or ignore the
experience of others.
Soviet Union during the Second World War, the propaganda
designed to encourage civilians was controlled by Stalin, who insisted
on a heavy-handed style that educated audiences easily saw was
inauthentic. On the other hand, the unofficial rumours about German
atrocities were well founded and convincing. Stalin was a Georgian
who spoke Russian with a heavy accent. That would not do for a
national hero so starting in the 1930s all new visual portraits of
Stalin were retouched to erase his Georgian facial characteristics and
make him a more generalized Soviet hero. Only his eyes and famous
mustache remained unaltered. Zhores Medvedev and Roy Medvedev say his.
"majestic new image was devised appropriately to depict the leader of
all times and of all peoples."
Article 20 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political
Rights prohibits any propaganda for war as well as any advocacy of
national or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to
discrimination, hostility or violence by law.
9/11 and the appearance of greater media fluidity, propaganda
institutions, practices and legal frameworks have been evolving in the
US and Britain. Dr Emma Louise Briant shows how this included
expansion and integration of the apparatus cross-government and
details attempts to coordinate the forms of propaganda for foreign and
domestic audiences, with new efforts in strategic communication .
These were subject to contestation within the
US Government , resisted
by Pentagon Public Affairs and critiqued by some scholars. The
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (section 1078
(a)) amended the US Information and Educational Exchange Act of 1948
(popularly referred to as the
Smith-Mundt Act ) and the Foreign
Relations Authorization Act of 1987, allowing for materials produced
by the State Department and the Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG)
to be released within U.S. borders for the Archivist of the United
States. The Smith-Mundt Act, as amended, provided that “the
Secretary and the Broadcasting Board of Governors shall make available
to the Archivist of the United States, for domestic distribution,
motion pictures, films, videotapes, and other material 12 years after
the initial dissemination of the material abroad (...) Nothing in this
section shall be construed to prohibit the Department of State or the
Broadcasting Board of Governors from engaging in any medium or form of
communication, either directly or indirectly, because a United States
domestic audience is or may be thereby exposed to program material, or
based on a presumption of such exposure.” Public concerns were
raised upon passage due to the relaxation of prohibitions of domestic
propaganda in the United States.
Naturally, the common people don't want war; neither in Russia nor in
England nor in America, nor for that matter in Germany. That is
understood. But, after all, it is the leaders of the country who
determine the policy and it is always a simple matter to drag the
people along, whether it is a democracy or a fascist dictatorship or a
Parliament or a
Communist dictatorship. The people can always be
brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to
do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for
lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the
same way in any country. —
Corporate propaganda refers to propagandist claims made by a
corporation (or corporations), for the purpose of manipulating market
opinion with regard to that corporation, its products and services, or
its activities. Common euphemisms for corporate propaganda are
advertising and public relations .
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Workplace propaganda is used by employers directed at employees.
Often based upon distorted data utilized to justify ideologically
driven decision making processes. This differs from corporate
propaganda as it is an internal process and has the potential to be
found in small charities as well as in large market driven
For more details on this topic, see
Propaganda techniques .
Common media for transmitting propaganda messages include news
reports, government reports, historical revision, junk science ,
books, leaflets, movies , radio, television, and posters. Some
propaganda campaigns follow a strategic transmission pattern to
indoctrinate the target group. This may begin with a simple
transmission, such as a leaflet or advertisement dropped from a plane
or an advertisement. Generally these messages will contain directions
on how to obtain more information, via a web site, hot line, radio
program, etc. (as it is seen also for selling purposes among other
goals). The strategy intends to initiate the individual from
information recipient to information seeker through reinforcement, and
then from information seeker to opinion leader through indoctrination.
A number of techniques based in social psychological research are
used to generate propaganda. Many of these same techniques can be
found under logical fallacies , since propagandists use arguments
that, while sometimes convincing, are not necessarily valid.
Some time has been spent analyzing the means by which the propaganda
messages are transmitted. That work is important but it is clear that
information dissemination strategies become propaganda strategies only
when coupled with propagandistic messages. Identifying these messages
is a necessary prerequisite to study the methods by which those
messages are spread.
The field of social psychology includes the study of persuasion .
Social psychologists can be sociologists or psychologists . The field
includes many theories and approaches to understanding persuasion. For
example, communication theory points out that people can be persuaded
by the communicator's credibility, expertise, trustworthiness, and
attractiveness. The elaboration likelihood model as well as heuristic
models of persuasion suggest that a number of factors (e.g., the
degree of interest of the recipient of the communication), influence
the degree to which people allow superficial factors to persuade them.
Nobel Prize–winning psychologist
Herbert A. Simon won the Nobel
prize for his theory that people are cognitive misers . That is, in a
society of mass information, people are forced to make decisions
quickly and often superficially, as opposed to logically.
William W. Biddle 's 1931 article "A psychological
definition of propaganda", "he four principles followed in propaganda
are: (1) rely on emotions, never argue; (2) cast propaganda into the
pattern of "we" versus an "enemy"; (3) reach groups as well as
individuals; (4) hide the propagandist as much as possible."
HERMAN AND CHOMSKY
Early 20th-century depiction of a "European Anarchist "
attempting to destroy the
Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty .
The propaganda model is a theory advanced by
Edward S. Herman and
Noam Chomsky which argues systemic biases in the mass media and seeks
to explain them in terms of structural economic causes :
The 20th century has been characterized by three developments of
great political importance: the growth of democracy, the growth of
corporate power, and the growth of corporate propaganda as a means of
protecting corporate power against democracy.
First presented in their 1988 book Manufacturing Consent: the
Political Economy of the Mass Media , the propaganda model views the
private media as businesses selling a product — readers and
audiences (rather than news ) — to other businesses (advertisers)
and relying primarily on government and corporate information and
propaganda. The theory postulates five general classes of "filters"
that determine the type of news that is presented in news media:
Ownership of the medium, the medium's Funding, Sourcing of the news,
Flak, and anti-communist ideology .
The first three (ownership, funding, and sourcing) are generally
regarded by the authors as being the most important. Although the
model was based mainly on the characterization of
United States media,
Chomsky and Herman believe the theory is equally applicable to any
country that shares the basic economic structure and organizing
principles the model postulates as the cause of media bias .
ROSS\'S EPISTEMIC MERIT MODEL
World War I
World War I poster: "Remember Your First Thrill of
The epistemic merit model is a method for understanding propaganda
conceived by Sheryl Tuttle Ross and detailed in her 2002 article for
the Journal of Aesthetic
Education entitled "Understanding Propaganda:
Epistemic Merit Model and Its Application to Art". Ross developed
the Epistemic merit model due to concern about narrow, misleading
definitions of propaganda. She contrasted her model with the ideas of
Pope Gregory XV, the
Institute for Propaganda Analysis , Alfred Lee ,
F.C. Bartlett , and
Hans Speier . Insisting that each of their
respective discussions of propaganda are too narrow, Ross proposed her
To appropriately discuss propaganda, Ross argues that one must
consider a threefold communication model: that of
Sender-Message-Receiver. "That is... propaganda involve... the one who
is persuading (Sender) doing so intentionally, target for such
persuasion (Receiver) and means of reaching that target (Message)."
There are four conditions for a message to be considered propaganda.
Propaganda involves the intention to persuade. As well, propaganda is
sent on behalf of a sociopolitical institution, organization, or
cause. Next, the recipient of propaganda is a socially significant
group of people. Finally, propaganda is an epistemic struggle to
challenge others' thoughts.
Ross claims that it is misleading to say that propaganda is simply
false, or that it is conditional to a lie, since often the
propagandist believes in what he/she is propagandizing. In other
words, it is not necessarily a lie if the person who creates the
propaganda is trying to persuade you of a view that they actually
hold. "The aim of the propagandist is to create the semblance of
credibility." This means that they appeal to an epistemology that is
weak or defective.
False statements, bad arguments, immoral commands as well as inapt
metaphors (and other literary tropes ) are the sorts of things that
are epistemically defective... Not only does epistemic defectiveness
more accurately describe how propaganda endeavors to function... since
many messages are in forms such as commands that do not admit to
truth-values , also accounts for the role context plays in the
workings of propaganda.
Throughout history those who have wished to persuade have used art to
get their message out. This can be accomplished by hiring artists for
the express aim of propagandizing or by investing new meanings to a
previously non-political work. Therefore, Ross states, it is important
to consider "the conditions of its making the conditions of its use."
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A 1938 propaganda of the New State depicting Brazilian President
Getúlio Vargas flanked by children. The text on the bottom right of
this poster translates as: "Children! Learning, at home and in school,
the cult of the Fatherland, you will bring all chances of success to
life. Only love builds and, strongly loving Brazil, you will lead it
to the greatest of destinies among Nations, fulfilling the desires of
exaltation nestled in every Brazilian heart." Poster promoting
the Nicaraguan Sandinistas . The text reads: "Sandinista children:
Toño, Delia and Rodolfo are in the Association of Sandinista
Children. Sandinista children use a neckerchief . They participate in
the revolution and are very studious."
Of all the potential targets for propaganda, children are the most
vulnerable because they are the least prepared with the critical
reasoning and contextual comprehension they need to determine whether
a message is propaganda or not. The attention children give their
environment during development, due to the process of developing their
understanding of the world, causes them to absorb propaganda
indiscriminately. Also, children are highly imitative: studies by
Albert Bandura , Dorothea Ross and Sheila A. Ross in the 1960s
indicated that, to a degree, socialization , formal education and
standardized television programming can be seen as using propaganda
for the purpose of indoctrination . The use of propaganda in schools
was highly prevalent during the 1930s and 1940s in Germany, as well as
John Taylor Gatto asserts that modern schooling
in the USA is designed to "dumb us down" in order to turn children
into material suitable to work in factories. This ties into the Herman
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* Edith Cavell: Role in
World War I
World War I propaganda
Fake news website
Music and political warfare
Overview of 21st century propaganda
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britannica.com. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 23 April
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World War II (2012) excerpt and text search
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Antoine. De l'usage politique de la uituperatio entre 44 et 30 a. C.
n. Bruxelles: Latomus. (2016)
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Trans. Konrad Kellen & Jean Lerner. New York: Knopf, 1965. New York:
Random House/ Vintage 1973
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detailed overview of the history, function, and analyses of
* Marlin Randal ,
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* Moran T., "
Propaganda as Pseudocommunication." Et Cetera 2(1979),
* Pratkanis Anthony ;background:none
* Echo chamber
* by country
* Ideological framing
* Quote mining
* Scientific fabrication
Disinformation by Ion Mihai Pacepa
* Dezinformatsia: Active Measures in Soviet Strategy
* The KGB and Soviet
The Case for Latvia
* Who\'s Who in the CIA
1995 CIA disinformation controversy
CIA Kennedy assassination conspiracy theory
Information Operations Roadmap
Jonestown conspiracy theories
Mafkarat al Islam
Media censorship and disinformation during the Gezi Park protests
* Mohamed Atta\'s alleged Prague connection
Niger uranium forgeries
* Operation Neptune
* Operation Toucan
Pope Pius XII and Russia
* Russian interference in the 2016
United States elections
Strategy of tension
Trolls from Olgino
U.S. Army Field Manual 30-31B
Active Measures Working Group
* Countering Foreign
East StratCom Team
United States Information Agency
Related series: Fraud •
Media manipulation •
In sister wikiprojects: Commons • Wikiquote • Wiktionary
Appeal to fear
* Code word
Propaganda of the deed
Propaganda of the deed
* Burying of scholars
* April Fools\'
Fake news website
* Fictitious entries
* Word of mouth
* Election promises
* Lawn signs
* Push polling
* National mythology
* Airborne leaflets
* Information (IT)
Cult of personality
* Sound bites
* Weasel words
* Product demonstrations
Critical thinking and
* Parsimony (Occam\'s razor)
THEORIES OF DEDUCTION
Rewarding - pleasant
(positive reinforcement )
* Superficial sympathy
Aversive - unpleasant
(positive punishment )
* Nit-picking criticism
* Passive aggression
intermittent or partial
Climate of fear
Divide and rule
Good cop/bad cop
Moving the goalposts
Setting up to fail
* Trojan horse
* You\'re either with us, or against us
Abusive power and control
Abusive power and control
* Confidence trick
* Guilt culture
Jewish mother stereotype
Jewish mother stereotype
* Mind control
* Social engineering (blagging)
Antisocial personality disorder
Borderline personality disorder
Carrot and stick
Carrot and stick
Gaming the system
Histrionic personality disorder
Narcissistic personality disorder
* GND : 4076374-2