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Contemporary business and science treat a project (or program) as any undertaking, carried out individually or collaboratively and possibly involving research or design, that is carefully planned (usually by a project team[citation needed]) to achieve a particular aim.[1]

An alternative view sees a project managerially as a sequence of events: a "set of interrelated tasks to be executed over a fixed period and within certain cost and other limitations".[2]

A project may be a temporary (rather than permanent) social system (work system), possibly constituted by teams (within or across organizations) to accomplish particular tasks under time constraints.[3]

A project may be a part of wider programme management[citation needed] or an ad hoc structure.

Note that open-source software "projects" (for example) may lack defined team-membership, precise planning and time-limited durations.

In project management a project consists of a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a

In project management a project consists of a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result.[8] Another definition is: a management environment that is created for the purpose of delivering one or more business products according to a specified business case.[9] Projects can also be seen as temporary organization.[10]

Project objectives define target status at the end of the project, reaching of which is considered necessary for the achievement of planned benefits. They can be formulated as SMART criteria:[11] Projects are oftern guided by a steering group.

Project objectives define target status at the end of the project, reaching of which is considered necessary for the achievement of planned benefits. They can be formulated as SMART criteria:[11] Projects are oftern guided by a steering group.

The evaluation (measurement) occurs at the project closure. However a continuous guard on the project progress should be kept by monitoring and evaluating.

Civil and military construction and industry infrastructure

In civil, military and industry (e.g. oil and gas) infrastructure, capital projects refer to activities to construct and install equipment, facilities and buildin

In civil, military and industry (e.g. oil and gas) infrastructure, capital projects refer to activities to construct and install equipment, facilities and buildings. As these activities are temporary endeavors with clear start and end dates, the term "project" is applied. Because the results of these activities are typically long-standing infrastructure, with a life measured in years or decades, these projects are typically accounted for in financial accounting as capital expenditures, and thus they are termed "capital projects".

Computer software

In computer software, a project

In computer software, a project can consist of programs, configuration definitions and related data.[citation needed] For example, in Microsoft Visual Studio a "solution" consists of projects and other definitions.[12]

State project

It can be

It can be defined as "a set of state policies and/or agencies unified around a particular issue or oppression".[13] Therefore, these kinds of projects involve constant change and dynamism due to the social constructions evolve among time. State projects have to adapt to the current moment. They are mostly community services based.

Types

Some analyses of proj

Some analyses of project-oriented activity distinguish - using military-style terminology - between grandiose strategic projects and more trivial or component operational projects: tactical projects.[14][15]

Notable examples