Prohibition is the illegality of the manufacturing, storage in barrels
or bottles, transportation, sale, possession, and consumption of
alcohol including alcoholic beverages, or a period of time during
which such illegality was enforced. Drugs were a major factor in
2.12 Saudi Arabia
2.13 Sri Lanka
3.1 Czech Republic
3.2 Nordic countries
Russian Empire and the Soviet Union
3.4 United Kingdom
4 North America
4.3 United States
4.3.1 Temperance movement
4.3.2 18th Amendment to the Constitution
4.3.4 Al Capone
5 South America
6.2 New Zealand
8 See also
The Drunkard's Progress: A lithograph by
Nathaniel Currier supporting
the temperance movement, January 1846.
The earliest story of prohibition of alcohol is linked to the
Xia Dynasty (traditionaly dated ca. 2070 BC–ca. 1600 BC)
in China. Yu the Great, the first ruler of the Xia Dynasty, prohibited
alcohol throughout the kingdom. It was legalized again after his
death, during the reign of his son Qi.
Some kind of limitation on alcohol trade can be seen in the Code of
Hammurabi (ca.1772 BCE) specifically banning the selling of beer for
money. It could only be bartered for barley: "If a beer seller do not
receive barley as the price for beer, but if she receive money or make
the beer a measure smaller than the barley measure received, they
shall throw her into the water."
In the Western world, the great moral issue of the Nineteenth Century
was slavery, but once that battle was won, social moralists turned to
their next targets, one of which was prohibition. In the early
twentieth century, much of the impetus for the prohibition movement in
Nordic countries and North America came from moralistic
convictions of pietistic Protestants.
Prohibition movements in the
West coincided with the advent of women's suffrage, with newly
empowered women as part of the political process strongly supporting
policies that curbed alcohol consumption.
The first half of the 20th century saw periods of prohibition of
alcoholic beverages in several countries:
1907 to 1948 in Prince Edward Island, and for shorter periods in
other provinces in Canada
1907 to 1992 in the Faroe Islands; limited private imports from
Denmark were allowed from 1928
1914 to 1925 in the
Russian Empire and the Soviet Union
1915 to 1933 in Iceland (beer was still prohibited until 1989)
1916 to 1927 in Norway (fortified wine and beer were also prohibited
from 1917 to 1923)
1919 in the Hungarian Soviet Republic, March 21 to August 1; called
1919 to 1932 in Finland (called kieltolaki, "ban law")
1920 to 1933 in the United States
After several years, prohibition failed in North America and
Rum-running became widespread and organized crime took
control of the distribution of alcohol. Distilleries and breweries in
Canada, Mexico and the
Caribbean flourished as their products were
either consumed by visiting Americans or illegally exported to the
Chicago became notorious as a haven for prohibition
dodgers during the time known as the Roaring Twenties. Prohibition
generally came to an end in the late 1920s or early 1930s in most of
North America and Europe, although a few locations continued
prohibition for many more years.
In some countries where the dominant religion forbids the use of
alcohol, the production, sale, and consumption of alcoholic beverages
is prohibited or restricted today. For example, in Saudi Arabia and
Libya alcohol is banned; in Pakistan and Iran it is illegal with
Sale of alcohol is banned in Afghanistan.
In Bangladesh, alcohol is somewhat prohibited due to its proscription
in the Islamic faith. However, the purchase and consumption is allowed
in the country. The Garo tribe consume a type of rice beer, and
Christians in this country drink and purchase wine for their holy
In Brunei, alcohol consumption and sale is banned in public.
Non-Muslims are allowed to purchase a limited amount of alcohol from
their point of embarcation overseas for their own private consumption,
and non-Muslims who are at least the age of 18 are allowed to bring in
not more than two bottles of liquor (about two litres) and twelve cans
of beer per person into the country.
Main article: Alcohol prohibition in India
In India alcohol is a state subject and individual states can
legislate prohibition, but currently most states do not have
prohibition and sale/consumption is freely available in 25 out of 29
Prohibition is in force in the states of Gujarat,
Nagaland, parts of Manipur, and the union territory of Lakshadweep.
States and union territories of India
States and union territories of India permit the sale of
Election days and certain national holidays such as Independence Day
are meant to be dry days when liquor sale is not permitted but
consumption is allowed. Some
Indian states observe dry days on major
religious festivals/occasions depending on the popularity of the
festival in that region.
Since the 1979 Islamic Revolution, the sale and consumption of alcohol
is banned in Iran. Non-Muslim citizens are however granted permission
to produce and consume alcohol within their community.
Alcohol sales are banned in small shops and convenience stores.
The consumption, importation and brewing of, and trafficking in liquor
is strictly against the law.
Alcohol is banned only for Muslims in Malaysia due to its Islamic
faith and sharia law. Nevertheless, alcoholic products can easily
be found in supermarkets, specialty shops, and convenience stores all
over the country. Non-halal restaurants also typically sell alcohol.
Maldives ban the import of alcohol, x-raying all baggage on
arrival. Alcoholic beverages are available only to foreign tourists on
resort islands and may not be taken off the resort.
Pakistan allowed the free sale and consumption of alcohol for three
decades from 1947, but restrictions were introduced by Zulfikar Ali
Bhutto just weeks before he was removed as prime minister in 1977.
Since then, only members of non-Muslim minorities such as Hindus,
Christians and Zoroastrians are allowed to apply for alcohol permits.
The monthly quota is dependent upon one's income, but usually is about
five bottles of liquor or 100 bottles of beer. In a country of 180
million, only about 60 outlets are allowed to sell alcohol. The Murree
Rawalpindi was once the only legal brewery, but today there
are more. The ban officially is enforced by the country's Islamic
Ideology Council, but it is not strictly policed. Members of religious
minorities, however, often sell their liquor permits to Muslims as
part of a continuing black market trade in alcohol.
There are only restrictions during elections in the Philippines.
Alcohol is prohibited from purchase two days prior to an election. The
Philippine [Commission on Elections] may opt to extend the liquor ban.
In the 2010 elections, the liquor ban was a minimum two days; in the
2013 elections, there was a proposal that it be extended to five days.
This was overturned by the Supreme Court.
Other than election-related prohibition, alcohol is freely sold to
anyone above the legal drinking age.
The sale, consumption, importation and brewing of, and trafficking in
liquor is strictly against the law.
In 1955 Sri Lanka passed a law prohibiting adult women from buying
alcohol. In January 2018, Finance Minister Mangala Samaraweera
announced that the law would be amended, allowing women to legally
consume alcohol and work in venues that sell alcohol. The
legalization was overruled by President
Maithripala Sirisena several
Alcohol is prohibited from being sold during election time, from 6 pm
the day prior to voting, until the end of the day of voting itself.
Alcohol is also prohibited on major Buddhist holy days, and sometimes
on Royal Commemoration days, such as birthdays.
Thailand also enforces time-limited bans on alcohol on a daily basis.
Alcohol can only be legally purchased in stores or restaurants between
11 am–2 pm and 5 pm–midnight. This law is enforced by all major
retailers (most notably 7-Eleven) and restaurants but is frequently
ignored by the smaller 'mom and pop' stores. Hotels and resorts are
exempt from the rules.
The consumption of alcohol is also banned at any time within 200
meters of a filling station (where sale of alcohol is also illegal),
schools, temples or hospitals as well as on board any type of road
vehicle regardless of whether it is being consumed by the driver or
At certain times of the year – Thai New Year (Songkran) as an
example – the government may also enforce arbitrary bans on the sale
and consumption of alcohol in specific public areas where large scale
festivities are due to take place and large crowds are expected.
Alcohol is banned in Yemen.
On 14 September 2012, the government of the Czech Republic banned all
sales of liquor with more than 20% alcohol. From this date on it was
illegal to sell such alcoholic beverages in shops, supermarkets, bars,
restaurants, gas stations, e-shops etc. This measure was taken in
response to the wave of methanol poisoning cases resulting in the
deaths of 18 people in the Czech Republic. Since the beginning of
the "methanol affair" the total number of deaths has increased to 25.
The ban was to be valid until further notice, though restrictions
were eased towards the end of September. The last bans on Czech
alcohol with regard to the poisoning cases were lifted on 10 October
2012, when neighbouring Slovakia and Poland allowed its import once
The Nordic countries, with the exception of Denmark, have had a strong
temperance movement since the late 1800s, closely linked to the
Christian revival movement of the late 19th century, but also to
several worker organisations. As an example, in 1910 the temperance
organisations in Sweden had some 330,000 members, which was about
6% of a population of 5.5 million. This heavily influenced the
decisions of Nordic politicians in the early 20th century.
In 1907, the
Faroe Islands passed a law prohibiting all sale of
alcohol, which was in force until 1992. Very restricted private
importation from Denmark was allowed from 1928 on.
In 1914, Sweden put in place a rationing system, the Bratt System, in
force until 1955. A referendum in 1922 rejected an attempt to enforce
In 1915, Iceland instituted total prohibition. The ban for wine was
lifted in 1922 and spirits in 1935, but beer remained prohibited until
In 1916, Norway prohibited distilled beverages, and in 1917 the
prohibition was extended to also include fortified wine and beer. The
wine and beer ban was lifted in 1923, and in 1927 the ban of distilled
beverages was also lifted.
In 1919, Finland enacted prohibition, as one of the first acts after
independence from the Russian Empire. Four previous attempts to
institute prohibition in the early 20th century had failed due to
opposition from the tsar. After a development similar to the one in
the United States during its prohibition, with large-scale smuggling
and increasing violence and crime rates, public opinion turned against
the prohibition, and after a national referendum where 70% voted for a
repeal of the law, prohibition was ended in early 1932.
Nordic countries (with the exception of Denmark) continue
to have strict controls on the sale of alcohol which is highly taxed
(dutied) to the public. There are government monopolies in place for
selling spirits, wine and stronger beers in Norway (Vinmonopolet),
Sweden (Systembolaget), Iceland (Vínbúðin), the Faroe Islands
(Rúsdrekkasøla Landsins) and Finland (Alko). Bars and restaurants
may, however, import alcoholic beverages directly or through other
Alcoholic beverages in Sweden
Alcoholic beverages in Sweden and Algoth Niska
Greenland, which is part of the Kingdom of Denmark, does not share its
easier controls on the sale of alcohol. Greenland has (like
Denmark) sales in food shops, but prices are high. Private import when
traveling from Denmark is only allowed in small quantities.
Russian Empire and the Soviet Union
Prohibition in the
Russian Empire and the Soviet Union
In the Russian Empire, a limited version of a Dry Law was introduced
in 1914. It continued through the turmoil of the Russian
Revolution of 1917 and the
Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War into the period of Soviet
Russia and the
Soviet Union until 1925.
Although the sale or consumption of commercial alcohol has never been
prohibited by law, historically various groups in the UK have
campaigned for the prohibition of alcohol, including the Society of
Friends (Quakers), The Methodist Church and other non-conformists, as
well as temperance movements such as Band of Hope and temperance
Chartist movements of the 19th century.
Formed in 1853 and inspired by the
Maine law in the USA, the United
Kingdom Alliance aimed at promoting a similar law prohibiting the sale
of alcohol in the UK. This hard-line group of prohibitionists was
opposed by other temperance organisations who preferred moral
persuasion to a legal ban. This division in the ranks limited the
effectiveness of the temperance movement as a whole. The impotence of
legislation in this field was demonstrated when the Sale of Beer Act
1854 which restricted Sunday opening hours had to be repealed,
following widespread rioting. In 1859 a prototype prohibition bill was
overwhelmingly defeated in the House of Commons.
On 22 March 1917 during
WWI at a crowded meeting in the Queen's Hall
in London (chaired by Alfred Booth) many influential people including
Agnes Weston spoke, or letters from them were read out, against
alcohol consumption, calling for prohibition; General Sir Reginald
Hart wrote to the meeting that "Every experienced officer knew that
practically all unhappiness and crime in the Army is due to drink". At
Lord Channing said that it was a pity that the whole
Cabinet did not follow the example of
King George V
King George V and Lord Kitchener
when in 1914 those two spoke calling for complete prohibition for the
duration of the war.
Prohibition in Canada
An official, but non-binding, federal referendum on prohibition was
held in 1898. Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier's government chose not to
introduce a federal bill on prohibition, mindful of the strong
antipathy in Quebec. As a result, Canadian prohibition was instead
enacted through laws passed by the provinces during the first twenty
years of the 20th century. The provinces repealed their prohibition
laws, mostly during the 1920s.
Some communities in the
Chiapas state of southern Mexico are under the
control of the radical leftist Zapatista Army of National Liberation,
and often ban alcohol as part of what was described as "a collective
decision". This prohibition has been used by many villages as a way to
decrease domestic violence[not in citation given] and has generally
been favored by women. However, this prohibition is not recognized
by federal Mexican law as the Zapatista movement is strongly opposed
by the federal government.
The sale and purchase of alcohol is prohibited on and the night before
certain national holidays, such as Natalicio de Benito Juárez
(birthdate of Benito Juárez) and Día de la Revolución, which are
meant to be dry nationally. The same "dry law" applies to the days
before presidential elections every six years.
Prohibition in the United States
This 1902 illustration from the Hawaiian Gazette shows the Anti-Saloon
League and the Women's
Christian Temperance Union's campaign against
beer brewers. The "water cure" was a torture which was in the news
because of its use in the Philippines.
Prohibition focused on the manufacture, transportation, and sale of
alcoholic beverages; however, exceptions were made for medicinal and
religious uses. Alcohol consumption was never illegal under federal
Prohibition did not begin in the United States until
January 1920, when the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
went into effect. The 18th amendment was ratified in 1919, and was
repealed in December, 1933, with the ratification of the Twenty-first
Concern over excessive alcohol consumption began during the American
colonial era, when fines were imposed for drunken behavior and for
selling liquor without a license. In the eighteenth century, when
drinking was a part of everyday American life, Protestant religious
groups, especially the Methodists, and health reformers, including
Benjamin Rush and others, urged Americans to curb their drinking
habits for moral and health reasons. In particular, Benjamin Rush
believed Americans were drinking hard spirits in excess, so he created
"A Moral and Physical Thermometer," displaying the progression of
behaviors caused by the consumption of various alcohols. By the 1840s
the temperance movement was actively encouraging individuals to reduce
alcohol consumption. Music (a completely new genre) was composed and
performed in support of the efforts, both in social contexts and in
response to state legislation attempts to regulate alcohol. Many took
a pledge of total abstinence (teetotalism) from drinking distilled
liquor as well as beer and wine.
Prohibition remained a major reform
movement from the 1840s until the 1920s, when nationwide prohibition
went into effect, and was supported by evangelical Protestant
churches, especially the Methodists, Baptists, Presbyterians,
Disciples of Christ, and Congregationalists.
early adopters of statewide prohibition. Following passage of the
Maine law, Delaware, Ohio, Illinois, Rhode Island, Minnesota,
Massachusetts, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, and New York, among others,
soon passed statewide prohibition legislation; however, a number of
these laws were overturned.
As temperance groups continued to promote prohibition, other groups
opposed increased alcohol restrictions. For example, Chicago's
citizens fought against enforcing Sunday closings laws in the 1850s,
which included mob violence. It was also during this time when patent
medicines, many of which contained alcohol, gained popularity. During
American Civil War
American Civil War efforts at increasing federal revenue included
imposition of taxes on liquor and beer. The liquor industry responded
to the taxes by forming an industry lobby, the United States Brewers
Association, that succeeded in reducing the tax rate on beer from $1
to 60 cents. The
Women's Crusade of 1873 and the Women's Christian
Temperance Union (WCTU), founded in 1874, "marked the formal entrance
of women into the temperance movement." Organizations such as the
Christian Temperance Movement were a venue through which
certain women organized and demanded political action, well before
they were granted the vote. The WCTU and the
organized in 1869, remained major players in the temperance movement
until the early twentieth century, when the Anti-Saloon League, formed
in 1895, emerged as the movement's leader.
Between 1880 and 1890, although several states enacted local option
laws that allowed counties or towns to go dry by referendum, only six
states had statewide prohibition by state statute or constitutional
amendment. The League, with the support of evangelical Protestant
churches and other Progressive-era reformers continued to press for
prohibition legislation. Opposition to prohibition was strong in
America's urban industrial centers, where a large, immigrant,
working-class population generally opposed it, as did Jewish and
Catholic religious groups. In the years leading up to World War I,
nativism, American patriotism, distrust of immigrants, and anti-German
sentiment became associated with the prohibition movement. Through the
use of pressure politics on legislators, the League and other
temperance reformers achieved the goal of nationwide prohibition by
emphasizing the need to destroy the moral corruption of the saloons
and the political power of the brewing industry, and to reduce
domestic violence in the home. By 1913 nine states had stateside
prohibition and thirty-one others had local option laws in effect,
which included nearly fifty percent of the U.S. population. At that
time the League and other reformers turned their efforts toward
attaining a constitutional amendment and grassroots support for
18th Amendment to the Constitution
In December 1917, after two previous attempts had failed (one in 1913;
the other in 1915), Congress approved a resolution to submit a
constitutional amendment on nationwide prohibition to the states for
ratification. The new constitutional amendment prohibited "the
manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within,
the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the
United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof
for beverage purposes". On January 8, 1918,
Mississippi became the
first state to ratify the amendment; the thirty-sixth state to do so,
Nebraska, ratified it on January 16, 1919, assuring its passage into
law. On October 28, 1919, Congress passed the National Prohibition
Act, also known as the Volstead Act, which provided enabling
legislation to implement the Eighteenth Amendment. When the
Prohibition Act was passed on October 28, 1919, thirty-three
of the forty-eight states were already dry. Congress ratified the
Eighteenth Amendment on January 16, 1920; nationwide prohibition began
the next day.
During the first years of Prohibition, the new law was enforced in
regions such as the rural South and western states, where it had
popular support; however, in large urban cities and small industrial
or mining towns, residents defied or ignored the law. The Ku Klux
Klan was a major supporter of Prohibition; once it was passed they
helped with its enforcement. For example, in 1923, Klansmen traded
pistol shots with bootleggers, burned down roadhouses, and whipped
liquor sellers, and anybody else who broke the moral code. The
Prohibition was effective in reducing per-capita consumption, and
consumption remained lower for a quarter-century after
been repealed. Sale of alcoholic beverages remained illegal during
Prohibition, but alcoholic drinks were still available. Large
quantities of alcohol were smuggled into the United States from
Canada, over land, by sea routes along both ocean coasts, and through
the Great Lakes, and alcohol was diverted from the limited exceptions
to the Volsted Act: medicinal and religious. While the federal
government cracked down on alcohol consumption on land within the
United States, it was a different story along the U.S. coastlines,
where vessels outside the 3-mile limit were exempt. In addition, home
brewing was popular during Prohibition. Malt and hops stores popped up
across the country and some former breweries turned to selling malt
extract syrup, ostensibly for baking and beverage purposes.[citation
Prohibition became increasingly unpopular during the Great Depression.
Some believe that the demand for increased employment and tax revenues
during this time brought an end to Prohibition. Others argue it was
the result of the economic motivations of American businessmen as well
as the stress and excesses of the era that kept it from surviving,
even under optimal economic conditions.
Repeal of Prohibition
Repeal of Prohibition in the United States
The repeal movement was initiated and financed by the Association
Prohibition Amendment, who worked to elect Congressmen who
agreed to support repeal. The group's wealthy supporters included John
D. Rockefeller, Jr., S. S. Kresge, and the Du Pont family, among
others, who had abandoned the dry cause. Pauline Sabin, a wealthy
Republican who founded the Women's Organization for National
Prohibition Reform (WONPR), argued that
Prohibition should be repealed
because it made the United States a nation of hypocrites and
undermined its respect for the rule of law. This hypocrisy and the
fact that women had initially led the prohibition movement convinced
Sabin to establish the WONPR. Their efforts eventually led to the
repeal of prohibition.
Prescription form for medicinal liquor
When Sabin's fellow Republicans would not support her efforts, she
went to the Democrats, who switched their support of the dry cause to
endorse repeal under the leadership of liberal politicians such as
Fiorello La Guardia
Fiorello La Guardia and Franklin D. Roosevelt. Sabin and her
supporters emphasized that repeal would generate enormous sums of
much-needed tax revenue, and weaken the base of organized
Repeal of Prohibition
Repeal of Prohibition was accomplished with the ratification of the
Twenty-first Amendment on December 5, 1933. Under its terms, states
were allowed to set their own laws for the control of alcohol.
Following repeal, public interest in an organized prohibition movement
dwindled. However, it survived for a while in a few southern and
border states. To this day, there are still counties and
parishes within the US known as "dry", where the sale of alcohol –
liquor, and sometimes wine and beer – is prohibited. Several such
municipalities have adopted liquor-by-the-drink, however, in order to
expand tax revenue. Some municipalities regulate when alcohol can
be sold; an example is restricting or banning sales on Sunday, under
the so-called "blue laws".
Main article: Al Capone
Al Capone was the most notorious gangster of his generation. Born on
January 17, 1899 in Brooklyn, New York; Capone settled in
take over Johnny Torrio's business dealing with outlawed liquor.
Within three years, Capone had nearly 700 men at his disposal. As the
profits came in, Capone acquired finesse—particularly in the
management of politicians. By the middle of the decade, he had gained
control of the suburb of Cicero, and had installed his own mayor.
Capone's rise to fame did not come without bloodshed. Rival gangs,
such as the Gennas and the Aiellos, started wars with Capone,
eventually leading to a rash of killings. In 1927, Capone and his gang
were pulling in approximately $60 million per year—most of it from
beer. Capone not only controlled the sale of liquor to over 10,000
speakeasies, but he also controlled the supply from Canada to Florida.
Capone was imprisoned in 1929 for tax violations and died January 25,
1947, from a heart attack, pneumonia, and syphilis.
In Venezuela, twenty-one hours before every election, the government
prohibits the sale and distribution of alcoholic beverages throughout
the national territory, including the restriction to all dealers,
liquor stores, supermarkets, restaurants, wineries, pubs, bars, public
entertainment, clubs and any establishment that markets alcoholic
beverages. This is done to prevent violent alcohol-induced
confrontations because of the high political polarization.
The same is done during
Holy Week as a measure to reduce the alarming
rate of road traffic accidents during these holidays.
The first consignment of liquor Canberra, Australian Capital
Territory, following the repeal of prohibition laws in 1928.
Australian Capital Territory
Australian Capital Territory (then the Federal Capital Territory)
was the first jurisdiction in
Australia to have prohibition laws. In
1911, King O'Malley, then Minister of Home Affairs, shepherded laws
through Parliament preventing new issue or transfer of licences to
sell alcohol, to address unruly behaviour among workers building the
new capital city.
Prohibition was partial, since possession of alcohol
purchased outside of the Territory remained legal and the few pubs
that had existing licences could continue to operate. The Federal
Parliament repealed the laws after residents of the Federal Capital
Territory voted for the end of them in a 1928 plebiscite.
Since then, some local councils have enacted local dry zones in which
possession or consumption of alcohol is forbidden. Nearly all dry
zones are only a district within a larger community. Notable among
those remaining in existence is the Adelaide city centre.
More recently, alcohol has been prohibited in many remote indigenous
communities. Penalties for transporting alcohol into these "dry"
communities are severe and can result in confiscation of any vehicles
involved; in dry areas within the Northern Territory, all vehicles
used to transport alcohol are seized.
In New Zealand, prohibition was a moralistic reform movement begun in
the mid-1880s by the Protestant evangelical and Nonconformist churches
and the Woman's
Christian Temperance Union and after 1890 by the
Prohibition League. It assumed that individual virtue was all that was
needed to carry the colony forward from a pioneering society to a more
mature one, but it never achieved its goal of national prohibition.
However, both the Church of England and the largely Irish Catholic
Church rejected prohibition as an intrusion of government into the
church's domain, while the growing labor movement saw capitalism
rather than alcohol as the enemy.
Reformers hoped that the women's vote, in which New Zealand was a
pioneer, would swing the balance, but the women were not as well
organized as in other countries.
Prohibition had a majority in a
national referendum in 1911, but needed a 60% vote to pass. The
movement kept trying in the 1920s, losing three more referenda by
close votes; it managed to keep in place a 6pm closing hour for pubs
and Sunday closing. The Depression and war years effectively ended the
movement. but their 6pm closing hour remained until October
1967 when it was extended to 10pm.
For many years, referenda were held for individual towns or
electorates, often coincident with general elections. The ballots
determined whether these individual areas would be "dry" – that is,
alcohol could not be purchased or consumed in public in these areas.
One notable example was the southern city of Invercargill, which was
dry from 1907 to 1943. People wanting alcohol usually travelled to
places outside the city (such as the nearby township of Lorneville or
the town of Winton) to drink in the local pubs or purchase alcohol to
take back home. The last bastion of this 'dry' area remains in force
in the form of a licensing trust which still to this day governs the
sale of liquor in Invercargill. The city does not allow the sale of
alcohol (beer and wine included) in supermarkets unlike the remainder
of New Zealand, and all form of alcohol regardless of the sort can
only be sold in bars and liquor stores.
Prohibition was of limited success in New Zealand as—like in other
countries—it led to organised bootlegging. The most famous
bootlegged alcohol in New Zealand was that produced in the Hokonui
Hills close to the town of Gore (not coincidentally, the nearest large
town to Invercargill). Even today, the term "Hokonui" conjures up
images of illicit whisky to many New Zealanders.
In many countries in Latin America, the Philippines, Turkey and
several US states, the sale but not the consumption of alcohol is
prohibited before and during elections.
Bootleggers and Baptists
Iron law of prohibition
Legal drinking age
List of countries with alcohol prohibition
Prohibition of drugs
^ Chinese Administration of Alcoholic Beverages
^ Benton and DiYanni. Arts and Culture, An Introduction to the
Humanities. Volume One. Fourth Edition. Pearson. p. 16.
^ Richard J. Jensen, The winning of the Midwest: social and political
conflict, 1888–1896 (1971) pp. 89–121 online
^ Aileen Kraditor, The Ideas of the Woman Suffrage Movement,
1890–1920 (1965) pp. 12–37.
^ Anne Myra Goodman Benjamin, A history of the anti-suffrage movement
in the United States from 1895 to 1920: women against equality (1991)
^ Heath, Dwight B. (1995). International handbook on alcohol and
culture. Westport, CT. Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 21 There seems
to be agreement in the literature for 1948 but various dates are given
for the initiation of PEI's prohibition legislation. 1907 is the
latest. 1900, 1901 and 1902 are given by others.
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^ Associated Press, Beer (Soon) for Icelanders, New York Times, May
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Status of Non-muslims in Iran. Rowman & Littlefield.
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that installed the ban 63 years ago.
^ "Sri Lanka's president rejects move to allow women to buy alcohol".
BBC News. January 14, 2018. Retrieved January 15, 2018. He told a
rally he had ordered the government to withdraw the reform, which
would also have allowed women to work in bars without a permit.
Liquor needs new stamps before hitting the shelves". Prague
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^ "Czechs ban sale of spirits after bootleg booze kills 19". Reuters
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6 volumes (1925–1930), comprehensive international coverage to late
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Good Templars and Temperance Reform on Three Continents ed by David M.
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Social Anthropologists) (1992).
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Greenwood Press, (1995).
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Denmark and Sweden (1931).
Max Henius The error in the National prohibition act (1931).
Patricia Herlihy; The Alcoholic Empire: Vodka & Politics in Late
Imperial Russia Oxford University Press, (2002).
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Capo Press, 1971.
Moore, Lucy. Anything Goes: A Biography of the Roaring Twenties. New
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Sulkunen, Irma. History of the Finnish Temperance Movement: Temperance
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Alcohol and health
Note: see Template:Psychoactive substance use for diagnoses
Alcohol-induced mood disorders
Ban on caffeinated alcoholic beverages
Alcohol server training
Recommended maximum intake of alcoholic beverages
Anti-addictive psychedelics: Ibogaine, Salvia divinorum
Disulfiram-like drugs: disulfiram, calcium carbimide, cyanamide
Religion and alcohol
Christian views on alcohol
alcohol in the Bible
Islam and alcohol
on college campuses
Alcohol-free beverage definition controversy
Blackout (alcohol-related amnesia)
College student alcoholism
Drinking games / pregaming
Driving under the influence
Adult Children of Alcoholics
High-functioning alcoholic (HFA)
Sin tax / Pigovian tax
Short-term effects of alcohol consumption
Long-term effects of alcohol consumption
Russia / Soviet Union
18th Amendment (U.S. Constitution)
21st Amendment (U.S. Constitution)
American Temperance Society
Association Against the
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives
Bureau of Prohibition
Liquor Prescriptions Act of 1933
Molly Pitcher Club
Swedish prohibition referendum, 1922
Temperance (Scotland) Act 1913
Voluntary Committee of Lawyers
Christian Temperance Union
J. Edgar Hoover
Clinton N Howard
Enoch L. Johnson
The LaMontages brothers
The Purple Gang
Howard Hyde Russell
William Harvey Thompson
Izzy Einstein and Moe Smith
Prohibition Party (UK)
Prohibition Party (PRO)
Prohibition Party (Canada)
Prohibition (2011 docum