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1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Privas
Privas
(French: [pʁiva]; Occitan: Privàs [pɾiˈβas]) is a commune of France, capital of the Ardèche
Ardèche
department. It is the smallest administrative centre of any department in France. It is the fifth-largest commune in the Ardèche, behind Annonay, Aubenas, Guilherand-Granges, and Tournon-sur-Rhône. It was the location of the 1629 Siege of Privas. Today Privas
Privas
is known for the purée made from the local chestnuts, and for its sweetened marron glacé.

Contents

1 History 2 Economy 3 Privas
Privas
Today 4 Population 5 Personalities 6 International relations 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

History[edit] The earliest traces of the commune are attested in the hamlet of Lac where recent archaeological excavations have revealed a Roman villa dating to the beginning of the Empire, as well as a medieval burying-ground. Moulds for counterfeiting coinage found in the 19th century on the slopes of Mont- Toulon
Toulon
had not been interpretable as signifying a local centre of population. Privas
Privas
possibly comes from the old Gallic word briva meaning thoroughfare, or more specifically a wooden causeway over a ravine or water. This may refer to a river crossing now spanned by the Pont Louis XIII, just to the south of the town centre. Privas
Privas
inhabitants are called Privadois. The earliest bourg of Privas
Privas
developed around the church of Saint-Thomas (place de la République), a dependency of the Cluniac priory of Rompon. The château (castri) of Privas
Privas
on the site of the present collège-couvent des Récollets is not attested prior to the 13th century, when the town was walled. Laid waste in 1621 and again following the siege of 1629, nothing of it remains. In the twelfth century Privas
Privas
belonged to the seigneurie of the Poitiers-Valentinois, comtes de Valence, whose liege lords were the counts of Toulouse. Aymar de Poitiers, in 1281, and his son in 1309, granted charters to the town, guaranteeing its traditional liberties, and its fiscal, economic and military rights. In the 13th century the town expanded from two originals centres, Bize and Clastre, to develop on the level towards the east, in two new quarters, Claux and Mazel. In the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
took swift and deep roots in Privas, among common people, the high bourgeoisie and the nobles alike. Fierce repression was organized: many Protestant inhabitants were killed, and others fled to Geneva. Nevertheless, the reform movement spread, and for nearly seventy years no Catholic mass was said at Privas, where the church itself was demolished in 1570 and the French garrison refused entry. There were no Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacres at Privas. Though the king's mistress Diane de Poitiers
Diane de Poitiers
was made baronne of Chalencon
Chalencon
and of Privas, and in 1566 the barony was divided between her two daughters, the elder retaining the honour of Privas, in the French Wars of Religion
French Wars of Religion
Privas
Privas
remained a major centre of Huguenots, called the "Rampart of Reform", and the " Geneva
Geneva
of the country", a symbol of resistance to the Catholic monarchy. The seigneurie was sold to Jacques de Chambaud, a head of the Protestants, who became the first Huguenot seigneur of Privas. In the Huguenot rebellions
Huguenot rebellions
of 1621–29, Privas
Privas
was besieged in 1629 by royal forces, with Louis XIII in attendance. Defended by Montbrun with 800 men, the city was taken and destroyed. During the siege of 1629, the town of Privas
Privas
was well defended by walls and ditches. Privas
Privas
also has gorges to its south, east and north that provide a natural defence. Given this topography, the Huguenots in the town did not believe that a strong attack from the east was possible. Nevertheless, on 22 May, the Swiss mercenaries of the attacking Royalist Catholic army of Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
managed to haul by hand six huge pieces of artillery, each weighing about four tons, from Tauléac across the Ouvèze river and up the zig-zag path onto the plateau of Le Vanel, to the east of the town walls. From this decisive vantage point they bombarded the town until its surviving defenders were forced to evacuate and take their last stand on Mont Toulon
Toulon
on its west. During the siege, five hundred Royalist attackers and one thousand Protestant defenders were killed. Surviving defenders were executed, imprisoned, or deported to be galley slaves. By fire or cannon, the majority of the buildings in the town were destroyed. Privas
Privas
was a ghost town for many years after. It is estimated that as a result of the defeat of the Huguenots
Huguenots
in the region, one-fifth of the Protestant population of the Ardèche
Ardèche
emigrated. After the defeat of the Camisard revolt (1702-1715) a further 50,000 Archèche Protestants left France. Many fled to England or Switzerland. During the French Revolution
French Revolution
in the 1790s a guillotine was erected in the Place de la République. A number of clerics were executed. With the administrative reordering of the French Revolution, Privas, in alternation with Annonay, Aubenas, Bourg-Saint-Andéol
Bourg-Saint-Andéol
and Tournon-sur-Rhône, became an administrative centre of Ardèche. After a brief interval as chef-lieu of its district, it was attached to the district of Coiron. Before about 1870 only a minority of people in the area spoke (or even referred to themselves as) French. They spoke a Provençal-Occitan patois, similar to Catalan. ‘Les français’ were the incomers or the educated middle-class, who spoke French as their main language. There was also a cultural divide between the people of the Ardèche plateau (known as Padgels) and the valley inhabitants (known as a Royols). Economy[edit] In the nineteenth century the town hosted a number of water-powered silk mills. Iron-ore mining was also a major activity, in the Ouvèze valley to the west of Privas. But mining had declined to the point of extinction by the First World War and the silk industry was mostly extinct by the Second. The town used to be linked to the main railway system by a branch line railway, and there were tramways to both Aubenas
Aubenas
and Le Pouzin. These rail communications no longer exist. Privas's most famous products today are sugared chestnuts. A little wine is also produced in the area. As a town and a préfecture, many people are employed as administrators. But local employment in the préfecture has been declining since the 1990s because of the amalgamation of many services within the Ardèche
Ardèche
and Drôme
Drôme
départements. Tourism is a more vibrant sector for employment. Privas
Privas
Today[edit] Privas
Privas
has hotel accommodation, gîtes and camping sites. There are many local walks and other recreational activities. It is also a noted area for fossils. Situated with easy access to both the Rhône Valley and the Ardèche
Ardèche
Gorges, tourist activity is increasing in the district. Population[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1793 495 —    

1800 2,923 +490.5%

1806 3,080 +5.4%

1821 3,878 +25.9%

1831 4,342 +12.0%

1836 4,219 −2.8%

1841 4,797 +13.7%

1846 5,233 +9.1%

1851 5,278 +0.9%

1856 5,202 −1.4%

1861 6,657 +28.0%

1866 7,204 +8.2%

1872 7,836 +8.8%

1876 7,753 −1.1%

1881 7,921 +2.2%

1886 7,600 −4.1%

1891 7,312 −3.8%

1896 7,843 +7.3%

1901 7,561 −3.6%

1906 7,000 −7.4%

1911 7,290 +4.1%

1921 6,412 −12.0%

1926 6,681 +4.2%

1931 7,230 +8.2%

1936 7,733 +7.0%

1946 7,407 −4.2%

1954 7,558 +2.0%

1962 8,663 +14.6%

1968 10,080 +16.4%

1975 10,808 +7.2%

1982 10,345 −4.3%

1990 10,080 −2.6%

1999 9,170 −9.0%

2008 8,552 −6.7%

Personalities[edit]

The French footballer Cyril Théréau
Cyril Théréau
was born in Privas. The writer Dominique Dunois (1876–1959), winner of the 1928 edition of the Prix Femina, died in Privas.

International relations[edit] Privas
Privas
is twinned with:

Tortona, Italy Weilburg, Germany Wetherby, United Kingdom Zevenaar, Netherlands

See also[edit]

Communes of the Ardèche
Ardèche
department

References[edit]

INSEE

External links[edit]

Official website (in French)

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Privas.

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Prefectures of departments of France

Bourg-en-Bresse
Bourg-en-Bresse
(Ain) Laon
Laon
(Aisne) Moulins (Allier) Digne-les-Bains
Digne-les-Bains
(Alpes-de-Haute-Provence) Gap (Hautes-Alpes) Nice
Nice
(Alpes-Maritimes) Privas
Privas
(Ardèche) Charleville-Mézières
Charleville-Mézières
(Ardennes) Foix
Foix
(Ariège) Troyes
Troyes
(Aube) Carcassonne
Carcassonne
(Aude) Rodez
Rodez
(Aveyron) Marseille
Marseille
(Bouches-du-Rhône) Caen
Caen
(Calvados) Aurillac
Aurillac
(Cantal) Angoulême
Angoulême
(Charente) La Rochelle
La Rochelle
(Charente-Maritime) Bourges
Bourges
(Cher) Tulle
Tulle
(Corrèze) Ajaccio
Ajaccio
(Corse-du-Sud) Bastia
Bastia
(Haute-Corse) Dijon
Dijon
(Côte-d'Or) Saint-Brieuc
Saint-Brieuc
(Côtes-d'Armor) Guéret
Guéret
(Creuse) Périgueux
Périgueux
(Dordogne) Besançon
Besançon
(Doubs) Valence (Drôme) Évreux
Évreux
(Eure) Chartres
Chartres
(Eure-et-Loir) Quimper
Quimper
(Finistère) Nîmes
Nîmes
(Gard) Toulouse
Toulouse
(Haute-Garonne) Auch
Auch
(Gers) Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(Gironde) Montpellier
Montpellier
(Hérault) Rennes
Rennes
(Ille-et-Vilaine) Châteauroux
Châteauroux
(Indre) Tours
Tours
(Indre-et-Loire) Grenoble
Grenoble
(Isère) Lons-le-Saunier
Lons-le-Saunier
(Jura) Mont-de-Marsan
Mont-de-Marsan
(Landes) Blois
Blois
(Loir-et-Cher) Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
(Loire) Le Puy-en-Velay
Le Puy-en-Velay
(Haute-Loire) Nantes
Nantes
(Loire-Atlantique) Orléans
Orléans
(Loiret) Cahors
Cahors
(Lot) Agen
Agen
(Lot-et-Garonne) Mende (Lozère) Angers
Angers
(Maine-et-Loire) Saint-Lô
Saint-Lô
(Manche) Châlons-en-Champagne
Châlons-en-Champagne
(Marne) Chaumont (Haute-Marne) Laval (Mayenne) Nancy (Meurthe-et-Moselle) Bar-le-Duc
Bar-le-Duc
(Meuse) Vannes
Vannes
(Morbihan) Metz
Metz
(Moselle) Nevers
Nevers
(Nièvre) Lille
Lille
(Nord) Beauvais
Beauvais
(Oise) Alençon
Alençon
(Orne) Arras
Arras
(Pas-de-Calais) Clermont-Ferrand
Clermont-Ferrand
(Puy-de-Dôme) Pau (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) Tarbes
Tarbes
(Hautes-Pyrénées) Perpignan
Perpignan
(Pyrénées-Orientales) Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(Bas-Rhin) Colmar
Colmar
(Haut-Rhin) Lyon
Lyon
(Rhône) Vesoul
Vesoul
(Haute-Saône) Mâcon
Mâcon
(Saône-et-Loire) Le Mans
Le Mans
(Sarthe) Chambéry
Chambéry
(Savoie) Annecy
Annecy
(Haute-Savoie) Paris
Paris
(Paris) Rouen
Rouen
(Seine-Maritime) Melun
Melun
(Seine-et-Marne) Versailles (Yvelines) Niort
Niort
(Deux-Sèvres) Amiens
Amiens
(Somme) Albi
Albi
(Tarn) Montauban
Montauban
(Tarn-et-Garonne) Toulon
Toulon
(Var) Avignon
Avignon
(Vaucluse) La Roche-sur-Yon
La Roche-sur-Yon
(Vendée) Poitiers
Poitiers
(Vienne) Limoges
Limoges
(Haute-Vienne) Épinal
Épinal
(Vosges) Auxerre
Auxerre
(Yonne) Belfort
Belfort
(Territoire de Belfort) Évry (Essonne) Nanterre
Nanterre
(Hauts-de-Seine) Bobigny
Bobigny
(Seine-Saint-Denis) Créteil
Créteil
(Val-de-Marne) Cergy, Pontoise
Pontoise
(Val-d'Oise)

Overseas departments

Basse-Terre
Basse-Terre
(Guadeloupe) Fort-de- France
France
(Martinique) Cayenne
Cayenne
(French Guiana) Saint-Denis (Réunion) Mamoudzou
Mamoudzou
(Mayotte)

v t e

Communes of the Ardèche
Ardèche
department

Accons Ailhon Aizac Ajoux Alba-la-Romaine Albon-d'Ardèche Alboussière Alissas Andance Annonay Antraigues-sur-Volane Arcens Ardoix Arlebosc Arras-sur-Rhône Asperjoc Les Assions Astet Aubenas Aubignas Baix Balazuc Banne Barnas Le Béage Beauchastel Beaulieu Beaumont Beauvène Berrias-et-Casteljau Berzème Bessas Bidon Boffres Bogy Borée Borne Boucieu-le-Roi Boulieu-lès-Annonay Bourg-Saint-Andéol Bozas Brossainc Burzet Cellier-du-Luc Chalencon Le Chambon Chambonas Champagne Champis Chandolas Chanéac Charmes-sur-Rhône Charnas Chassiers Châteaubourg Châteauneuf-de-Vernoux Chauzon Chazeaux Cheminas Le Cheylard Chirols Chomérac Colombier-le-Cardinal Colombier-le-Jeune Colombier-le-Vieux Cornas Coucouron Coux Le Crestet Creysseilles Cros-de-Géorand Cruas Darbres Davézieux Désaignes Devesset Dompnac Dornas Dunière-sur-Eyrieux Eclassan Empurany Étables Fabras Faugères Félines Flaviac Fons Freyssenet Genestelle Gilhac-et-Bruzac Gilhoc-sur-Ormèze Gluiras Glun Gourdon Gras Gravières Grospierres Guilherand-Granges Intres Issamoulenc Issanlas Issarlès Jaujac Jaunac Joannas Joyeuse Juvinas Labastide-de-Virac Labastide-sur-Bésorgues Labatie-d'Andaure Labeaume Labégude Lablachère Laboule Le Lac-d'Issarlès Lachamp-Raphaël Lachapelle-Graillouse Lachapelle-sous-Aubenas Lachapelle-sous-Chanéac Lafarre Lagorce Lalevade-d'Ardèche Lalouvesc Lamastre Lanarce Lanas Largentière Larnas Laurac-en-Vivarais Laval-d'Aurelle Laveyrune Lavillatte Lavilledieu Laviolle Lemps Lentillères Lespéron Limony Loubaresse Lussas Lyas Malarce-sur-la-Thines Malbosc Marcols-les-Eaux Mariac Mars Mauves Mayres Mazan-l'Abbaye Mercuer Meyras Meysse Mézilhac Mirabel Monestier Montpezat-sous-Bauzon Montréal Montselgues Nonières Nozières Les Ollières-sur-Eyrieux Orgnac-l'Aven Ozon Pailharès Payzac Peaugres Péreyres Peyraud Le Plagnal Planzolles Plats Pont-de-Labeaume Pourchères Le Pouzin Prades Pradons Pranles Préaux Privas Prunet Quintenas Ribes Rochecolombe Rochemaure Rochepaule Rocher Rochessauve La Rochette Rocles Roiffieux Rompon Rosières Le Roux Ruoms Sablières Sagnes-et-Goudoulet Saint-Agrève Saint-Alban-Auriolles Saint-Alban-d'Ay Saint-Alban-en-Montagne Saint-Andéol-de-Berg Saint-Andéol-de-Fourchades Saint-Andéol-de-Vals Saint-André-de-Cruzières Saint-André-en-Vivarais Saint-André-Lachamp Saint-Apollinaire-de-Rias Saint-Barthélemy-Grozon Saint-Barthélemy-le-Meil Saint-Barthélemy-le-Plain Saint-Basile Saint-Bauzile Saint-Christol Saint-Cierge-la-Serre Saint-Cierge-sous-le-Cheylard Saint-Cirgues-de-Prades Saint-Cirgues-en-Montagne Saint-Clair Saint-Clément Saint-Cyr Saint-Désirat Saint-Didier-sous-Aubenas Sainte-Eulalie Sainte-Marguerite-Lafigère Saint-Étienne-de-Boulogne Saint-Étienne-de-Fontbellon Saint-Étienne-de-Lugdarès Saint-Étienne-de-Serre Saint-Étienne-de-Valoux Saint-Félicien Saint-Fortunat-sur-Eyrieux Saint-Genest-de-Beauzon Saint-Genest-Lachamp Saint-Georges-les-Bains Saint-Germain Saint-Gineis-en-Coiron Saint-Jacques-d'Atticieux Saint-Jean-Chambre Saint-Jean-de-Muzols Saint-Jean-le-Centenier Saint-Jean-Roure Saint-Jeure-d'Andaure Saint-Jeure-d'Ay Saint-Joseph-des-Bancs Saint-Julien-Boutières Saint-Julien-du-Gua Saint-Julien-du-Serre Saint-Julien-en-Saint-Alban Saint-Julien-Labrousse Saint-Julien-le-Roux Saint-Julien-Vocance Saint-Just-d'Ardèche Saint-Lager-Bressac Saint-Laurent-du-Pape Saint-Laurent-les-Bains Saint-Laurent-sous-Coiron Saint-Marcel-d'Ardèche Saint-Marcel-lès-Annonay Saint-Martial Saint-Martin-d'Ardèche Saint-Martin-de-Valamas Saint-Martin-sur-Lavezon Saint-Maurice-d'Ardèche Saint-Maurice-d'Ibie Saint-Maurice-en-Chalencon Saint-Mélany Saint-Michel-d'Aurance Saint-Michel-de-Boulogne Saint-Michel-de-Chabrillanoux Saint-Montan Saint-Paul-le-Jeune Saint-Péray Saint-Pierre-de-Colombier Saint-Pierre-la-Roche Saint-Pierre-Saint-Jean Saint-Pierre-sur-Doux Saint-Pierreville Saint-Pons Saint-Priest Saint-Privat Saint-Prix Saint-Remèze Saint-Romain-d'Ay Saint-Romain-de-Lerps Saint-Sauveur-de-Cruzières Saint-Sauveur-de-Montagut Saint-Sernin Saint-Sylvestre Saint-Symphorien-de-Mahun Saint-Symphorien-sous-Chomérac Saint-Thomé Saint-Victor Saint-Vincent-de-Barrès Saint-Vincent-de-Durfort Salavas Les Salelles Sampzon Sanilhac Sarras Satillieu Savas Sceautres Sécheras Serrières Silhac La Souche Soyons Talencieux Tauriers Le Teil Thorrenc Thueyts Toulaud Tournon-sur-Rhône Ucel Usclades-et-Rieutord Uzer Vagnas Valgorge Vallon-Pont-d'Arc Vals-les-Bains Valvignères Vanosc Les Vans Vaudevant Vernon Vernosc-lès-Annonay Vernoux-en-Vivarais Vesseaux Veyras Villeneuve-de-Berg Villevocance Vinezac Vinzieux Vion Viviers Vocance Vogüé La Voulte-sur-Rhône

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 151912662 GND: 4227401-1 SUDOC: 028395964 BNF:

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